jif{ @$ c£† @& @)&& ... 2 £ alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq o; c¢¾\sdf l ;DkfbsLol alb{of ;+/If0f

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Text of jif{ @$ c£† @& @)&& ... 2 £ alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq o;...

  • 1 ÷alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    jif{ @$

    alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    cÍ @& @)&&

  • 2 ÷ alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    o; cª\sdf

    l ;DkfbsLo

    l alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmd M Ps lrgf/L

    l alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf d'Vo ultljlwx¿

  • 1 ÷alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    ;DkfbsLo

    /fli6«o k|s[lt ;+/If0f sf]ifsf ljleGg :ynut cfof]hgf dWo]sf] Ps alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdn]

    ;g\ !(*( b]lv alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h / dWojtL{ If]qdf cfwfl/t /xL jGohGt' ;+/If0f / :yflgo

    ;d'bfo nlIft lbuf] hLljsf]kfh{gsf sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . xfn sfo{qmdn] alb{of

    /fli6«o lgs'~h / dWojtL{ If]q, afFs] /fli6«o lgs'~h / dWojtL{ If]q tyf s[i0f;f/ ;+/If0f If]qdf

    jGohGt' cWoog, cg';Gwfg, jf;:yfg Joj:yfkg, ;+/If0f lzIff, dfgj jGohGt' åGå Go"lgs/0f

    tyf j}slNks cfocfh{gsf sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o; cnjf g]kfnsf] klZrd

    If]qe/L ;d:ofu|:t jGohGt'sf] p¢f/ tyf k'g{:yfkgdf klg ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 o;

    c+sdf xfdLn] alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdn] cfly{s jif{ @)÷&$ b]lv @)&^÷&& ;Dd ;Dkfbg u/]sf

    dxTjk"0f{ ultljlwx¿nfO{ ;d]6]sf 5f}+ . o; cjlwdf ljz]iftM af3 tyf af3sf cfxf/f k|hfltsf]

    cg'udg, uf]xL, afx|l;Ëf, xfQL, u}+8f nufot dxTjk"0f{ jGohGt' / tLgsf jf;:yfgsf] cWoog,

    cg'udg / cg';Gwfgsf sfo{x¿ ;DkGg ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L dfgj jGohGt' åGå Go"lgs/0fsf

    nflu ;'wfl/Psf] vf]/, j}slNks afnL, ljB'lto tf/af/ nufPtsf lqmofsnfk ;~rfng ul/Psf]

    5 . kof{ko{6gsf dfWodaf6 :yflgo :t/sf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf 6]jf k'¥ofOPsf] 5 .

    sfo{qmd cGtu{t dWojtL{ If]q Joj:yfkg ;ldlt, rf]/Llzsf/ lgoGq0f o"jf kl/rfng cleofg,

    ko{6g ;]jf k|bfos tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] Ifdtf clej[l4sf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/Psf]

    5 . o;}u/L ;+/lIft If]q sfof{nox¿nfO{ sfg"g sfof{Gjog tyf u:tL kl/rfngsf nflu

    cfjZos ;xof]u k'¥ofOPsf] 5 .

    oL ljljw lqmofsnfkx¿ ;DalGwt ;+/lIft If]q sfof{no, dWojtL{ If]q ;~hfn tyf cGo

    ;/f]sf/jfnf / bft[ lgsfo÷;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf ;Dkfbg ul/Psf 5g\ . o; cjlwdf xfdLnfO{

    k|ToIf, ck|ToIf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] ;a}nfO{ xflb{s wGoafb 1fkg ug{ rfxG5f}+ .

    ;+/If0fsf] efjgf ;a}df hfu[t xf];\ .

    æho ;+/If0fÆ

  • 2 ÷ alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmd M Ps lrgf/L

    k|s[lt, k|fs[lts ;|f]t tyf ;Dkbfx¿sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{df g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] p2]Zosf ;fy /fli6«o k|s[lt ;+/If0f sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ePsf] xf] . xfn sf]ifn] pRr lxdfnL If]qb]lv t/fO{;Ddsf] e"efudf ljleGg !) j6f :ynut cfof]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ul/cfPsf] 5 . sf]if cGtu{t ;~rflnt cGgk"0f{ ;+/If0f If]q cfof]hgf, uf}/Lz+s/ ;+/If0f If]q cfof]hgf, dgf:n' ;+/If0f If]q cfof]hgf, ;b/ lrl8ofvfgf, h}ljs ljljwtf ;+/If0f s]Gb|, alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmd / z'SnfkmfF6f ;+/If0f sfo{qmddWo] alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdn] alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h, afFs] /fli6«o lgs'~h, s[i0f;f/ ;+/If0f If]q tyf h}ljs dfu{ Pjd\ ;fd'bflos jg If]qx¿df ljleGg ;+/If0fd"ns s[ofsnfkx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

    lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~haf6 alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hdf klxnf] k6s @)$# ;fndf :yfgfGt/0f ul/Psf u}+8fx¿sf] j}1flgs cWoog cg';Gwfg ug]{ p2]Zon] @)$^ ;fndf sf]ifåf/f h}ljs ljljwtf ;+/If0f s]Gb|, lrtjgsf] zfvf sfof{nosf] ?kdf alb{ofsf] 7fs'/afaf–( -;flas 7fs'/åf/f–%_ a]txgLdf o; sfo{qmdsf] sfof{no :yfkgf ul/Psf] xf] . @)$& b]lv @)%) ;fn;Dd ljz'4 h}ljs ljljwtf ;DalGw j}1flgs cWoog cg';Gwfgsf] If]qdf dfq sfd ul/cfPsf] o; sfo{qmdn] @)%) ;fndf o; If]qdf lgtfGt cfjZos b]lvPsf] :jf:Yo ;]jfnfO{ ;'ne

    agfpg] p2]Zon] 7fs'/åf/fdf :jf:Yo s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf u/L ;fd'bflos ljsf;sf] If]qdf sfo{qmd lj:tf/ u/]sf] xf] . tTkZrft qmlds ?kdf dfgj–jGohGt' åGå Go"lgs/0f, ;fd'bflos tyf n}lËs ljsf;, kof{ko{6g, j}slNks hLljsf]kfh{gsf ljljw sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng xF'b} cfPsf 5g\ . @)%@ ;fnb]lv o; sfo{qmdnfO{ alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmd gfdf+s/0f ul/ /fli6«o k|s[lt ;+/If0f sf]ifsf] 5'§} cfof]hgfsf] ?kdf :yflkt ul/of] .

    ;+/lIft If]qx¿sf] h}ljs ljljwtf ;+/If0f sfo{df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] d"Vo p2]Zo /x]sf] o; sfo{qmdn] b]xfosf If]qx?df lqmofsnfkx¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

    != k|hflt ;+/If0f

    @= ;+/lIft If]q / kf/Ll:yltsLo k|0ffnL

    #= bLuf] hLljsf]kfh{g

    $= hnjfo' kl/jt{g ;dofg's"ng

    %= ;+/If0f lzIff, j}1flgs cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg

    ^= n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]lzs/0f

    &= ;'zf;g

  • 3 ÷alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    k|hflt ;+/If0f

    dfgj jGohGt' åGå Joj:yfkg

    alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h / afFs] /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]q tyf cf;kf;sf jg If]qx¿df jGohGt'sf] ;+Vofdf pNn]Vo dfqfdf b]lvPsf] j[l4;Fu} dfgj jGohGt' åGåsf 36gfx¿df ;d]t a9f]Q/L cfPsf] 5 . dfgj jGohGt' åGån] ljz]ifu/L ul/a / l;dfGts[t ;d'bfonfO{ c;/ ug]{ / ;+/If0fdf cfd hg;d'bfosf] ;xeflutf 36\g;Sg] cj:yfnfO{ dWogh/ u/L alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdn] dfgj–jGohGt' ;x—cl:tTj ljsf;sf sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf] 5 . sfo{qmdn] ;DalGwt ;+/lIft If]q tyf ;+/If0fsf ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿;Fusf] ;xsfo{df ljB'lto tf/af/, ;'wfl/Psf] vf]/, jGohGt'n] dggk/fpg] j}slNks cfod"ns afnL nufPtsf ljljw sfo{qmdx¿sf dfWodaf6 dfgj jGohGt' ;x– cl:tTj ljsf;df 6]jf k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 .

    ljB'lto tf/jf/ sfo{qmd

    ljB'lto tf/af/ sfo{qmd dfgj jGoGt' åGå Go'lgs/0fsf] k|efjsf/L ljsNk ePtfklg k|rlnt tf/af/sf] l8hfOgdf JofKt ;fgfltgf sdhf]/Lsf sf/0f tf/af/sf] k|efjsf/Ltfdf ck]Iffs[t sdhf]/Lx¿ b]lvPsf 5g\ . o:tf ljljw sdhf]/Lx¿df ;'wf/ ub}{ ljB'lto tf/af/sf] k|efjsfl/tf sfod ug{sf nflu cg';Gwfg ul/Psf] 5 .

    alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h, lxdfnog 6fOu/ kmfpG8];g g]b/Nof08, jfu]lgu]g ljZjljBfno, g]b/Nof08 / alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dGjodf alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] nDsf}nL kmfF6f / klZrd dWojtL{ If]q cGtu{tsf] kftfef/ If]qdf ljB'lto tf/af/sf] gofF kl/If0f sfo{sf] z'?jft ul/Psf] lyof] . h+unL xfQLn] tf/af/ If]qdf ug]{ IftL / ;du| Jojxf/sf] cWoog ug{' o; cg';Gwfgsf] d"Vo p2]Zo xf] . xfQLn] tf/af/df Iflt k'¥ofpg] cj:yfx¿sf]

  • 4 ÷ alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    lj:t[t cWoogsf nflu l;=l;=l6=eL= Sofd/fsf dfWodaf6 cg'udg ul/Psf] lyof] . tf/af/df xfQLn] k'¥ofpg] Iflt kZrft k|ljlwdf cfjZos kl/dfh{g u/L cg'udg sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] lyof] . o; k|ljlwsf] ;kmn kl/If0f;Fu} ljB'lto tf/af/ sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tf 6]jf k'Ug] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .

    sfo{qmdn] afFs] /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]q cGtu{tsf] afnfk'/ -@=% ls=ld=–d]; hfnL / ljB'lto tf/af/_ / l;S6f -!=% ls=ld=–d]; hfnL_ If]qdf ljBdfg dfgj jGohGt' åGåsf 36gfx¿nfO{ Go"lgs/0fsf nflu hDdf $ ls=ld= If]q tf/af/sf] nflu ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . o;}ul/ alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] klZrd dWojtL{ If]qdf h8fg ul/Psf] #^ ls=ld= ;'wfl/Psf] tf/af/ sfo{qmddf ;d]t alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] of]ubfg /x]sf] 5 . pk/f]Qm If]qdf sfo{qmdn] @ yfg Og/hfOh/ d]l;g pknAw u/fpg'sf ;fy} lg/Gt/ k|fljlws ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 . o;}ul/ alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] 7fs'/afaf dWojtL{ If]q pkef]Qmf ;ldlt cGtu{t a]txgL / lr6\s}of If]qdf hl8t !) ls=ld= ljB'lto tf/af/sf] dd{t ;Def/sf nflu ;xof]u ul/Psf] lyof] eg] a]txgL ufpFdf @ ls=ld= If]qdf d];hfnL h8fg ug{ ;xof]u u/]sf] lyof] .

    ;'wfl/Psf] vf]/ sfo{qmd

    ;+/lIft If]q j/k/sf a:tLx¿df df+;fxf/L k|hfltsf jGohGt'x¿af6 x'g] Iflt Go"lgs/0fsf nflu ;'wfl/Psf] vf]/n] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . laut ;dodf Sofd/f 6«oflkË k|ljlwsf dfWodaf6 ePsf jGoGt'

    cg'udgsf sfo{qmdx¿af6 lgs'~hsf] leqL If]qdf af3sf] ;FVofdf pNn]Vo dfqfdf j[l4 ePsf], / ;DejtM a9\ bf] af3sf] ;FVofsf sf/0f dWojtL{ jg If]qdf lrt'jfsf] ;FVofdf j[l4 ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . kmn:j?k lgs'~h 5]p5fpsf a:tLx¿df lrt'jfaf6 3/kfn'jf hgfj/x¿ dfl/g] qmd ;d]t a9]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . o;y{ o; k|sf/sf Ifltx¿ Go"lgs/0fsf nflu alb{of / afFs] /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]qdf !^) j6f -kftfef/ p=;=, alb{of–%) j6f, ;"o{k6'jf p=;=, alb{of–!) j6f, lzjk'/ Plss[t p=;=, alb{of–!) j6f, b]p/fnL xl/ofnL p=;=, afFs]–@% j6f, km's]{;NnL dnO{ p=;=, afFs]–#% j6f, xfQLbdf/ 3'Oofaf/L p=;=, afFs]–#) j6f_ ;'wf/LPsf] vf]/ lgdf{0f sfo{sf nflu :yflgo ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofOPsf] 5 -cg';"rL !_ . o; sfo{qmdaf6 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf] Ifltdf sdL eO{ :yflgo :t/sf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf 6]jf k'u]sf] kfOPsf] 5 .

    :jrflnt ;f}o{ aQL h8fg

    of] k|ljlw h+unL xfQL ;+/If0fdf :yflgo hgtfsf] ;sf/fTds ;f]rfO ljsf; ug{sf] nflu ckgfOPsf] xf] . ljut ;dodf alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]qdf dfgj–xfQL åGåsf 36gfx¿ k|fo /ftLsf] ;dodf 36]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . :jrflnt ;f}o{ aQLsf] k|of]un] To; lsl;dsf 36gf sd ug{ d2t k'Ub5 . pk/f]Qm sfo{sf] k|f/lDes kl/If0fsf nflu alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] 7fs'/afaf dWojtL{ pkef]Qmf ;ldlt cGtu{t j]txgL / xfQL;f/ If]qdf ^ j6f :jrflnt ;f}o{ aQL h8fg ul/Psf] 5 . dfgj— jGohGt' åGå Go"lgs/0fdf :jrflnt ;f}o{ aQL k|efjsf/L /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 .

  • 5 ÷alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmdsf] ;dfrf/ kq

    j}slNks afnL k|jw{g

    dfgj jGohGt' åGå Go"lgs/0f sfo{qmd cGtu{t d]Gyf, Sofdf]dfOn, n]dgu|f; h:tf jGohGt'n] dggk/fpg] gub] afnLsf] ljsf;df alb{of ;+/If0f sfo{qmd lqmoflzn /x]sf] 5 . jGohGt'sf sf/0f k/Dk/fut afnLx¿sf] pTkfbgdf cfpg] lu/fj6 /f]ls u|fld0f hLljsf]kfh{gdf 6]jf k'¥ofpFb} dfgj jGohGt' ;x—cl:tTj ljsf; ug{ o; k|sf/sf gub] afnLx¿sf] dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 .

    jGohGt' kLl8tx¿sf nflu dfl;s hLljsf]kfh{g ;xof]u

    lgs'~h If]qdf jflif{s ?kdf ;~rfng x'g] v/v8fO tyf yf? ;+u|xfno, uf]xL k|hgg s]Gb| / xfQL k|hgg\ s]Gb| e|d0fdf cfpg] cfuGt'sx¿af6 ;+/If0f z"Ns ;ª\sng ul/b} cfOPsf] 5 . o; k|sf/ ;ª\slnt /sd ljz'4 ;+/If0f sfo{df vr{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . pk/f]Qm /sddaf6 jGohGt'af6 kl/jf/sf ;b:o u'dfPsf cfl>t -kLl8t dlxnf_ tyf cf+lzs zf/Ll/s ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ lj=;+= @)^& b]lv dfl;s hLljsf]kfh{g ;xof]u k|bfg ul/b} cfPsf] 5 . xfn dfl;s ?= !%)) sf b/n] @* hgf jGohGt' kLl8tx¿nfO{ -cg';"rL @_ ;f] ;xof]u k|bfg ul/b} cfPsf] 5 .

    jGohGt'sf] cfqm