Lake Tanganyika Strategic Action Programme - BOBLME 2010 Lake Tanganyika...¢  2012. 2. 11.¢  7 natural

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    The Strategic Action Programme for the Protection of Biodiversity and Sustainable Management of the Natural Resources of Lake Tanganyika and its Basin

    November 2010

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    Page for Signature

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    Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................................. 5 FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................. 8 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................... 9 GLOSSARY OF TERMS ............................................................................................................................ 12 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 15

    1.1 NEED FOR JOINT ACTION - SHARED RESOURCES IN LAKE TANGANYIKA AND ITS BASIN ............................ 15 1.1.1 The Lake Tanganyika and its Basin .................................................................................. 15 1.1.2 The People ....................................................................................................................... 16 1.1.3 Causes of Threats to Biodiversity and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in the Lake Basin 18 1.1.4 Previous Projects and Research on Lake Tanganyika ...................................................... 18

    1.2 JOINT COMMITMENTS TO FUTURE ACTIONS: THE CONVENTION ON THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF LAKE TANGANYIKA ................................................................................................................................ 19

    2 BACKGROUND AND PRINCIPLES OF THE STRATEGIC ACTION PROGRAMME .......................... 20 2.1 RATIONALE OF THE STRATEGIC ACTION PROGRAMME ........................................................................ 20 2.2 GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE OF THE LAKE TANGANYIKA SAP ..................................................................... 21 2.3 THE PURPOSE OF PRIORITIZATION................................................................................................... 21 2.4 NATIONAL ACTIONS WITHIN A REGIONAL FRAMEWORK ..................................................................... 21 2.5 PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ...................................... 22 2.6 THE PROCESS OF CONSULTATION FOR THE SAP ................................................................................ 22

    2.6.1 Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis ................................................................................. 23 2.6.2 National Stakeholder Consultations ................................................................................ 23 2.6.3 Regional Consultation ...................................................................................................... 24 2.6.4 National Policies and Action Plans ................................................................................... 24 2.6.5 Future Evolution of the SAP ............................................................................................. 28

    3 THE LAKE TANGANYIKA AUTHORITY ................................................................................... 28 3.1 BACKGROUND AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE LTA .............................................................................. 28 3.2 ORGANS OF THE LTA .................................................................................................................... 28

    3.2.1 The LTA and the Convention ............................................................................................ 29 3.2.2 The Conference of Ministers ............................................................................................ 29 3.2.3 The Management Committee .......................................................................................... 30 3.2.4 LTA Secretariat ................................................................................................................. 30

    3.3 THE LAKE TANGANYIKA REGIONAL INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ........ 31 3.3.1 UNDP/GEF Partnership Interventions for the Implementation of the SAP for Lake Tanganyika Project ....................................................................................................................... 31 3.3.2 Coordination .................................................................................................................... 33

    4 THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE SAP .......................................................................................... 34 4.1 THE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK ....................................................................................................... 34 4.2 THE BASIS FOR PRIORITISATION ...................................................................................................... 35 4.3 NATIONAL ACTIONS WITHIN A REGIONAL FRAMEWORK ..................................................................... 36

    5 PROGRAMME OF PRIORITY ACTIONS .................................................................................. 36 5.1 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 36 5.2 CROSSCUTTING THEMES ................................................................................................................ 37

    5.2.1 Information Management ............................................................................................... 37 5.2.2 Socio-economic Development and Governance .............................................................. 37 5.2.3 Institutional and legal aspects, Capacity Building and Funding ...................................... 38 5.2.4 Environmental policy ....................................................................................................... 38 5.2.5 Environmental Education ................................................................................................. 38

    5.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ..................................................................................................... 38

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    5.4 ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ..................................................................................... 39 5.4.1 Impacts of Increasing Temperatures ............................................................................... 40 5.4.2 Impacts of Decreased Precipitations ............................................................................... 40 5.4.3 Impacts of Increased Precipitations ................................................................................. 41

    5.5 CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS .................................................................... 42 5.5.1 Reduction of ecosystem productivity, biodiversity and resources ................................... 43 5.5.2 Alteration of the lake water budget and the economic use of the invaded surfaces ...... 44

    5.6 DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES ...................................................................................... 44 5.6.1 Excessive Fishing Effort in the Littoral Zone ..................................................................... 45 5.6.2 Excessive Fishing Effort in the Pelagic Zone ..................................................................... 46 5.6.3 Excessive or Uncontrolled Extraction of Ornamental Fish ............................................... 49

    5.7 POLLUTION CONTROL.................................................................................................................... 50 5.7.1 Urban and Industrial Pollution ......................................................................................... 51 5.7.2 Harbour Pollution ............................................................................................................ 55 5.7.3 Pollution from Mining Activities ...................................................................................... 56 5.7.4 Risks of Major Marine Accidents ..................................................................................... 57 5.7.5 Petroleum exploration and production ............................................................................ 58

    5.8 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................. 59 5.8.1 Promotion of Sustainable Farming Practices ................................................................... 60 5.8.2 Control of Deforestation .................................................................................................. 62 5.8.3 Other unsustainable land uses......................................................................................... 63

    5.9 PROTECTION OF IMPORTANT HABITATS FOR BIODIVERSITY ................................................................. 64 5.9.1 Threats to Protected Area Resources .............................................................................. 64 5.9.2 Conservation of Sensitive Coastal Habitats ..................................................................... 66

    APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................... 69 APPENDIX I LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVED IN THE CONSULTATION