Latin America

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Latin America. Geography, History, and Culture. Stretches 2,500 miles from the US border to South America Mountains dominate Mexico’s Central Plain Between Mountains Makes up ½ of the country Most people live here. Isthmus of Central America Connects Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Latin America

  • Latin AmericaGeography, History, and Culture

  • The Physical Geography of Mexico and Central America Stretches 2,500 miles from the US border to South AmericaMountains dominateMexicos Central PlainBetween MountainsMakes up of the countryMost people live hereIsthmus of Central AmericaConnects Pacific Ocean and Caribbean SeaCoastal Plains NarrowVolcanic provides good soil for farming

  • Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico

    Copper Canyon (Mexico)

  • A comercial ship run through the Pedro Miguel Locks in the Pacific side.

  • The Physical Geography of the Caribbean Made up of two types of Islands Skeleton and underwater Mountains Underwater MountainsPeople make a living from farming because soil is so goodSkeleton IslandsSmallerCoral made up of skeletons of dead sea animalsCat Island, Bahamas

  • The Physical Geography of South America Many Types of LandformsAndes MountainsRun 1500 Miles along Western CoastRich soil for farmingVery steepRolling Highlands East Amazon River BasinHome to the Worlds largest rain forest = 1/3 of the continent Pampas SouthLarge plain that stretches through Argentina and Paraguay

  • Andes Mountains between Chile and Argentina

  • Pampas

  • The Rivers of South America Some of the longest and largest in the worldUsed for transportation when roads are not availableProvide fish and hydroelectric powerMouth of the Amazon River

  • The Rivers of South America - 2 Amazon Worlds 2nd Largest 7,000 milesCarries 20 % of the worlds river waterHas 1,000 tributariesDrains an area of more than 2 million sq miles Rio de la PlataFormed by the Parana, Paraguay, and Uruguay riversSeparates Argentina and Paraguay

  • Amazon River

  • Rio de la Plata

  • ClimateTropical WetHot humid, rainy weather all year roundRainforest will be in this areaTropical Wet and Dry Hot, rainy, but not all yearParts of Mexico, Brazil, and most of the CaribbeanHumid SubtropicalSimilar to Southern USCrops grow well herePatagonia Arid and coldSheep raised here

  • Natural ResourcesMexicotons of minerals silver, gold, copper, coal, iron oreLarge amounts of oil and natural gasTrees for lumber and paper products Central AmericaGood climate and soil for farmingCoffee, cotton, sugarcane, bananas, and cacao treesFish and shellfishHydroelectric power

    South America Oil found, esp. VenezuelaPlants and fishForests cover about of the continentRich soil coffee and other crops flourishCaribbeanRich soil and good climate for farmingSugarcane, bananas, coffee, cacao, and citrus fruits

  • Natural Resources and the EconomyNot all countries have a natural resourceSome countries dont have the money to develop their resourcesWeather can cause problems as it can affect the supplyPrices of resources can go downPlant disease can lower the amount of crop raised Oil Dependence can be risky as prices change, natural disasters can affect supply

  • Early Civilizations - MayansMayan Civilization and CultureIn Mexico and Central AmericaLasted from 300-900ADMost important crop was maizeBuilt great cities that were also religious centersCopan HondurasTikal Guatemala

    Science, Technology and ReligionHieroglyphics system of picture writingNumber system similar to present day decimal system Mayan PriestsStudy the planets and starsDesigned and accurate calendar

  • Mystery of the MayansAD 900, the Mayans left their citiesNo one knows whyTheir descendants are still living in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador Palenque Ruins

  • Relief from Palenque Jade Carving

  • AztecsArrived in the Valley of Mexico in the 1100sFound a permanent home in 1523 on an island in Lake Texacoco city called Tenochtitlan1400s Aztecs conquered other people and forced them to pay a tribute.Tribute = a tax Helped Aztecs grow richScience and TechnologyAztec Doctors made over 1000 medicines from plants Astronomers predicted eclipses and the movements of the planetsPriests kept records using Hieroglyphics

  • Aztec Calendar

  • The IncasAbout 1200, they settled in Cuzco In the Andes which is now PeruMost were farmers who grew maizeGot control of entire Cuzco Valley through warsValley stretched over 2,500 Miles AccomplishmentsCuzco center of government, trade, learning, and religionBuilt over 19,000 miles of roads with most over very steep mountainsIncreased crop production by building stone terraces into the slopes of the mountainsBuilt aqueducts

  • Machu-PicchuLost City of the Incas

  • European Exploration1400s Spain and Portugal searching for new trade routes to Asia1492 Columbus thought he had found India, instead he found the AmericasSpain and Portugal became rivals over land in the AmericasTreaty of TordesillasSigned in 1494 through urging of the popeLine of Demarcation of 50 Longitude Spain got land West of LinePortugal got land East of LineWhy Brazil is Portugals only colony in South America

  • Spain in the New WorldConquistadors and LandSpain would give them the right to hunt for treasure in these new landsThey would give Spain one fifth of what they foundThey could use ANY means to get their treasureOil Painting by Alfredo P. Alcala

  • Hernando Cortes 1519 went to Mexican Coast in search of treasureAztec thought the Spanish were godsMoctezuma emperorWelcomed SpanishPeace did not lastHe ended up being killedSpanish teamed up with an Aztec RivalAble to surround the cityAztecs surrended in 1521

  • Hernando Cortes

  • Francisco PizarroHeard the tales of the wealth of the Incas1531 set sail with 180 soldiersCaptured and killed emperor1535 conquered most of the empire including the capital

  • Spain Conquers the Empires of Latin AmericaOnly took 15 yearsHad guns, cannons, and horsesEuropean diseases wiped out villages

  • Spanish Colonization1540s Spain had land from Kansas down through South America except BrazilThree classes of peopleSpanishMestizosNative Americans Spain gave its settlers the right to demand taxes or labor from the Native AmericansMany died from overwork, malnutrition, and diseases - Population went from 25 million in 1519 down to 3 million in 50 years

  • Independence in Mexico Begin in 1810 Miguel Hidalgo a priest from Dolores begin planning a revolutionHis plan was found out by the Spanish, but he acted anywayHe called for the people to take back their land from the SpaniardsThe revolutionaries won some battles, but by 1811 were in full retreatHidalgo was captured and executed in 1811 for treasonSome kept fighting and in 1821, the Spanish were defeated and Mexican Independence was declared

  • Simn Bolvar One of the greatest Latin America revolutionary leadersOriginally joined fight for Venezuelan independence he would become the leaderBy 1822 had freed Gran Columbia (Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama) and became President

  • Jose de San MartinBegan helping with Argentinas independence in 1817Took his troops through the Andes in Chile and completely surprised the SpanishDeclared Chile independent and then turned attention to PeruIn July 1821, did another surprise attack (from the sea) and captured LimaMet up with Bolivar to discuss independence for the rest of the countries, but gave up his command Bolivar continued and by 1825 only Cuba and Puerto Rico still ruled by Spain

  • Jose de San Martin

  • Brazil and IndependenceEarly 1800s, France invaded Portugal and king fled to BrazilKing returned to Portugal in 1821 and left his son, Dom Pedro, in charge1822 Dom Pedro declared Brazil independentPortugal recognized independence 3 years later

  • Economic Issues 1900s foreign countries began investing in Latin AmericaForeign Companies ended up with a lot of economic power They would make moneyThe people of Latin America did not benefit from this

    To improve their economic situation, they began building their own factories1970s things were improving1980s the price of oil needed to run factories rose while the price of products droppedThey had to borrow money and now were in debt

  • Economic Issues - 2Now, Latin America countries do limit how much foreign countries can invest to avoid losing control of their economyThey also trade with one another to get items that they need cheaper