Late Adulthood

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Late Adulthood. DEP 2004 Human Development Across the Lifespan Slides adapted from Arnett’s Human Development: A Cultural Approach, 1st Edition and Kail & Cavanaugh’s Human Development: A Life-Span View. Guiding Questions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Late Adulthood

  • DEP 2004 Human Development Across the Lifespan

    Slides adapted from Arnetts Human Development: A Cultural Approach, 1st Edition and Kail & Cavanaughs Human Development: A Life-Span View

  • How is the demographic composition of the older adult population changing?

    What common personal changes are associated with late adulthood?

    What factors are associated with successful coping?

    Guiding Questions

  • The Changing Demographic ofOlder Adults in the USAWomen outnumber men in all ethnic groups

    Older adult population is more diverse

    In 2008, slightly more than 50% of people over 65 had high school diplomas and 18% had college degreesBy 2030, 85% will have high school diplomas and 75% will have college degrees

  • The population of older adults in industrialized nations has been increasing rapidly in the 20th centuryIn the year 2030 the number of people over 65 will equal or outnumber the number in other age groups

    Increase in Older Adults

  • Global Aging PatternOld-Age Dependency Ratio (OADR)Number of persons aged 65 or older Number of persons aged 20-64Bottom number represent work force who pay into government

  • Global Aging PatternReasons for climbing OADRBirth rate peaked (represent workforce)Medical care increases longevitySome gender differences in life expectancy

  • Health PromotionHealthy lifestyle includes:Healthy dietlow fat and sugar, taking multivitaminsRegular exerciselowers risk of disease, increases muscle and bone massAerobic and strength training beneficialAvoid smoking and alcohol

  • Physical ChangesHair continues to gray and thinBones thin especially in womenAge spots developsun exposure hastens developmentHeight and weight declineTeeth yellowExercise and healthy diet can slow some appearance changes

  • Physical ChangesQuality of sleep declines with ageSleep less deeplyTime in light sleep increasesSleep Apnea common sleep problemCan be treated with CPAP devicePsychological issues can also impair sleepDepression, anxiety, and medical conditions

  • Sensory ChangesVisionReduced visual acuityCataractsMost common visual impairmentIncreased chance of Macular DegenerationIncreased chance of Glaucoma

  • Sensory ChangesHearingAcuity diminishes for high-pitched soundsMay develop tinnitusCan lead to social isolationTaste and smellDecline in taste and smell can make food less enjoyableDangerous smells not detected

  • Cognitive ChangesDeclines in Selective AttentionDivided AttentionSustained AttentionMemory effects includeWorking memory declineEpisodic and autobiographical memory declineSource memory decline

  • Health ProblemsCommon health issues are: arthritis osteoporosis, and hypertensionArthritisdisease of the jointsCartilage that cushions joints wear outWomen affected more than menManagement involves medication, inserting new joints and/or exercise

  • Health ProblemsOsteoporosisIncreased risk for broken bonesExercise and calcium-rich diet for treatmentHypertensionSecondary aging makes condition worsenDiet and medications are treatment options

  • DementiaAging increases risk of dementiaAlzheimers disease most commonLoss of memory for recent events including peopleincreased anxiety and aggressionTwo features includeAccumulation of plaquesNeurofibrillary tangles

  • Continuity theory - theory based on idea that people tend to cope with daily life in later adulthood by applying familiar strategies based on past experience to maintain and preserve both internal and external structuresInternal structures are related to ones identityExternal structures are related to ones environment

    3 degrees of continuityToo Little - feel life is too unpredictable (or too chaotic)Too Much - can create boredom or a rut of predictabilityOptimal - enough change to be a challenge and provide interest by not taxing ones resourcesContinuity Theory

  • Competencethe upper limit of a persons ability to function in five domains; physical health, sensory-perceptual skills, motor skills, cognitive skills, and ego strength

    Environmental pressthe physical, interpersonal, or social demands that environments put on people

    Competence Environmental Press Theory

  • Adaptation level - when press level is average for a particular level of competence

    Zone of maximum performance potential - when press level is slightly higher (than the persons competence level), tending to improve performance

    Zone of maximum comfort - when press level is slightly slower, facilitating a high quality of life

  • Proactivity - when people choose new behaviors to meet new desires or needs and exert control over their lives

    Docility - when people allow their situation to dictate the options they haveDealing with Change

  • Patterns of friendships in late life are similar to those in young adulthoodOlder adults have fewer relationships than younger adults

    Older couples are more likely to be similar in mental and physical health and show fewer gender differences in sources of pleasure

    Older couples usually have developed effective ways to avoid conflict

    Great-grandparenting is an enjoyable and important roleRelationships

  • Wisdom with age?General personal conditionsGeneral intelligence and cognitive abilityOpenness to new experiencesCuriositySpecific expertise conditionsStudying/reading in a new field of studyPracticing a skillTeaching or mentoring someone elseFacilitative life contextsGoing to schoolLeading a community organizationWisdom = expertise in the conduct and meaning of life

  • Leisure ActivitiesTime devoted to leisure activities, community activities, and religious involvementLeisure activitiesIncreased time to continue previous interestsIncreased travel if ableTime spent doing non-demanding activities

  • Religious InvolvementReligious involvementParticipation increasesPractices and beliefs increaseWomen more religious than men but men hold dominate positionsPromotes self esteem, life satisfaction, and overall happinessPromotes better physical health

  • EriksonsEgo integrity vs. despairIntegrity versus Despair - (Erikson) - the stage in later life in which people try to make sense of their livesInvolves a life reviewlooking back and reflectingIntegrity associated with acceptance and may lead to less depressionPhysical and cognitive problems may interfere with this processEgo Integrity