KNITTING machine. Weft knitting is the most common form of knitting as it is simpler than warp knitting,

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  • KNITTING

    by

    M.Amsaveni, Assistant Professor, Dept. Costume Design and Fashion,

    Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore.

  • Finger knitting

    Peg knitting

  • Hand knitting needles

    Warp knitting machine

    Circular knitting machine

    Rib knitting machine

  • Weft knitting:

    In this type of knitting, the direction of loop formation is at right

    angles to the direction of fabric formation. Normally the fabric is formed

    vertically and the loops are formed horizontally. It is the most common

    fabric formation technique for knitted fabric. It is usually knitted with one

    piece of yarn, and can be made either by hand or using a knitting

    machine. Weft knitting is the most common form of knitting as it is simpler

    than warp knitting, the other form of knitting. There are four basic weft

    knitted fabric structures: interlock, purl, plain, and rib. The action of the

    needle during loop formation produces all these distinct weft knitted

    structures. On the basis of the type of weft knitting machine, the weft

    knitted fabric can be classified as single jersey or double jersey.

  • Warp knitting:

    The second knitting method is termed warp knitting,

    though its share in the production of knitted fabric is low

    compared to weft knitting but it is used in technical areas.

    In warp knitting, the yarn runs zigzag along the length of

    the fabric. It requires the preparation of a warp sheet for

    further use on machine. The most common warp knitted

    designs or structures are raschel and tricot.

  • COMPARISON OF WARP AND WEFT KNITTING

    S/No Weft Knitting Warp Knitting

    1 Plain, rib, interlock, purl Tricot, raschel, milanese, crochet etc.

    2 Loops are produced along the width of fabric Loops are produced along the length of fabric

    3 Less production speed More production speed

    4 Not necessarily each needle has its own thread Each needle has its own thread

    5 Yarn is supplied from a cone held on creel Yarn is supplied from a beam

    6 Knitting process can be done from a single yarn Large number of yarns are required for knitting a fabric

    7 Staple yarn is preferable but filament is also used Filament yarns are preferable but staple yarns are also

    used

    8 Less preparatory processes are required More preparatory processes are required

    9 Latch needle are used in all machines Bearded needle is mostly used but latch needle can also

    use in some cases

    10 Less variety of structure can be made Wide variety of structure can be made

    11 Fabric has less aesthetic value Fabric has more aesthetic value

    12 Fabric has good stretch ability in both directions, higher in

    width direction

    Fabric has low stretch ability in both directions, higher

    in width direction

    13 Dimension stability of fabrics is lower Dimension stability of fabrics is higher

    14 Machines may be flat or circular Warp knitting machines are generally flat

    15 Width wise more elastic Length wise more elastic

    16 More shrinkage Less shrinkage

    17 Easy snagging Less snagging

    18 It may ravel from edges Does not ravel from edges

  • Course & Wales

    Course :

    The series of loops those are connected horizontally, continuously are called as course.

    The horizontal row of loops that are made by adjacent needles in the same knitting cycle.

    Wales :

    The series of loops that intermeshes vertically are known as Wales.

    Vertical column of loops that are made from same needle in successive knitting cycle

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knitting https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Course-and-wales.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Course-and-wales.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Course-and-wales.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Course-and-wales.png

  • GENERAL TERMS IN KNITTING

  • Parts of a loop

    Each knit stitch (knit loop) is a basic unit for the knitted goods

    H: Head or Crown or top arc

    L: Side limbs or Legs

    S: Bottom arc or Sinker loop

    →Needle loop=H+2L

    →A complete loop=Needle loop+Sinker loop

    https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Parts-of-a-loop.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Parts-of-a-loop.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Parts-of-a-loop.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Parts-of-a-loop.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Parts-of-a-loop.png

  • Needle loop: Needle loop is the upper part of the loop produced by the needle drawing the yarn. Sinker loop: The lower part of the knitted loop is technically referred as sinker loop. It is the connection of two legs belonging to neighboring stitches lying laterally. Open loop: The open loop is one in which the loop forming yarns do not cross at the bottom of the loop. Closed loop: In closed loop the legs cross at the bottom, so that the loop closing takes place.

  • https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Different-types-of-knitting-loop.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Different-types-of-knitting-loop.png

  • Face loop and technical face

    Face loop: During loop formation, when the new loop emerges through the old loop from

    back to the face side then it is termed as face loop or weft knitted loop.

    Technical face: The side of the fabric which contains all face loops or weft knit loops is known

    as technical face.

    https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Technical-face-and-back.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Technical-face-and-back.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Technical-face-and-back.png

  • Back loop and Technical Back Back loop: During loop formation, when the new loop passes from the face side to the back of the previous loop then it is termed as back loop or purl loop. Technical back: The side of the fabric which contains all back loops or purl loops is known as technical back.

    Knitted stitch The knitted stitch is the basic unit of intermeshing. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops. The centre loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it.

  • Notations Knitting notation is a simple, easily-understood, symbolic

    representation of a knitting repeat sequence. Its resultant fabric structure that eliminates the need for

    time-consuming and possibly confusing sketches and written descriptions. Notations are used to express the knitted fabric structure

    and design.

    Notations are of four types:

    1.Verbal notation. 2.Line diagram/ Looping diagram 3.Diagrammatic notation/ Chain notation 4.Symbolic notation

  • Stitch length The length of yarn required to produce a complete knitted loop (i.e Needle loop and sinker loop) is known as stitch length or loop length.

    A course length The length of yarn required to produce a complete knitted course is known as course length.

    Course length= No. of loops per course X Stitch length

    Course length= No. of needles X Stitch length

    http://www.academia.edu/8270336/Effect_of_Stitch_Length_on_Physical_and_Mechanical_Properties_of_Single_Jersey_Cotton_Knitted_Fabric

  • Stitch density Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric. It is the total number of needle loops in a given area (such as a square inch Stitch density= Wales density x Courses density

    =Wales per inch X Courses per inch

    = WPI X CPI Unit: number of loops per square inch Or, SD= CPC x WPC (cm scale)

  • Single jersey & Double jersey

    Single jersey or plain fabric: The weft knitted fabric

    (Tubular/flat) which is produced by one set of needles.

    Double jersey: The weft knitted fabric (Tubular/flat) which is

    produced by two sets of needles.

  • Needle bed or needle carrier

    Needle bed or needle carrier is the place where the needles are

    located or mounted in a knitting machine. Needle moves up and

    down in the trick of a needle carrier.

    Two types of needle carrier:

    Cylindrical or circular

    Flat

    https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Needle-bed-or-needle-carrier.png https://textilestudycenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Needle-bed-or-needle-carrier.png

  • Cylinder and Dial

    Cylinder:

    Cylinder is a circular steel bed having grooves / tricks /cuts on it’s outer periphery into

    which the needles are mounted.

    With reference to the tricks, the needles move vertically up and down by their butt being in

    contact with the cam track.

    The diameter of the cylinder also varied based on the type and width of the fabric.

    Maximum diameter of the cylinder: 46 inches.

    Dial:

    Dial is the upper steel bed used in double knit circular machines.

    Into the grooves of the dial, the needles are mounted horizontally and are allowed to move

    radically in and out by their dia