Latin American Independence Movements (Lesson 1)

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  • Latin AmericanIndependence Movements(Lesson 1)

  • Latin AmericanIndependence Movements

    Focus Questions to Consider:

    Which major Native American groups inhabited Mexico and South America?What happened to these groups when the Spanish conquistadors arrived?What was the encomienda system?Which cash crop dominated Latin America?How did social stratification affect South America?

  • Aztec and Incan civilizations thrived in America long before the arrival of Europeans

  • Spanish ConquistadorsHernando Cortez Enters Mexico where Aztecs have a thriving civilizationFrancisco Pizarro Enters Peru, where Incas have a thriving civilization

  • Encomienda System We need crops like sugar cane to be cultivated so that we can sell it and make money. We cannot do this without workers. Our great king has ordered that we do whatever necessary to get the natives to work. All who resist will be subjected to cruel punishments and even death.(Spanish conquistador, 1530)

  • Right to demand labor or tribute (payment) from Native Americans

    Brutal conditions/enslavement

    Disease, starvation and cruel treatment drastically decreased the population

    Encomienda System

  • Sugar Cane PlantationsCash Crops

  • How does the encomienda system help to explain the trend shown in this graph?

  • Explain the connection between these two charts.

  • Who do you think was at the top of the Social Structure of Spanish colonies?Native Americans and AfricansCreoles/Criollos People of European descent, but born in the coloniesMestizos Mix of Native American and European descentMulattoes Mix of African and European descentPeninsulares People born in Europe

  • Mestizos Mix of Native American and European descentMulattoes Mix of African and European descentSocial Structure of Spanish colonies

  • PeninsularesMestizosHow does this compare to the situation that existed in France throughout the 1700s?

  • How do you think people living in Latin American colonies reacted when they heard about Enlightenment ideas and the accomplishments of the American and French Revolutions?

  • CAUSESPROBLEMS OFTHE SPANISH EMPIRETHEENLIGHTENMENTTHEAMERICANREVOLUTIONTHE FRENCHREVOLUTION

  • the end

  • Latin AmericanIndependence Movements(Lesson 2)

  • CAUSESPROBLEMS OFTHE SPANISH EMPIRETHEENLIGHTENMENTTHEAMERICANREVOLUTIONTHE FRENCHREVOLUTION

  • Toussant LOuvertureWe are fighting so that liberty - the most precious of all earthly possessions may not perish1.

  • 1. Toussaint LOuverture

    places liberatedcolonial powerimportant factsyearHaitiFranceself-educated former slavefamiliar with Enlightenment ideasled guerilla war against French army1820

  • I will not rest until I have broken the chains that bind us to the will of SpainSimon Bolivar2.

  • 2. Simn Bolvar

    places liberatedcolonial powerimportant factsyearVenezuela EcuadorColombia PeruBolivia Spainthe Liberatoreducated in Europeled militarywanted one united country Gran Colombia1821

  • Jos de San Martin3.Of what my Granadiers are capable, only I know, who matches them there will be, who exceeds them there won't.De lo que mis granaderos son capaces, solo lo s yo, quien los iguale habr quien los exceda no.

  • 3. Jos de San Martn

    places liberatedcolonial powerimportant factsyearArgentina and Chile Spaineducatedmilitary training in Europejoined forces with Bolivar for some time1818,1821

  • = freed by Bolvar= freed by San Martin

  • Miguel HidalgoSiendo contra los clamores de la naturaleza vender a los hombres, quedan abolidas las leyes de ta esclavitud.4.

  • 4. Miguel Hidalgo

    places liberatedcolonial powerimportant factsyearMexico Spain"Father of the Countrybegan the fight for independence but was executedother revolutionary leaders finished the war1821

  • the end

    Granadiers are Argentine soldiers*in a struggle*