Latin American Independence - RigganClass | "There is ... ?· Latin American Colonies Spanish held power…

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  • Latin American Independence

    Inspired by Enlightenment,

    American and French Revolutions

  • Latin American Colonies

    Spanish held power in

    Caribbean islands

    Mexico

    Central America

    South America

    Very rigid European control;

    social classes determined by race (see diagram in notebook, p. 83)

  • First Upheavals

    Tupac Amarua mestizo who led a rebellion in Peru

    --unsuccessful; he was executed

    In Colombia, criollos/creoles also rebelled against Spanish unsuccessfully; leaders were executed

  • Haiti (French Colony)

    Vincent Ogwanted to apply Declaration of the Rights of Man to Haititortured to death

  • Haiti Colony produced great

    wealth for France with sugar plantations

    Toussaint LOuvertureformer slave, led a SUCCESSFUL slave rebellion

    Only successful slave rebellion ever

    Haiti gained independence by 1804

    LOuverture captured and died in prison

  • South America (1808-1824)

    Simn Blvarinspired by American and French Revolutions to fight for independence from Spain

    Fought and won independence for Gran Colombia (Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia)

  • (South America Contd)

    Jos de San Martnled fight for

    independence for Argentina;

    To remain free, also pushed Spanish out

    of Chile and Peru with Blvars help

  • Mexico Unrest in Spain because

    of Napoleons wars in Europe gave Mexicans a window of opportunity

    In 1810, Miguel Hidalgo (a priest)organized revolt of Indians and Mestizos against Spanish rule

    Revolt was unsuccessful and he was executed

  • Mexico (contd)

    Padre Jos Morelos, also a priest, took control of revolt with a trained army.

    He created a congress and wrote a declaration of rights.

    He was captured and killed.

  • Creoles (who held power) and church officials feared losing their position/power/ property

    In 1821, Agustn Iturbide took control and defeated Spanish

    Mexico became independent with the Treaty of Cordova. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor.

    At that time, Mexico included Central America.

  • Central America

    Formed the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823

    Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica

    Fell apart 1838-40 when Nicaragua tried to separate from the rest

  • Brazil (1822) Portuguese royal family fled to

    Brazil to escape Napoleons armies

    When they returned to Portugal, king intended for Brazil to return to colony status

    Pedro Ison of Portuguese kingdeclared independence for Brazil

    Bloodless revolution

    Pedro I became Emperor of Brazil

  • Latin American independence was inspired by the Enlightenment, American and French Revolutions

    Took about 25 years

    Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish control