KERTAS 2 ting 5.docx

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SULIT4551/2Section ABahagian A[60 marks][60 markah]Answer all questions from this section.Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1. Diagram 1 shows the structures and organelles found in a plant cell. Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur dan organel yang terdapat dalam sel tumbuhan.

(a) (i) Name P, Q and R. Namakan P, Q dan R [3 markah]

(ii) Explain the function of P in maintaining the shape of a cell. Terangkan fungsi P dalam mengekalkan bentuk sel.

[2 markah]

Rajah 2 menunjukkan perbezaan tahap dalam organisasi sel tumbuhan berkayu. Figure 2 shows different levels of cell organization in a woody plant.

(b) i) Nyatakantahaporganisasisel yang ditunjukkandalam P, Q dan R State the level of cell organization represented by P ,Q and R [3 markah]

(ii) Nyatakan fungsi yang spesifik bagi xylem. State the specific function of the xylem.

(iii) Nyatakan dua struktur penyesuaian bagi xylem dan bagaimana ia membantu menjalankan fungsi dengan berkesan Give two structural adaptations of xylem and how helps in carry out its function effectively.

[2 markah]

(iv) Berikan pendapat anda,mengapa S berbeza daripada sel K berdasarkan struktur dan fungsinya. Give your opinion why is S different from cell K based on the structure and its function.

[1 markah]

2.Diagram 3.1 shows the example of the cell undergoing the division of cell. Rajah 3.1 di bawah menunjukkan contoh sel yang mengalami pembahagian sel

Diagram 3.1 // Rajah 3.1a) How many chromosomes are there in the cell?Berapakah bilangan kromosom di dalam sel tersebut?

Able to state number of chromosomes in the cellAnswer: 6 chromosomes[1 mark]

b) Draw one daughter cell at the end of the cell division through;Lukis satu sel anak yang dihasilkan melalui pembahagian sel secara; i. Mitosis

[2 markah]i. Meiosis

[2 markah]

Able to draw one daughter cell of mitosis and meiosis

Answer:(i) mitosisNumber of chromosomes are 6Same pattern and same size of chromosomes as parent cell

(ii) meiosisNumber of chromosomes are 3Pattern and size of chromosomes is different compare to parent cell(c)Explain why the chromosomes numbers are different in daughter cells of mitosis and meiosis. Terangkan mengapa bilangan kromosom berbeza pada sel anak antara mitosis dan meiosis.

Able to explain why the chromosomes numbers are different Suggested Answer:In mitosis:- (During anaphase) chromosome / sister chromatids separated and move to the opposite poles (cause the number of chromosome in daughter cell remain the same) In meiosis:- (During anaphase I) homologous chromosomes separated and move to the oppoeite poles (cause the number of chromosome in daughter cell become half form the parent cell) [2 marks]

(d) Explain one difference of importance of mitosis and meiosis to organisms.Terangkan satu perbezaan kepentingan mitosis dan meiosis kepada organisma hidup.

Able to explain one difference of importance of mitosis and meiosisSuggested Answer:F1: Mitosis produce no variation, while meiosis produce variationP1: caused by crossing over during Prophase I in meiosis[2 marks]

(e) In a population of buffaloes, there are normal buffaloes and white buffaloes or known as kerbau balar. Why it is happen?Dalam satu populasi kerbau, terdapat kerbau yang normal dan kerbau yang berwarna putih atau dikenali sebagai kerbau balar. Mengapakah keadaan ini terjadi?

Able to explain why buffalo is white colour

Answer:P1: albino buffaloes caused by gene mutation which control the production of skin pigmentationP2: in autosomesP2: controlled by recessive allelesP3: skin cells unable to synthesis (melanin) pigment // no (melanin) pigment [3 markah]

3.a) Diagram 3.2 shows two types of vertebrae in human backbone. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan dua jenis vertebrae dalam tulang belakang manusia.

Rajah 3.2

State two differences in structure between the vertebra P and vertebra Q. Nyatakan dua perbezaan struktur bagi vertebra P dan vertebra Q.

[2 marks]

b) A man has swollen ankle and is painful during movement after having a habit of taking high protein diet. Explain the relationship between the diet and the disease he suffers.Seorang lelaki mengalami bengkak buku lali dan berasa sakit ketika bergerak setelah mengamalkan pengambilan diet yang tinggi kandungan protein. Terangkan hubungkait antara diet dan penyakit yang dialaminya. [2 marks]

c) Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan kedudukan yang berbeza bagi pergerakan lengan.Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show different positions of a forearm during a movement.

Rajah 5.1 Rajah 5.2i) Lengkapkan Rajah 5.1 dengan melukis otot triceps dan biseps di mana ianya melibatkan pergerakan lengan.

* Otot Trisep adalah lebih nipis dan panjang berbanding bisep *Triceps muscle is thinner & longer than biceps *Sekurang-kurangnya 3 tendon melekat ke tulang scapula, humerus dan ulna *At least 3 tendons attached to the bones to scapula, to humerus and to ulna(1 markah)c)Explain why biseps and triceps muscles must work in pair to produce the movement.Terangkan mengapa otot biseps dan triseps mesti bekerja dalam pasangan bagi menghasilkan pergerakan.E1 :Tindakan berantagonis, //otot trisep mengecut, bisep mengendur Antagonistic action // triceps contract, biceps relax (1M) E2 :Pengecutan otot trisep memindahkan daya kepada ulna/ lengan oleh tendon Triceps contract transmitted a force to the ulna / forearm / arm by tendon (1M) E3 :Menarik tulang ulna/ lengan/ lengan ke bawah/ tangan turun ke bawah/ lengan lurus Pull ulna / forearm / arm down // the forearm straightens (1M)

[2 marks]ii) Cadangkan satu ciri penyesuaian oleh tisu P yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 5.1 di mana ianya membantu di dalam pergerakan lengan.Suggest one adaptive characteristic of tissue P shown in Diagram 5.1 which helps in the movement of the forearm.kuat // tidak kenyal//liat Strong // inelastic//tough` (1M) Kuat- memindahkan daya tarikan yang dihasilkan oleh pengecutan otot ke tulang. Strong transfer the pulling force from the contraction of muscle to the bone. Tidak kenyal membantu semasa pengecutan otot ,menarik tulang dan menyebabkan pergerakan. Inelastic it help muscle contraction to pull the bone and move the forearm. (1M)

[2markah]

d) Rajah menunjukkan sendi pada lutut. Diagram shows a joint at the knee.

Terangkan masalah kesihatan yang biasa dihadapi oleh orang tua apabila tisu Xsudah terjejas.Explain the health problem normally faced by an old person when tissue X is impaired.E1 : Susah untuk bergerak/ berjalan Difficulty in movement / walking E2 :Sakit/ membengkak/ pada sendi/lutut Pain / swelling / stiffness at the joints / knee E3 :Menyebabkan X akan haus/ tulang rawan// tulang rawan menjadi nipis/ rosak/ menyusut Due to excessive wear and tear of X / cartilage //cartilage X becomes thinner / breaks down / degeneration of X E4 :Athritis /Osteoarthritis ( MANA-MANA 2M) [3markah]

SULIT4551/2

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4.Diagram shows a type of organelle found in muscle cells.A biochemical reaction occurs in the organelle.Rajah menunjukkan sejenis organel yang terdapat dalam sel otot.Tindak balas biokimia berlaku dalam organel tersebut.

(a) (i)Name this organelle.Namakan organel ini.

.[1markah]

(ii)Explain why membrane X is in the form of numerous folded layers.Terangkan mengapa membranXadalah dalam bentuk lapisan yang berlipat-lipat.

[2markah]

(b)The biochemical reaction that occurs in this organelle is summarised as follows:Tindak balas biokimia yang berlaku dalam organel ini diringkaskan seperti berikut:

Glucose + P Q + carbon dioxide + energyGlukosa+ P Q +karbon dioksida+tenaga

(i) Name gas P.Namakan gasP.

[1markah]

(ii)Name product Q.Namakan hasilQ.

[1markah]

(iii)Explain why the muscle cell has a large number of these organelles.Terangkan mengapa sel otot mengandungi banyak bilangan organel ini.

[2markah]

(iv)If the blood sugar level is lower than the normal range, the biochemical reaction in this organelle can still occur.Explain how.Jika aras gula dalam darah adalah rendah daripada julat normal, tindak balas biokimia dalam organel ini masih boleh berlaku.Terangkan bagaimana. [3markah]

(c)Statetwodifferences on the biochemical reaction occurring between muscle cell and yeast cell in the absence of gas P.Nyatakanduaperbezaan ke atas tindak balas biokimia yang berlaku antara sel otot dan sel yis tanpa kehadiran gasP.

[2markah]

5

Diagram 4 shows the flow of blood and lymph in human body.Rajah 4 menunjukkan pengaliran darah dan cecair limfa dalam badan manusia.

5.

a)Name R and S.Namakan R dan S