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Jomini as a Strategist, research paper presentation

Text of Jomini : STRATEGIST


SCOPE OF PRESENTATIONBackground Key Concepts of Jomini to Continental Strategy Jominis Ideas and their Validation on the Nature of Warfare Contributions in Advancing Strategic Art: Its Formulation and Practice Other Significant Information that Impact the Conduct of

BACKGROUNDSwiss general and military writer General in the French and later the Russian service, and One of the most celebrated writers on the Napoleonic Art of War Organized the militia of the Helvetic Republic ib 1799 After 1804 served as staff officer in the French Army

BACKGROUNDRose to high rank in Russia, becoming a celebrated Authority on Strategy His works include:Campaigns of Frederick the Great; Treatise on Grand Military Operations; the French Revolutionary Wars; and The Art of War.

THOUGHTS ON STRATEGY "That strategy is the key to warfare; that all strategy is controlled by invariable scientific principles; and that these principles perscribe offensive action to mass forces against weaker enemy forces at some decisive point if strategy is to lead to victory." JOMINI-

Emphasized the capture of major points and the

KEY CONCEPTSJominisviews, like Clausewitz, strongly influenced by Napoleonic wars and Prussian military doctrine. The French revolutionized warfare and enjoyed unprecedented results. Command was decentralized, the force was largely conscripted, and power, political and military, was vested in one

THOUGHTS ON WAR In all military operations there is always some imperfection or weak point; but in judging operations we must apply principles with the objective in mind, and ask whether a given operation offers the best chance for victory -JOMINI-

KEY CONCEPTSAcquisition of territory is secondary Observation of Napoleon's battle strategy strongly influenced Jomini's theory and became the foundation of his greatest work, 1836's Precis de l'artde la guerre, The Art of War, written to provide military instruction for the Grand Duke of Russia, the future Nicholas I.

Strategy Tactics, & Logistics Fundamental Principles of War Simplicity Mass & Concentration Offensive action Decisive points Interior and Exterior Lines Speed and Maneuver Economy of Force Leadership Theater of Operation -JOMINI-

KEY CONCEPTSPrecis defined for the first time 3 main categories of military activity - strategy, tactics, and logistics - and postulated "Fundamental Principle of War" His works - oriented toward a common theme:conduct of war governed by fixed principles the most important were: 1. one should seek a line of operations capable of threatening the communications of the enemy




To maneuver the mass of the army, successively upon decisive points of a theater of war, and attack the enemy's lines of communication as frequently as possible while still protecting ones own; To quickly maneuver and engage fractions of the enemy's army with the majority of one's own; To focus the attack on a "decisive point," such as weak or undefended areas in the enemy lines; and

M ax "F im Pr u s i n nd o ci a f J pl m o e en m o f t a in W l i's ar


KEY CONCEPTSUse of turning movement and hot pursuit/exploitation Leadership as a prime requirement for military success A winning general would be the combination of intellect and natural leadership. Simplicity and praised the Napoleonic strategy of a quick victory gained by quickly massing troops, and the objective of capturing capital cities as a signal of

Reduce War to its Fundamental Combinations All Strategic combinations are faulty if they do not conform to operating with the greatest possible force in a combined effort against the decisive point -JOMINI-

KEY CONCEPTSMilitary/Government Relationship A government should choose its ablest military commander, then leave him free to wage war according to scientific principles. Governments should not neglect their armed forces, but they must not meddle in matters that only educated and experienced officers understand -JOMINI-

Early definitions for modern concepts such as the "theater of operation." Cared little for political niceties of war; in his view govts choose the best commander possible, then free that person to wage war as he deems appropriate. Maxims usefulness depends on the degree one is capable of finding this decisive point.

VALIDATION OF JOMINIS IDEAS ON THE NATURE OF WARFAREJomini's25 translated works, influenced military leaders in both Europe and North America for much of the 19th century. Sought to codify the basic tenets of modern war in terms of a small number of timeless principles. Stressed the following:advantages of fighting on interior lines; maintaining secure communications while seeking to

VALIDATION OF JOMINIS IDEAS ON THE NATURE OF WARFAREStressed the following: His work suggested that the chaos and uncertainty of war could be mastered by means of a positivistic social science, and the precise mental habits and systematic approach of the engineer and the industrial manager could find a use on the battlefield. His ideas permeated the curriculum of the USMA in the antebellum era, and

VALIDATION OF JOMINIS IDEAS ON THE NATURE OF WARFARENo modern army could dispense the enduring Principles of War for the conduct of operations and the education of officers. In this respect, Jomini remains among the most influential of modern military theorists. However, recent scholars have viewed Jominias a chronicler of pre-modern

VALIDATION OF JOMINIS IDEAS ON THE NATURE OF WARFAREAs a military strategist, often compared with Prussian contemporary Karl Marie von Clausewitz (1780-1831), and his 1833 treatise Vom Kriege (On War). Unlike Clausewitz, Jominiwas vague on the importance of genius. Like Clausewitz, however, his focus remained on the Napoleonic "great battle" rather than the more modern war of multiple armed encounters.

VALIDATION OF JOMINIS IDEAS ON THE NATURE OF WARFAREIn his time, Jomini had a much greater impact on doctrine than Clausewitzthe American Civil War strategies employed by both sides were heavily influenced by Jominiantheory. Alfred Thayer Mahan uses Jomini'sconcept of land warfare to build his conception of naval strategy. Modern operational art owes much to Jomini'stactical and operational thinking. Jomini, a practical-minded





VALIDATION OF JOMINIS IDEAS ON THE NATURE OF WARFAREIn general, most of what Jominihad contributed that was of real value were absorbed and written in practical doctrine while Clausewitzs, have not. Given the brilliance and subtlety of Clausewitz's concepts, it is hard to see them as "conventional wisdom." Jomini is important in a purely historical sense but in

CONTRIBUTIONS IN ADVANCING STRATEGIC ARTAntoine-Henri Jominiwas credited with the title of founder of modern strategy, though uncertain in the point of view of some modern military analysts. However, it cannot be denied that he defined the Principle of War whose concepts have survived up to this day and relate the three (3) main categories of military activity - strategy, tactics, and logistics in warfare.

CONTRIBUTIONS IN ADVANCING STRATEGIC ARTAlthough the U.S. Army presents itself as a Clausewitzian organization, at the tactical and operational levels however, it remains more firmly rooted in the ideals of Jomini. Jominis scientific approach that espouses the collective genius of good staff work and the military decision-making process (MDMP) rather than the singular genius of mil comdrembraced by Clausewitz;

CONTRIBUTIONS IN ADVANCING STRATEGIC ARTAdvocacy on the offensivedefensive, analogous to the Armys mobile defense. ThoughClausewitz also advocate offensive strategy, he was not to the same refinement as Jomini. Clausewitz relied more on maximum exertion of forces while Jomini required focus of strength at the decisive point.

US reliance on decisive points and the scientific application of military theory to provide the commander with solutions to problems in war Espousal of Lines of Operation.

CONTRIBUTIONS IN ADVANCING STRATEGIC ARTMDMPs systemic approach to problem solving relies on simple rules governing the movement of forces, synchronization of their effects, and the discerned application of maximum power at decisive points on the battlefield. (Clarity and optimismthat war can be controlled and the studious theoretician can master the application of violence)

Recent operations in Afghanistan demonstrate the Armys desire to conform to a

OTHER SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION THAT IMPACT THE CONDUCT OFFrench Revolution and Napoleonic Wars revolutionized military strategy. Their impact was still felt in the American Civil War and the early phases of World War I. With the advent of cheap small arms and rise of the drafted citizen soldier, armies grew rapidly in size to become massed formations. Necessitated dividing the army into divisions and later into corps. Along with divisions came divisional artillery; light-

OTHER SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION THAT IMPACT THE CONDUCT OFNapoleon I of France and the "strategy of annihilation" to achieve decision in battle, with the sole aim of destroying his opponent, usually achieving success through superior maneuver. (As ruler and generalhe dealt with the grand strategy as well as the operational strategy, making use of political and economic measures.)

In the Industrial Age, the evolution of military strategy continue