LASTS LATE 1940’S- 1991 RIVALRY BETWEEN THE USSR & US Cold War

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  • LASTS LATE 1940S- 1991

    RIVALRY BETWEEN THE USSR & USCold War

  • Communism holds that the world is do deeply divided into opposing classes that war is inevitable. Democracy holds that free nations can settle differences justly and maintain lasting peace.

    President Harry S. TrumanInaugural AddressJanuary 20, 1949

  • Start of Cold war1917 Russian Revolution & communismNon-Aggression pactAmericans didnt trust the SovietsStalin upset about American efforts in WWIIDifferences on the fate of EuropeTruman & Stalinwww.sos.mo.gov/.../TrumanProject/close.asphttp://library.usu.edu/Specol/digitalexhibits/masaryk/images/stalin.jpg

  • United Nations 1945General Assembly & Security Council (15)5 permanent seatsWorked on solving international problems

  • Iron CurtainEastSoviets remainHold electionsCommunists ruling H, C, P, R, B, & AUpsets the WestGermanyDivided into 4 partsEast becomes communistSoviets want a weak Germany (reparations)Berlin also divided (lies in East Germany)http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/images/hi07003.gif

  • American PoliciesContainmentContain the Soviets & communismRemember the Munich Conference???Truman DoctrineCommunist uprising in Greece & Soviets want the Dardanelles from Turkey Truman asks Congress for $400 million to assist the free people of G & T against totalitarian regimes

  • A.P. ContinuedMarshall PlanEurope destroyedCommunism growing popular1947 George Marshall purposes planBillions of $ in aid over 4 year periodOffered to East & USSR but rejectedOutcome-By 1950s the West back on their feetEnd communist threatUS makes $$ off trade

  • Marshall Plan www.marshallfoundation.org/.../recovery.html

  • Berlin Airlift June 1948Soviets cut off access to Berlin Western powers in W. BerlinTruman didnt want to use force/violenceUS planes flew in supplies everyday (lasts 11 months)Sent 60 bombers to British basesStalin backs down**2 German states

  • NATOWarsaw PactMilitary alliance with US, Canada & Western EuropeMilitary alliance of the USSR & Eastern Europe http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=64876&rendTypeId=4http://www.axisglobe.com/Image/2005/11/15/warsawpactanim(1).gif

  • Arms RaceUSSR & US competing to develop more nuclear weapons USSR 1st bomb 1949H-BombAmerican PlansIncrease US defense spendingAlliances with non-communist nations Convince American public of this need **brinkmanshipFormation of CIA

  • Whats going on in Asia?JapanUnder control of the USMacArthur stays and helps write a constitutionLimited militaryPhilippines1946 independence Keep naval bases

  • AsiaChinaCivil war renewsNationalist (Chiang Kai-shek) v. communists (Mao Zedong)US supports Nationalists1949 communist nationNationalists move to Taiwan1950 Sino-Soviet PactUSSR & Stalinhttp://www.dictatorofthemonth.com/Mao/mao_main.jpg

  • KoreaFormer Japanese colonyDivided after warNorth (USSR) & South (US)Leave in 1949June 25, 1950NK invades the SouthUN calls special session to discuss invasionUSSR missingDecision- send UN force to defend South Korea (mostly US troops)Douglas MacArthurCongress never declared war- police actionhttp://www.askasia.org/students/images/68.jpg

  • Fighting in Korea1ST- NK troops very successfulMacArthur counterattacked and pushed N towards the NK/China borderBrings China into the warFighting stabilized around 38th parallelTruman/ MacArthur showdown Peace talks start around July 1951Armistice signed in 1953

  • Consequences-54K US deadContainment worked (Trumans thoughtsJustification for more military spendingSome see Truman as soft and an appeaser

    http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/05/c3/b1/korean-war-memorial.jpghttp://www.atpm.com/7.01/washington-dc/images/korean-war-memorial.jpg

  • Cold War at home (Red Scare)1947 Truman sets up Loyalty Review BoardFederal employeesThousands resign or lose jobsHUAC (Un-American Activities Committee)House of Reps.Searched for communistsHollywood 10Many refused to testify (contempt) & blacklisted

  • Espionage CasesFear of communists in US, GB, & CanadaMethods were questionable and violated rightsAlger HissIn the state dept. (helped at Yalta)Accused of giving secrets to a confessed communistsConvicted & sent to prisonEthel & Julius Rosenberg Found guilty of treason & executedPunishment too extreme?

  • Rise of Joseph McCarthy Senator (Rep.) from WisconsinAbout to run for reelectionStarted accusing govt officials of communismPlays on fearsNever gives any namesM. goes too farAccuses army

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/Images/page_23/70b.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/Images/page_23/70b.html&h=389&w=500&sz=73&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=vQFRskEAM_ufSM:&tbnh=101&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Djoseph%2Bmccarthy%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN

  • More USSR & US conflicts

  • Space RaceNew Soviet leader- Nikita Khrushchev1957 SpuntnikShocks US1958- We launch a satellite http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/st/~colinm/Stalingrad%20Pics/Khrushchev.jpghttp://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/spacecraft/russia/r7-sputnik.jpg

  • U2 incident CIA secret flights over USSRTake pictures of troops & missile sites U-2 Plane usedK & E discussed ending these flights, but one more takes place before K & E meetMay 1960Francis Gary Powers plane shot downSentenced to Soviet prisonK wants an apologyE. refuses but vows to ends flightsK calls off conference and withdrew invite to USSR

  • John F. Kennedy (D)Richard M. Nixon (REP.)Pros- Well-organized, $$, handsome & charismatic Supported Civil rights movt & MLK Cons- Young & Catholic Hoped to win off Eisenhowers pop.No stance on Civil rights 1960 Election http://bztv.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/03/26/john_f_kennedy1963.jpghttp://www.visitingdc.com/images/richard-nixon-picture.jpg

  • Trouble in Cuba1959 Fidel Castro in power Est. a communist govtTakes US & British refineries & breaks up Cuban farmsTakes Soviet aid10% of Cuban pop. Leave US Businessmen in Cuba concerned

    http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/geography_images/Fidel_Castro.jpg

  • Bay of Pigs Invasion CIAs training Cuban exiles to overthrow CastroHoping other Cubans will joinApril 1961 1300-1500 exiles land on Bay Some forces never come throughMeet 25K Cuban troops (with Soviet supplies)Embarrasses JFK & the USVideo

  • Cuban Missile CrisisKhrushchev & USSR promised to defend/help CubaSent weapons, including missilesUpsets USJFK warns CubaWell attack if the missiles are firedTroops readyStand off lasted for 6 daysUSSR finally agrees to remove them if US promises to leave Cuba alone

    http://media.cardplayer.com/image/c/Castro_Khrushchev-1.jpg

  • http://www.jfklibrary.org/jfkl/cmc/cmc_map_missile_range.jpg

  • Photos from US spy planeswww.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/14.jpg Soviet ships on the way to Cuba Audio Clips from US mtgs.

  • www.state.gov/.../7khruschev_kennedy1_600.jpg

  • Berlin Wall20% of East Germans left for the WestPress= upsets USSRKhrushchev's response:Close roads to W.B.Tries to push US out of BerlinBuilds a concrete wall b/w W & E Berlin (Aug. 1961)Worsens US/USSR tensions http://www.berlin101.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/berlin-wall3.jpg

  • http://www.destination360.com/europe/germany/berlin-wall-museum.phphttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.historywiz.com/images/coldwar/berlinwall2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.historywiz.com/berlinwall.htm&h=389&w=576&sz=51&hl=en&start=9&um=1&tbnid=VIYtyS3bpe7weM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dberlin%2Bwall%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us