Latin American Independence Movements

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Latin American Independence Movements. Latin American Independence - 19th century. French colonies: Revolution in Haiti (Saint Domingue). Toussaint LOuverture. (too-SAN loo-vair-TOOR) Former slave, self-educated. Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791 & was successful - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Latin American Independence Movements

  • Latin American Independence - 19th century

  • French colonies: Revolution in Haiti(Saint Domingue)

  • Toussaint LOuverture(too-SAN loo-vair-TOOR)Former slave, self-educated.Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791 & was successfulNapoleon tricked him with peace talks & sent him to a prison in the French Alps.He died 10 months later, April 1803.

  • Jean-Jacques DessalinesJan 1, 1804 - declared an independent country.Worlds 1st black republicHaiti = mountainous land in ArawakHaitis 1st emperorAssassinated in a revolt1820: Haiti became an independent republic

  • Spanish Colonies

    Revolutions against Spanish Rule

  • Latin American social classes

  • European Background: NapoleonNapoleon invaded Spain in 1808.Removed Spains King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (Napoleons brother) king of Spain.Spanish colonies use the illegitimate monarchy as a reason for revolution.1810 rebellion across Latin America.1814, Napoleon defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but independence movements continued.

  • Francisco Goya, Executions of May 3, 1808

  • MexicoNatives and mestizos, not creoles, played the key role in independence movementsCreoles sided with Spain to avoid violence of lower-class rebellions (until 1820)

  • Miguel Hidalgo

    el Grito de Dolores

  • Jose Maria MorelosTook leadership after Hidalgos defeatDefeated by creoles in 1815 & executed

  • Mexican Independence, 18211820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in powerMexican creoles feared loss of influence, so they united against SpainAugustin Iturbide declared himself emperor, but was overthrown1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic

  • Mexico's Congress writes a constitutionConservatives want a strong central government & Roman CatholicismLiberals want the states to have more control & freedom of religion Compromise in 1824Republic with a president and a two-house CongressGovernors and legislatures heading the statesGuadalupe Victoria, a follower of Hidalgo and Morelos, became the first president

  • United Provinces of Central AmericaEl Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras declare their independence from both Spain and Mexico to create the United Provinces of Central AmericaBy 1840, United Provinces of Central America had split into Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua & Costa Rica

  • Simon Bolivar

  • Jose de San Martin

  • Bernardo OHiggins

  • BolivarSan MartinSan Martin sailed for Europe and died in France 1850Dec 9, 1824, Bolivar defeated Spain at Battle of Ayacucho

  • Gran Colombia, 1820-1830

  • Portugals Pedro I

  • Results of Latin American Independence MovementsPolitical/Social:Continued battles between liberals, conservatives and the military over how to best rule.Tensions between articulate political forces and the separate masses.Economic:Unable to free itself from dependence on Western-controlled economic patterns.Cultural/intelligent:Distinct cultural entitycombination of Western styles and values plus its racial diversity, colonial past, and social structure of a semi-colonial economy.

  • Latin American Independence - 19th century

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