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URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN LANDSCAPE -Submitted by Sathya madhavan,1350008 M-arch General HIET 1

Landscape Urban Transformation-sathya

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Landscape Urban Transformation

Text of Landscape Urban Transformation-sathya



-Submitted by Sathya madhavan,1350008

M-arch General


ABSTRACTHistoric urban places had exclusive space for parks and landscape, it had meaning and spiritual, cultural meaning.There were lots of squares and market places were people gather and lived socially.industrialisation in 19th century leads to urbanisation, parks were demolished for the development of infrastructureUrban sprawls leads to suburbanisation, agricultural land lost its importanceCity has become a space for car more than space for human being, which leads to pollution, unhealthy environment, artificial environment.City has become a place for machines. Now the concept of counter urbanization is happening, people going to rural area from urban area to live in natural environment, they also converting the current city to sustainable green city

This study is to implement the concepts of urban park in the city-rural in urban and how to make it sustainable by having the inspirations from the historic cities urban landscapesUrban parks are dynamic institutions that play a vital, but not fully appreciated or understood role in the social, economic and physical well-being of urban areas and its residents. Dating back to the 19th century when Frederick Law Olmsted introduced the first large-scale urban parks to this country, these green spaces provided relief from urban intensity for residents and brought people together across social, economic and racial divides. In the postwar years, when the population shifted away from urban centers, our nation's parks suffered enormously from disinvestments and many are still experiencing it.

As cities across the country are attracting millions of residents again, the center of this sweeping urban renaissance are newly revitalized parks. They are not only safe and beautiful, but also serve as green engines to help address nearly every critical urban need from health to housing, to education and environmental justice, and countering sprawl to combating crime.Parks have long been recognized as major contributors to the physical and aesthetic quality of urban neighborhoods. But a new, broader view of parks has recently been emerging. This new view goes well beyond the traditional value of parks as places of recreation and visual assets to communities, and focuses on how policymakers, practitioners, and the public can begin to think about parks as valuable contributors to larger urban policy objectives, such as job opportunities, youth development, public health, and community building1. INTRODUCTION


Landscape refers to any activity that modifiesthe visible features of an area of land, including ,Living elements, such as flora or fauna, theart and craft of growing plants with a goal ofcreating a beautiful environment within the landscape.Natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water;

Human elements such as structures, buildings, fences or othermaterial objects created and/or installed by humans; and Abstract elements such as the lighting conditions.


An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it.

Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations


Urban designconcerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities. Thus, urban design is the art of creating and shaping of urban public place. It involves the arrangement & design of buildings, public spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities. It is a framework that orders the elements into a network of streets, squares, and blocks. Urban design blends architecture, landscape architecture, and city planning together to make urban areas functional and attractive.


Steps and terraces Paving and paths Walls and fences Gates and arches Bridges Pergolas and arbours Furniture Containers Water Determine in part the functional organization of urban areas. Serve as recreation areas for working people and Contribute to the expressiveness of architectural ensembles. It is the process of giving form, shape, and character to groups of buildings, to whole neighborhoods, and the city.Ratio of hardscape and softscape in urban landscape varies depending upon the functional aspect of the space. Hardscape is always a dominant part in urban spaces as it provides space for walking, relaxing and easy to maintain. Urban Landscape isan integral part of modern urban construction. Softscape is closely related to a citys construction plan and are an indispensable element in the overall urban landscape.Hardscape is integral part of urban scape but the importance of softscape cant be ignored. Proper space utilization, environmental sustainability and creating dramatic effect is what can best describe Urban Landscape.

1.5 URBAN TRANSFORMATIONCities are ever changing; they are alive, they respond to ever changing need. The most constant feature of cities is change. They represent a process of evolution by changing all the time but not always with a great evolutionary success. Cities change because life changes. Urban form adapts to changes in civilisation reflecting their social structures. Urban transformation is often considered as a modern feature of the city.1.6 URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN LANDSCAPE

The 21st century in urban theory and practice is characterized as the century of "new urbanism". Current trend in the practice of city structure urban development is the landscape and urban planning transformation of the space-planning structures.

In global urbanization over the last 10-15 years the number of urban population has increased dramatically. On the one hand, the socio-economic role of cities as economic and cultural center of agglomeration increases, on the other the pressure on cities ecosystem is growing, which has serious negative environmental problems. In this situation, the relevance of transforming urban environment is becoming evident




Landscape and urban planning transformation of the city territories and agglomerations allows creating an open plan structure of the city, developing an efficient transport infrastructure, and creating a system of agricultural landscape neighboring the border of the city


Urban center has lost its green environment due to the urbanisation , suburbanisation and urban sprawl, as a result it affects the identity of urban environmentsThe city in combination with the open structures is understood as an urban landscape. Thereby it is not only the open green areas of the city that are understood as landscape but also the architecture and infrastructure enter into a holistic landscape approach. This is related to the fact that increased merging, dilution and blurredness are taking place between built-, open- and infra-structures, creating a hybrid condition

Instead of Seeing City and country separately , seeing it together as urbanlandscape.


This papers concentrates on the evolutionary concepts of the urban landscape , with the ideas of historic urban landscape which has meaning, cultural identity and the place for interaction



Garrett Eckbo said that in any landscape we look for two features: one is an expression of landscape nature specifics, the other is development of maximum landscape opportunities for adjustment to the human beings needs . Landscape and urban planning transformation in the era of global urbanization is an efficient vector and a mechanism of development of a stable planning city structure. One of the main factors caused fast tempo of urbanization at the end of the 20th beginning of the 21st centuries is active population migration The reason for that is the need of better economic and climatic conditions for migrants from these regions. This situation is a result of active globalization which is currently accelerators of fast urbanization, whereas fast urbanization causes negative influence on environment in cities and around. In the past 20 years in Russia the urbanization growth has had some certain specifics connected to socio-economic factors of post-soviet state development. Active migration into big cities caused population growth in bigger cities. The issue of this phenomenon is quite complicated, it is related to the absence of agricultural cluster in general around the country, to the absence of socio-economic links between town and country and bad transport connections. As a result quite a paradoxical situation appeared in the country: lots of agricultural land outside town is not occupied whereas it could provide towns with food products and could make up geographic range around towns and cities. The landscape of the 21st century is not just a territory and nature fundamental principal, which is taken into consideration while planning and renovating towns, it is a basic element of the planning structure which forms a safe bio positive environment of town at all levels. From the point of view of modern town planning conceptions (for example, Paris, Hamburg, London, Berlin, Amsterdam, Moscow) landscape plays one of the most important and sometimes even the most important role in the forming of urban planning structure development. Landscape is many-sided and double natured, if we look at the city as a united landscape-urban planned system, then in the 21st century the century of the landscape urbanism

we dont talk about the system of recreational territories, we talk about the landscape infrastructure of town. Landscape infrastructure differs from the system of recreational territories because of its more complex and detailed integrated spatial structure. Thus, for instance, the system of recreational territories is a part of a town landscape infrastructure, but not the main functional element of the city gardening plan as it was 20 years ago. Landscape infrastructure nowadays is an efficient vector of the city development and its metropolitan area. Duality of landscape infrastructure nowadays means that besides being a vector of the urban planning it possesses important socio-ecological and cultural factors of the city development. It is the formation of socio- oriented and comfortable city environment using modern approaches in the sphere of landscape planning and design as well as new technologies that allows create identity and unique character of public areas. This process begins with creation communication transport areas, public gardens, squares, pedestrian areas, embankments, and finishes with formation of inner areas of flat complexes and architectural objects designed based on the principles of green architecture. One of the priorities of effective landscape infrastructure creation is shaping up a continual system of pedestrian links comfortable green roads to walk along or cycle along which should go through the whole city, and what is more be effective links with suburban landscape. It allows not only improve sanitation role of the city landscape infrastructure, but also creates reliable links between the city and its suburbs helping provide with accessibility and openness of the city. Each town, no matter how big or small it is, has its own peculiarities. That is why formation of landscape infrastructure in every town, metropolitan area, conurbation will have their own peculiarities in each region as well, their own specific approaches to the methodics of research and design of effective infrastructure in the symbiosis with development and transformation of its urban planning structure. It is the landscape-planning city structure of already existing spatial-planning city structure which is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of forming a stable, viable, friendly and flexible and open-to-nature city. The most valuable from the point of view of urban planning development places are the territories near the rivers, and they are still occupied with plants and municipal warehouses. These riverside zones are one of the main elements of landscape infrastructure and they must be a vector and catalyst element of the whole city planning development. But modern town planning situation is rather difficult; the problem is without transport frame development it is impossible to have landscape infrastructure development.Thus, currently landscape-urban planning transformation is considered to be the most balanced way in the reconstruction and reclamation from the principles of stable development and formation of safe and socio-oriented city environment.3.2 HISTORIC SIGNIFICANCE OF URBAN LANDSCAPE

1-Early cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristicsGreat importance accorded the symbolic center of the city, which was thought to be the center of the known worldOften demarcated by a vertical structure of monumental scale representing the point on Earth closest to the heavensThis symbolic center, or axis mundi, took different forms The ziggurat in Mesopotamia The palace or temple in China The pyramid in Egypt and Mesoamerica The Stupa in the Indus Valley2-In Mesopotamia, this area was known as the citadel and housed the elite who lived in relative luxury ,Streets were paved, drains and running water were providedPrivate sleeping quarters, bathtubs, and water closets were providedPrivileges did not extend to the city as a whole3-The city was oriented toward the four cardinal directionsGeometric form of city would reflect the order of the universeWalls around the city delimited the known and ordered world from the outside chaos. Attempt to shape the form of the city according to the form of the universeThought essential to maintain harmony between human and spiritual worldsExample of Ankor Thorn in IndiaPatterns seen in the city today are a composite of past and present cultures Two concepts underlie our examination of urban landscapes Urban morphology physical form of the city, which consists of street patterns, building sizes and shapes, architecture, and density Functional zonation refers to the pattern of land uses within a city, or existence of areas with differing functionsLEWIS MUMFORD Compares the current modern cities with the Historic cities ,He felt there was dramatic dialogue in the Historic cities which is absent in the current cities.He liked the planning of GreeceWestern civilization and Western cities trace their roots to ancient GreeceBy 600 B.C., over five hundred towns and cities existed on the Greek mainland and surrounding islandsWith expansion, cities spread throughout the Mediterranean to the north shore of Africa, to Spain, southern France, and ItalyCities rarely had more than 5,000 inhabitantsAthens may have reached 300,000 in the fifth century B.C., including perhaps 100,000 slavesCities had two distinctive functional zones the acropolis and the agora The acropolis had the temples of worship, storehouse of valuables, and seat of powerServed as a place of retreat in time of siege The agora was the province of the citizens A place for public meetings, education, social interaction, and judicial matters It was the civic center, the hub of democratic life for Greek men.Later, after the classical period, it became the citys major marketplace without losing its atmosphere of a social clubTemples were located on sacred sites chosen to please the gods ,Temples were also sited and designed to please the human eye and harmonize with the natural landscape

EBENEZER HOWARD GARDEN CITY also had central park as core and public gardens and green belt dividing the concentric radial city into two

Green belt area is half the size of the satellite city

INCLUDEPICTURE "http://www.city-analysis.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/ebenezer-howard-social-cities.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET In historic period importance was given to Landscape , there were spaces in city exclusively designed for gardens, we harly have landscape in city now, but historic periods had city in landscapeThe earliest ENGLISH GARDENS that we know of were planted by the Roman conquerors of Britain in the 1st century AD. The Roman gardens that we know the most about are those of the large villas and palaces. where an early garden has been partly reconstructed.,symmetrical formal planting of low box hedges split by graveled walks. The hedges are punctuated by small niches which probably held ornaments like statues, urns, or garden seats. The formal garden near the house gave way to a landscaped green space leading down to the waterside below. There is also a small kitchen garden which is planted with fruits and vegetables common in Roman Britain.We know very little about the gardens of Anglo-Saxon England, which is another way of saying that the warlike Anglo-Saxons probably did not hold gardening to be important.

INCLUDEPICTURE "http://www.gardenvisit.com/uploads/image/image/395/3958/stowe_ancient_virtue_original.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET Gardens influenced from paintings, rolling lawns, organic form, stream, villa garden,

The FRENCH GARDEN depicts the power, command in landscape , its geometric pattern, symmetrical, hunting gardens planned ,they had both social and public garden, their garden had yards, flower beds, trellis, sundial, bird bath and fountains

ITALIAN GARDENS influence of both french and english gardens had rare trees ,secret gardens, medicine and herb gardens,fountains , two levels of garden along the slope


After 19th century because of urbanization no space for the landscape, more concentration on the development and expansion of cities, Agricultural land lost its importance

Later in 21st century modern ideas to incorporate green in the urban landscape, Urban landscape to be a part of the city URBAN PATTERNS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCities play a crucial role in creation of green economy by bringing about fair and healthy economic competitiveness, by being strategic in spatial planning and planning around landscape ecologies.

Carbon emissions along the urban population increases resulting in climate change.

The cost of renewable energy resources has decreased and that of the conventional non renewable resources has increased.

Ways to implement green economy in cities:

Large green patches and more sustainable development

Promotion of compact cities (show minimal wastage of space) and planned extension of cities (curtailing urban sprawl)

Balancing facilities with diverse local economic opportunities

Development of network infrastructure like the development of BRT system

Building greener environment that use water and energy efficiently

Protection of valuable ecosystems and biodiversity hotspots

Industries must be inspired to convert to green industries.

Cities can develop green structures by improving transport efficiency, by homogenous population distribution, by improving energy efficiency, by making more productive use of services and promoting sustainable lifestyles that are less material intensive.To develop structural capacity for sustainable cities, it is necessary to adopt an integrated approach to planning at all levels of government and all focus areas.3.3 APPROACHES FOR LOW-CARBON GREEN CITY The master plan should have the principles of green design in the city's expansion.

A green transportation system should be established that encourages public transport, pedestrian and bicycle routes, electric and bio fuel powered vehicles and a regular check on the age and emission quantity of the vehicles running on the roads.

Coal should be replaced by other renewable energy sources as it is prone to exhaustion and yet used most widely for powering the various industries. 4 .METHODOLOGY-MODERN URBAN LANDSCAPE CASE STUDY4.1 MADRID RIOThe ambitious plan by madrids mayor alberto ruiz-gallardn tosubmerge a section of the m30 ring motorway immediately adjacentto the old city centre within a tunnel was realized within a single term of office. The city undertook infrastructure measures over a total length of 43 kilometers, six of them along the banks of the rivermanzanares, at a total cost of six billion euro. West 8 together with a group of renowned architects from madrid, united under the namemrio arquitectos led by gins garrido colomero designed the master plan for madrid rio.In 2005, an invited international competition was announced.the proposal submitted by west8 and mrio for the design of there claimed area above the tunnel was the only submission to resolve the urban situation exclusively by means of landscape architecture.The design is founded on the idea 3+ 30 aconcept which proposes dividing the 80 hectare urban development into a trilogy of initial strategic projects that establish a basic structure which then serves as a solid foundation for a number of further projects, initiated in part by the municipality as well as by private investors and residents. a total of 47 subprojects with a combined total budget of 280 million euros have since been developed, the most importantof which include: the saln de pinos, avenida de portugal, huertade la partida, jardines de puente de segovia, jardines de Puentede Toledo, Jardines de la Virgen del Puerto and the Parque de laArganzuela. In addition to the various squares, boulevards and parks, a family of bridges were realized that improve connections betweenThe urban districts along the river. The First subprojects were realized inspring 2007. The realization of the whole project is planned for spring 2011. Roads were planned with park in the center, seating areas ,greenaries

Madrid is located approximately 350 kilometres (around 220 miles, around a 4-hour drive) from the nearest beach in the region of Valencia, but now the Madrid Urban beach is a reality!In January 2008, the Madrid Ro project (el Plan Especial Madrid-Ro) was unveiled by the Lord Mayor of Madrid, Alberto Ruz Gallardn. Due to the move underground of a large section of Madrid's inner ring-road, the M-30, 820 hectares along the Manzanares River have been converted into a long park, including anurban beach, rowing lanes on the river, walks, bicycle paths, kiosks, cafs and restaurants, terraces, cultural and sports facilities, areas for pensioners and children's play areas. All this just 1.5 kilometres from thePuerta del Solin the centre of Madrid.Walking the streets of Madrid one is constantly presented with the legacy of more than 1400 years of urban growth and adaptation of the Spanish capital. Public life in Madrid is largely played out in the incredible system of streets and plazas that are typically surrounded by cafes, restaurants and shops, overlooked by mid-rise apartment buildings. The plazas are a record of the history of Madrid with the central medieval centre of the city extending back more than a thousand years to the Moors. In contrast a series of large-scale formal parks adjoin the city centre, including the Retiro, Campo del Moro adjoining the Royal Palace and Casa de Campo the former royal hunting grounds. But now a third type of public space has been created in Madrid through completion of the Madrid Rio project. Transformation of a 10 km section of the Manzanares River has created 120 ha of new public open space and reestablished the cross-city links that had been severed by a 1970s motorway along the river corridor. Walking the full length of Madrid Rio provides some sense of the urban grandeur of this project but it is not until you drive through the 6kms of six-lane motorway reconstructed in a tunnel below the open space corridor that you get a true sense of its enormity. Commenced in 2004 and completed late 2011 the Madrid Rio had a purported budget of $5 billion, of which $4.5 billion was spent to bury the highway, making it the largest urban infrastructure project of its kind in recent European history. Besides the engineering feat of lowering the motorway below ground to create public open space above, the project reflects a particular cultural attitude to the social role of public space. Michael Kimmelman in his New York Times article (Dec. 26 2011) notes that the Madrid Rio project arises from a political culture which assumes that the public service is an end in itself. The Madrid Rio is a reminder of the social and political nature of large scale urban projects around the world.Seen by many as a symbol of New Spain the project was championed by Alberto Ruiz-Gallardon, former Mayor of Madrid and now Minister for Justice in the current conservative government. Madrid Rio has generated a great deal of controversy due to the amount of public money that was spent. Madrid-based Landscape Architect Eladio Hernando notes that the project absorbed so much public money it has significantly limited the availability of funding for other public domain project in the region. Important projects in the East side of the region have been abandoned or stopped. Many small public spaces remain abandoned and the maintenance budgets greatly reduced, including for historical parks and gardens.The MADRID RIO project is one of the biggest inner city park projects within the last years. The river Manzanares was formerly bordered at both sides by a multi-lane highway. It was not accessible for the public and hardly visible at all. Now the highway runs in tunnels and a 120 ha big area became free for a large public park that was planned in mainly two sections, the Salon de Pinos and the Arganzuela Park

The facts:

Number of playgrounds within the park: 15

Dimensions of playgrounds altogether about 7.000 m2

Costs for playground equipment approximately 600.000

Period of planning and building: 2006 - 2011

Madrid's beach is located close to the existing Arganzuela park, near the old slaughterhouse (Madrid Matadero), which is been converted into a cultural centre, with exhibitions, workshops and conferences. This area allows tourists and inhabitants alike to enjoy a seaside atmosphere with areas for sunbathing.

The impressive 10km-long park runs along the banks of the Manzanares River and offers a wide selection of sports and recreational facilities for the whole family. Seventeen play areas for children located throughout the park, with 65 different pieces of equipment. Imaginative equipment made of sustainable, natural materials, suitable for all ages. The most exciting ones are the slides hill, the tree trunk jungle and the super zip-line. Then there is Madrid's Urban Beach, formed by three oval-shaped water areas with different effects: a smooth stretch of water, jets of varying heights and a cloud of water vapour.The city of Madrid dug 43 kilometres of tunnels into which the exit routes and motorways of the six-kilometre section along the River Manzanares disappeared. West 8, working together with MRIO arquitectos, a joint venture of three Madrid based firms managed by Gins Garrido Colomero, designed the master plan for the reclaimed riverbanks and the new urban area. Development plans were then prepared for the individual components: Saln de Pinos, Avenida de Portugal, Huerta de la Partida, Jardines del Puente de Segovia, Jardines del Puente de Toledo, Jardines de la Virgen del Puerto and Arganzuela Park. The most important of which include: the Saln de Pinos, designed as a linear green space, which links the existing and newly designed urban spaces with each other along the Manzanares River. Saln de Pinos is located almost entirely on top of the motorway tunnel and features a"choreography" of 8.000-fold pine trees and a repertoire of cuts. Avenida de Portugal, by relocating one of the most important roads into the centre of Madrid underground and providing underground parking for 1,000 vehicles, it was possible to convert the space into a garden to benefit local residents. Embellished with Cherry trees and cherry motif, the result is the creation of an extremely popular public space. Huerta de la Partida, the old Royal Palace is now a modern interpretation of the original royal orchard and a wide variety of fruit trees in planted in groups to create an enclosed garden. For the Arganzuela Park, the dominant motive is the water. The canalized river Manzanares is surrounded by architectonical walls.The system of streams running through the park will cross through the topography and merge into the different spaces and motifs Puentes Cascara, serving as bridges and iconic landmarks, Puentes Cascara creates a place where the river is really experienced. Designed as a massive concrete dome with a rough texture, the bridges feature more than one hundred cables resembling whale baleens, which are fixed to the slim steel deck. The fine detailing becomes visible when entering the bridge. The ceilings are covered in a beautiful mosaic artwork done by Spanish artist Daniel Canogar. The first part of the project were completed in spring 2007 and in spring 2011 the entire project was completed. Arganzuela Park and the Salon de Pinos are connected by two slow traffic bridges, the Cascara Bridges.

A series of bridges over the river will allow passage from one side of the park to the other. Designed to link the neighborhoods on the right and left banks of the river, the Arganzuela Footbridge is the longest of all the built bridges.

The bridge is for both pedestrians and cyclists. The footbridge enables people to cross from one side of the park to the other while also providing direct access to the park below. Cone like in structure, the bridge has two interlocking metal spirals, wrapped by a metallic ribbon. Spaced wooden slats make up the floor of the bridge, allowing the rays of the sun to penetrate through to the park below.Over 270 meters long, the Arganzuela footbridge is located between the historic Toledo bridge and the Praga bridge which leads to the cultural centre of the capital. It links the Arganzuela and Carabanchel neighbourhoods .The Arganzuela Parc, which hides some of the buried highways technical infrastructures, has an irregular topography. Playing with that topography, the two cones join above the curve of a hill, and are offset to create a new entrance point to the park. The first cone to the south spans from the Avenida de Manzaranes, crosses over the river and then joins the top of the hill. Placed offset to the first cone, the second cone to the north passes over the other side of the park to reach the Paseo de YeseriasThis positioning creates a platform over the park and the surrounding city, and an exceptional vantage point from which to admire the famous Toledo Bridge.

Each cone rests upon two pillars laid at each end, giving the impression that the footbridge is floating in the air. Made in steel, the self supporting main structure has two interlocking metal spirals that cross diagonally.

A silver ribbon, made of metallic mesh, wraps this structure and protects the users from the sun and the bad weather. Sewn like a spiral, this ribbon creates a rhythmic and dynamic line to the Arganzuela Park.The metallic mesh, a favoured material of Perrault, transforms and changes the footbridge depending on the time of the day; alternating between filtering, reflective and opaque.4 .RESEARCH FINDINGWith cities and dense urban environments, the emergence of the urban park

at many scales has provided a place and opportunity for people to return to nature.

1) Recreation and Entertainment: Recreation opportunities include passive and active

program possibilities.

2) Health and Wellness: Landscape architecture and open space in urban environments

helps to create a balance to the increasingly sedentary lifestyle and workstyle of todays

working world. Open space, fresh air, places to move and exercise, and places for passive

and active recreation enhance physical wellness. In addition, they provide relief for the

increasing obesity epidemic and associated health problems.

3) Urban Agriculture: Human settlement used to have an inseparable relationship with

land and agricultural properties. However, such connection has been severed by modern

urbanization and industrial specialization development. Promoting urban agriculture in park

space reestablishes this deeply rooted relationship.

4) Beauty and Aesthetics: In human history, parks and open space have been sacred,

important, and meaningful. Parks the outdoors - have been places for gathering, social

activities, sight-seeing, and spiritual or ritual activity. Parks are the places where people enjoy the landscape as well as other cultural features and enlightenments.

Quality of Environment: Nature is the foundation for human beings survival. The processes of urbanization and industrialization, however,

threaten to sever the connection between humans and outdoor spaces. The balance of landscape and built environment together create

productive human environments. Integrating open spaces, networks, corridors, and public spaces help improve the vision of the city, the

quality of urban life, and the health of its residents. Furthermore, integrated landscape ecosystems cohesively in the design framework helps

to restore a natural setting and protect the environment.

1) Water Quality: Parks can improve and enhance existing water systems by increasing the capability of water management and water

quality rehabilitation. Water can also be improved through a series of functional processes including infiltration, renewal, collection and

detention, etc.

2) Air Quality: Plants and green spaces are important factors in air quality. Open space and green landscapes contribute towards the

removal of particles in the air, reduce the urban heat island effect, and increasing carbon absorption.

3) Urban Wildlife Habitat: Park environments provide space for ecosystems and habitats. Birds, as one example, thrive on large open spaces

and migratory birds and songbirds need dense, rich ecosystems to survive. Water systems and water habitats are critical for aquatic wildlife

as well as fisheries.

Urban parks and urban landscapes are critical for the human and environmental well beingin big cities. In designing great parks, the

following principals are of utmost importance:

1) Urban park development shall accommodate multiple scales and systems, ranging from small scale green space, to regional green

space system, to national park, and to natural reserve land systems.

2) Park designs shall emphasize the importance of connectivity and create networks that link park and green space at various scales in

order to establish a significant system.

3) Park designs should demonstrate the multi-functional nature of open space and their abilities to serve people and the environment. All

designs, at all scales, should be developed with an emphasis on efficiency and environmental quality Urban Parks are a precious natural

environment within our urban setting. Designing them well to accommodate both the life and development demands of the present while

also looking forward to the needs of our future generations and landscapes requires a comprehensive look at creating healthy ecosystems

and prosperous mega cities and how the two can co-exist in the 21st century.

Kevin Shanley5.CONCLUSION

Urbanization around the world is happening at unprecedented levels.

Urban Parks are a precious natural environment within our urban setting.

Designing them well to accommodate both the life and development demands

of the present ,needs of our future generations and landscapes requires a comprehensive look at creating healthy ecosystems and prosperous mega cities and the two can co-exist in the 21st century. The new and broader view of parks presented here has emerged through innovative programs and partnerships under way in a growing number of cities. This new view capitalizes on the tremendous value parks generate by providing open space and recreational opportunities. But it goes furtherit recognizes parks as vital contributors to the achievement of wider urban policy objectives, including job opportunities, youth development, public health, and community buildingall of which help strengthen the neighborhoods in which parks are located. For parks managers, this view reinforces the critical importance of gathering reliable information to help make wise resource choices based on what communities and their residents most want from parks and decide how best to deliver on those need