Latin American IndependenceA WH1 Presentationby Mr. Hess
HaitiFirst successful uprising in Latin America.France depended on its colony in Haiti for sugar and coffee.The vast majority of people in Haiti were slaves, originally from Africa.Most others were French.
Haiti, cont.In 1802, Francois Toussaint-Louverture started the uprising by setting fire to plantations and homes.He was imprisoned in France where he died the next year.
Haiti, cont.Haitian rebels, aided by an outbreak of yellow fever, then defeated the French troops.Haiti proclaimed its independence in 1804.
MexicoMiguel Hidalgo, a Catholic priest, saw independence from Spain as the only way to end slavery and improve conditions for the poor.In 1810, Hidalgo led a freedom march to Mexico City, resulting in armed conflict with the Spanish and creoles.He was captured and executed.
Mexico, cont.His successor, Jose Maria Morelos, called a conference in 1813 where independence was declared.He was executed in 1815 when the Spanish and creoles again opposed independence.
Mexico, cont.Battles continued until 1821, when creoles, who feared a constitutional government in Spain, successfully declared Mexico independent.Augustin de Iturbide declared himself emperor of Mexico.
Mexico, cont.Iturbide was overthrown in 1823, and a republic was set up.The Central American Provinces then declared independence from Spain, forming Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.
Spanish South America(Portuguese)
Spanish South AmericaSimon Bolivar, a creole from Venezuela, started a revolt in Caracas in 1810.Bolivars forces defeated the Spanish in 1819.
Spanish South America, cont.Bolivar won freedom for Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and Ecuador.Argentina, Chile and Peru were liberated by troops led by creoles Jose de San Martin and Bernardo OHiggins.
BrazilWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1808, the royal family fled to its colony in Brazil.King Joao VI then ruled over Portugals empire from Brazil, which flourished under his rule.
Brazil, cont.When Joao returned to Portugal, his son, Dom Pedro took over.When a new Portuguese government tried to reestablish control over Brazil, Pedro declared Brazil independent in 1822.Brazil became a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Pedro I.
AftermathIndependence for Latin America failed to solve many problems.Catholic domination and class struggle (between creoles and mestizos) remained problematic.Most governments became military dictatorships.