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Plants are a source of secondary metabolites which are used in the production

Text of Large Sale Cultivation of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture in Bioreactors

  • Large Sale Cultivation of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture in Bioreactors



    Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas Aynur Gurel

    Fazilet Vardar-Sukan

    Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey

    Transworld Research Network, T.C. 37/661 (2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023 Kerala, India

  • Published by Transworld Research Network 2010; Rights Reserved Transworld Research Network T.C., 37/661(2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023, Kerala, India Authors Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas Aynur Gurel Fazilet Vardar-Sukan Managing Editor S.G. Pandalai Publication Manager A. Gayathri Transworld Research Network assumes no responsibility for the opinions and statements advanced by the Authors ISBN: 978-81-7895-474-5

  • Preface Plants are a source of secondary metabolites which are used in the production of economically viable products such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, flavors, fragnances and pigments. Plant cell and tissue cultures can provide an alternative production system to traditional cultivation methods and chemical synthesis. The best candidates are those of high value, low volume product which cannot be produced by microbial processes and which are too complex for chemical synthesis to be a reasonable alternative. Bioreactors provide suitable environmental conditions for the production of commercially valuable plant metabolites as well as for micro propagation of plants, if they are designed and optimised to satisfiy the unique requirements of plant cell and tissue cultures and enable the development of feasible industrial processes. However, although considerable research efforts have been dedicated both from industry and academia, the industrial application of plant cell and tissue cultures have been limited and the full potential of these processes has yet to be realized. This book provides an overview of different types of bioreactors for various plant cell cultures such as plant cell suspension cultures, clonal propagation and organ cultures including shoots, hairy roots and somatic embryogenesis. The developments in large scale cultivation of plant cell and tissue cultures are critically outlined by presenting scale-up studies and state-of-the-art technologies, while focusing on different cell and tissue culture applications and bioreactors. Moreover, a structured set of information compiled in the form of a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis regarding the scale up of plant cell culture, organ culture and propagation has been presented to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses and point out areas for further research. The large scale application of plant cell and tissue culture processes in industry depends greatly on the economics of the processes. Collaboration of interdisciplinary teams is imperative to improve the state-of-the-art and to increase best practices in this field.

  • Authors Fazilet Vardar-Sukan is a chemical engineer graduated from Ege University, Izmir, Turkey in 1978. She has completed her Ph.D. degree in Biochemical engineering at University College London, Dept of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering in 1981. Upon her return to Turkey, she has obtained a position at Ege University, Dept of Chemical Engineering in 1982 subsequent to a short experience in industry. She was appointed as an Associate Professor in 1985 and acquired full professorship in 1991. In 2000 she has played a leading role in the establishment of the Department of Bioengineering, as the first of its kind Turkey. She is currently the Head of Department and is actively dealing with all administrative, managerial and human resources related issues. She has coordinated (10) or contributed as a partner to 9 international projects, funded by EU, NSF, NATO, British Council and 15 national research projects funded by Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TUBITAK), State Planning Institute, Ege University Research Fund. She has supervised 13 graduate theses leading to M.Sc. or Ph. D. degrees since 1990. She has acted as the National Biotechnology representative for IUPAC (1994-96), National Delegate to European Union FP6 Science and Society Theme (2002) and National Delegate to European Patent Office (2008). She is the author of 72 scientific papers and 67 presentations in the field of Biotechnology and Bioengineering and has over 150 citations. Her research interests are: Mass and momentum transfer and scale up in bioreactors, foaming and its control in bioprocesses, utilisation of Agro-industrial wastes for the production of high added value materials and Science and Technology Policies in developing countries.

    Aynur Gurel is an agricultural engineer with a Ph.D. degree in Field Crops from Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Izmir, Turkey (1989). Prof. Gurel has 25 years of teaching and research experience at Ege University and has over 85 publications on plant tissue culture, plant stress physiology and industrial plants. She had been the Vice-Director of Ege University Biotechnology Centre for two years. She is currently the Head of Science Branch of Plant Tissue Culture in Ege University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences since 2006, the Representative of Turkey in International Association of Plant Biotechnology (IAPB) since 2008, and also the Chairmanship of the Breeding and Biotechnology group in Inter-Regional Cooperative Research Network on Cotton since 2009. She has been Erasmus Coordinator of Bioengineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Ege University since 2001.

  • Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas is a chemical engineer from Ankara University, with an M.Sc from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden and a Ph.D. in biotechnology from Ege University in 2005. With international experience in Munich and Stockholm she has eight years of industrial experience in manufacturing excellence. She worked as an Industrial Relations Specialist at Ege University Science and Technology Center, focusing on commercialization of the projects carried out at the University, also worked at Innovation Relay Center-EGE, an EU funded project, creating awareness, assisting SMEs and assessing their technical capabilities by technical audits for the ultimate target of Transnational Technology Transfer between 2003 and 2007. She was appointed as an Ass. Prof. Dr. at the Bioengineering Department at Ege University in October 2007 and conducting research in the field of particle formation (micro- and nanoparticles) and downstream processes particularly in regards to supercritical fluid technology. Different plant materials, reusage of industrial and forestry wastes and developing value added products out of these wastes are among her current research activities.

  • Contents

    1. Introduction 1 2. Bioreactor considerations 5

    2.1. Production of secondary metabolites by plant cell suspension cultures 8 2.2. Production of secondary metabolites by organ cultures 9 2.2.1. Shoots 10 2.2.2. Hairy roots 10 2.2.3. Somatic embryogenesis 14 2.3. In vitro propagation 14 2.3.1. Propagation by shoot cultures 15 2.3.2. Propagation by hairy root cultures 17 2.3.3. Propagation by somatic embryogenesis 18 3. Scale-up 22

    3.1. Culture conditions and requirements 22 3.1.1. Cell morphology 23 3.1.2. Aeration and agitation 24 3.2. Mixing 25 3.2.1. Shear sensitivity 26 3.2.2. Effects of temperature and pH 27 4. SWOT analysis for scale-up 29

    4.1. Plant cell suspension culture 29 4.2. Organ cultures 34 4.3. Propagation 35

    5. State of the art for large scale cultivation 38

    6. Concluding remarks 42 7. References 44

  • Transworld Research Network 37/661 (2), Fort P.O. Trivandrum-695 023 Kerala, India

    Large Scale Cultivation of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture in Bioreactors, 2010: 1- 54 ISBN: 978-81-7895-474-5 Authors: Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas, Aynur Gurel and Fazilet Vardar-Sukan0

    Large scale cultivation of plant cell and tissue culture in bioreactors

    Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas, Aynur Gurel and Fazilet Vardar-Sukan

    Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey

    1. Introduction Bioactive compounds extracted from plants are widely used. The natural habitats for a large number of plants are rapidly destroyed leading to extinction of many valuable and even endemic species. Studies on the production of plant metabolites by callus and cell suspension cultures have been carried out on an increasing scale since the end of the 1950's. The prospect of using such culturing techniques is for obtaining secondary metabolites, such as active compounds for pharmaceuticalss and cosmetics, hormones, enzymes, proteins, antigens, food additives and natural pesticides from the harvest of the cultured cells or tissues. The large scale cultivation of tobacco and a variety of vegetable cells was examined from the late 1950's to early 1960's initiating more recent studies on the industrial application of plant cell culture techniquesin many countries. The first patent for the cultivation of plant tissue was received in 1956. Shortly afterwards, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) started to support research in the field of plant cell cultures for regenerative life support systems (Sajc et al., 2000). Correspondence/Reprint request: Dr. Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas, Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir, Turkey. E-mail: [email protected]

  • Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas et al. 2

    In paralel to these achievements, industri

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