Latin American Independence A WH1 Presentation by Mr. Hess

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  • Latin American IndependenceA WH1 Presentationby Mr. Hess

  • Haiti

  • HaitiFirst successful uprising in Latin America.France depended on its colony in Haiti for sugar and coffee.The vast majority of people in Haiti were slaves, originally from Africa.Most others were French.

  • Haiti, cont.In 1802, Francois Toussaint-Louverture started the uprising by setting fire to plantations and homes.He was imprisoned in France where he died the next year.

  • Haiti, cont.Haitian rebels, aided by an outbreak of yellow fever, then defeated the French troops.Haiti proclaimed its independence in 1804.

  • Mexico

  • MexicoMiguel Hidalgo, a Catholic priest, saw independence from Spain as the only way to end slavery and improve conditions for the poor.In 1810, Hidalgo led a freedom march to Mexico City, resulting in armed conflict with the Spanish and creoles.He was captured and executed.

  • Mexico, cont.His successor, Jose Maria Morelos, called a conference in 1813 where independence was declared.He was executed in 1815 when the Spanish and creoles again opposed independence.

  • Mexico, cont.Battles continued until 1821, when creoles, who feared a constitutional government in Spain, successfully declared Mexico independent.Augustin de Iturbide declared himself emperor of Mexico.

  • Mexico, cont.Iturbide was overthrown in 1823, and a republic was set up.The Central American Provinces then declared independence from Spain, forming Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

  • Spanish South America(Portuguese)

  • Spanish South AmericaSimon Bolivar, a creole from Venezuela, started a revolt in Caracas in 1810.Bolivars forces defeated the Spanish in 1819.

  • Spanish South America, cont.Bolivar won freedom for Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and Ecuador.Argentina, Chile and Peru were liberated by troops led by creoles Jose de San Martin and Bernardo OHiggins.

  • Brazil

  • BrazilWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1808, the royal family fled to its colony in Brazil.King Joao VI then ruled over Portugals empire from Brazil, which flourished under his rule.

  • Brazil, cont.When Joao returned to Portugal, his son, Dom Pedro took over.When a new Portuguese government tried to reestablish control over Brazil, Pedro declared Brazil independent in 1822.Brazil became a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Pedro I.

  • AftermathIndependence for Latin America failed to solve many problems.Catholic domination and class struggle (between creoles and mestizos) remained problematic.Most governments became military dictatorships.