SOCIAL HIERARCHY P C M & M I & A Peninsulares: Native Spaniards Creoles: Whites of European background born in the New World Mestizos: Indian + European Mulattos: African + European or Amerindian Native Americans and Africans CAUSES
Factors 1. Enlightenment, French & American Revs Simon Bolivar admired USAs federal system of states + central government. Desired an independent South American state called Gran Columbia 2. Resentment of Mercantilist Economy
3. Social Inequality in the Colonies Creoles (20% of population) and Mestizos (25% of population) were resentful of peninsulares 4. Crisis Back in Spain 1808 Napoleon invaded Spain & Portugal; put his brother on the throne Creoles chose this moment of Spanish & Portuguese weakness attempted to get control of colonies Brazil transitioned to independence easily Spains colonies did not
III. South America
Simn Bolvar Began the revolution in 1810 Called The Liberator; Dreamed of a united Latin America Led the Revolution against Spain in northern S. America Columbia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador Called on ALL classes to unite (said hed free slaves) Managed to establish a united South America(Gran Colombia) Gran Columbia fell apart into different states
Jos de San Martn led the revolution in southern South America (Argentina) Crossed Andes to help Chile Met with fellow revolutionary, Bolivar, in Ecuador South American liberated from Spanish rule by 1825
The meeting of San Martn (right) and Simon Bolvar in Ecuador, on 26 July 1822, signaled the successful conclusion of the campaign to liberate South America from Spanish control.
Mexican Independence Began in 1810 Marked by violence & lack of cooperation between social classes Began when, Father Miguel Hidalgo (a priest) led a lower-class-based movement to take power Creoles & peninsulares feared his movement & used an army to stop it, executing Hidalgo in 1811 Another priest, Morelos, picked up the fight for social justice So in Mexico, there were THREE groups fighting (Spain, poor Mexicans, and upper-class Mexicans)
Jos Maria Morelos He demanded: Abolition of slavery Land reform (redistribution) that would give land owned by the upper classes to the peasants [We demand]A new government, by which all inhabitants, except peninsulares, would no longer be designated as Indians, Mulattoes, or castas [people of mixed race], but all would be known as Americans. In 1815, Morelos was also captured and executed by upper-class Mexicans The revolution then became Creole-led
Augustin de Iturbide Creole leader who eventually led Mexico to independence from Spain in 1820. Declared himself emperor with the help of the military. Ousted in favor of another general: Santa Anna
V. Common Issues for Latin American Revolutions
ECONOMIC: ONE-CROP ECONOMIES A monocrop economies continuedLatin America mainly exported cash crops (low value raw materials) while importing (high value) manufactured goods.
THE QUESTION OF LAND Landless peasants (mestizos & Amerindian) remained a huge problem Desire for land redistribution will remain EFFECTS
Power of the Catholic Church Catholic Church retained control of education & remained very wealthy
Caudillos Caudillo = often a military leader with huge personal popularity monocrop economy + illiteracy + lack of self govt experience = dictatorships run by military leaders
Slavery Slavery remained, BUT gradual emancipation took place In 1888, Brazil was the last state to abolish slavery. Most former slaves remained impoverished, just like other members of the lower class