Lab 6 - Inheritance of Traits

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Dragon Genetics

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<ul><li><p>Lab 6 - Inheritance of Traits: the Dragon Genetics Lab</p></li><li><p>HeredityThe passing of characteristics from parent to offspring is called heredity.Before DNA and chromosomes were discovered, the mechanism of heredity was one of the greatest mysteries of science.</p></li><li><p>Gregor MendelAn Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel, who is known as the Father of Genetics, pioneered the study of heredity in the late 1800s.</p></li><li><p>Mendels HypothesesFor each inherited character, an individual has two copies of the gene -one from each parent.</p></li><li><p>Mendels HypothesesThere are alternative versions of the gene which are called alleles. (for example, Y and y, T and t)The combination of these alleles is the organisms genotype for that gene</p></li><li><p>Mendels HypothesesOf the two alleles, one of them may be completely expressed (dominant), while the other one may have no observable effect (recessive) on the organisms phenotype (appearance).</p></li><li><p>Mendels HypothesesWhen gametes are formed, the alleles for each gene in an individual separate independently of one another. Thus gametes carry only one allele for each inherited trait.</p></li><li><p>Two Laws of HeredityThe law of segregation states that the two alleles for a character segregate (separate) when the gametes are formed.The law of independent assortment states that the alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete formation. For example, the alleles for the height of a plant separate independently of the alleles for its flower color.</p></li><li><p>The Human Karyotype22 pairs of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosomes</p><p>Female = XXMale = XY </p></li><li><p>For autosomal genes: If an individuals genotype is homozygous dominant or heterozygous, their phenotype will show the dominant allele. Ie. HH, Hh If an individuals genotype is homozygous recessive, their phenotype will show the recessive allele. Ie. hh</p></li><li><p>Autosomal or Sex Linked?If a gene is autosomal (found on the autosomes), it will appear in both sexes equally.A sex-linked genes allele is located on the X or Y (sex) chromosome.Most sex-linked traits are carried on the X chromosome and are recessive.If a trait is sex-linked, its effects are usually seen only in males.</p></li><li><p>Complex Patterns of HeredityNot all traits that are inherited are controlled by one set of genes. When several genes influence a character, this is called polygenic inheritanceeye color, weight, height, skin colorIn Mendels crosses there was either a dominant or a recessive trait. In some organisms, an individual displays a phenotype that is intermediate between the two parents, a condition known as incomplete dominance</p></li><li><p>Examples of Incomplete DominanceWhen a snapdragon with red flowers is crossed with a snapdragon with white flowers, a snapdragon with pink flowers is produced. Neither the red nor the white allele is dominant over the other.</p><p>In humans, the child of a straight haired parent and a curly-haired parent will have wavy hair.</p></li><li><p>Incomplete Dominance v. CodominanceExample: flower color in CarnationsHomozygous dominant (AA) = RED phenotypeHomozygous recessive (aa) = Heterozygous (Aa) = PINKCodominance: both alleles are equally dominant and both alleles are visible in the hybrid genotypeExample: feather color in chickensHomozygote 1 (F1F1) = BLACK feathersHomozygote 2 (F2F2) = Heterozygote (F1F2) = Black and patternIncomplete dominance: one allele is only partially dominant to the other; the heterozygote exhibits a phenotype that is intermediate relative to the dominant and recessive phenotypes</p></li><li><p>Characters Influenced by the EnvironmentSome phenotypes depend on environmental conditionsHydrangea flowers of the same genotype can exhibit different phenotypes based on the environment (soil pH) Plants in acidic soil have blue flowers, while plants in neutral or basic soil have pink flowers</p></li><li><p>Sex-Influenced TraitsA sex-influenced trait is a phenotype that is expressed differently in males and females.While sex-linked genes are only found on the sex chromosomes, sex-influenced genes can be autosomalExample:Male pattern baldness (due to high testosterone; males have more testosterone than females, so baldness is much more common in males)Also called a sex-limited trait (trait is found in only one sex)</p></li></ul>

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