Latin American Independence thinkers and leaders 19 th century

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Sor Juana Ins de la cruz

Latin American Independence thinkers and leaders 19th century

AndresbelloNEOCALSICISM & ROMANTICISM2Andrs Bello(1781-1865)The most versatile of all Latin American humanists during this period is the Venezuelan polymath. A great thinker who published major prose works in the humanities, law, philosophy, education, and philology.His most well known work is the Castilian Grammar Intended for the Use by Americans (1847).

In addition, however, he was an accomplished poet in the vein that bridged the modes of Neoclassicism and Romanticism.

3

Latin American Independence1803 1898 The first quarter of the 19th century was spent becoming independent from each region's original European masters.During this period the humanities continue to exist and to be produced; however, it is dramatically overshadowed by the monumental figures of the independence leaders themselves.4Liberators

Jos de San Martn (1778-1850)Simn Bolvar (1743-1804)Fray Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811)Jos Mara Morelos (1765-1815)Jos Mart (1853-1898).The most prominent figures are

5Jos de san martn

6Jos de San MartnArgentinian Liberator of Southern Cone of South America1778 -1850 September 18, 1810 Buenos Aires May 14, 1811 Paraguay 1816 Brazil attacked Uruguay, and they captured Montevideo.February 12, 1818 Chile.July 28, 1821 Peru.1822 San Martn went to Guayaquil, Ecuador, to meet with Simn Bolvar. 7SIMn BOLVAR

1783 - 1830.Followed social and political doctrines of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract. Fusion of the governments of both England (monarchy) and the USA (federal republic). 1815-16 Went to Haiti to asked the free Haitian leader, Alexandre Petion, for support.

SIMN BOLvarVenezuelan Liberator of Northern South America9SIMN BOLvarhis thoughtsLatin America (L.A.) lacks a "political attitude";(L.A.) has a heritage of neglect and ill treatment from Spain.(L.A.) are "passive.(L.A.) has been governed by incompetent subordinates.Democracy and republics are not appropriate for (L.A.)(L.A.) does not need a monarchy, but it does need paternalistic governments.Many small republics would suit (L.A.) better than the idea of manifest destiny, which was guiding the United States.Mexico should lead all of (L.A.) , and should model an ideal for all of Latin America; but this result would not be possible throughout Latin America due to the obstacles of geography and climate differences. SIMN BOLvarVenezuelan Liberator of Northern South America1821 Gran Colombia (Venezuela, Colombia Panam- and Ecuador)1822 Bolvar meets with Jos de San Martn in Guayaquil (Ecuador).*August 11, 1825 Bolivia (Upper Per).1828 Proclaimed himself dictator. It all ended in 1830.

11PADRE MIGUEL HIDALGO

Padre (father) HidalgoFray Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811).Internal exile in his home town of Dolores. On September 16, 1810 (Mexican Independence Day) he made his famous "Grito de Dolores" (independence proclamation of Dolores).Father Hidalgo led an army composed of 50,000 native soldiers*. 1811, he was captured by the Spanish army and executed.*Mexico became a republic in 1824.13Jos mara morelos

Jos mara morelosHero of Mexican Independence1765 - 1815. He led the second phase of the Mexican War of Independence.Like Miguel Hidalgo, was a Catholic priest.Leads the second, third, and fourth independence campaigns until his death.Morelos is considered the major hero of Mexico's independence campaigns.

Jos martJos martFather of modernismo He is one of the great Latin American modernistas.Born in 18951877 Moved to Guatemala, and he wrote the play Patria y Libertad: a drama indio (Country and Liberty: an Indian Play).1878 He returned to Cuba, where he signed the Pacto de Zanjn at the end of the failed Cuban Ten Yearss War of independence against Spain.1880 He worked in New York City as the leader of the Cuban Revolutionary Party.1881 He moved to Venezuela.Travelled to France, England, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, and the United States; throughout his travels he worked as a translator, teacher, and journalist.

17Jos martPublications & speechs1891 Published his famous article Nuestra Amrica / Our America in La Revista Ilustrada (New York), in which he spelled out the modernista ideal of pride in Latin America as a place distinct. 1891 In Tampa, Florida, he gave two patriotic speeches at the Cuban-American Club Ignacio Agramonte in Ibor City, Tampa, Florida, and Herman Norman painted one of the famous portraits of Mart.1892 Founded Patria, a Cuban journal of letters and politics.Latin American Romanticismcharacteristics

A focus on the individual. A dedication to personal and political liberty and freedom. Passion in terms of emotions and the expression of individuality that may include suffering.Appreciation for and treatment of new subject matters in art and ideas that include extremes such as the sublime or the ideal on the one hand and the ugly or grotesque on the other hand.19Latin American Romanticismcharacteristics

5. Lyricism in music and poetry including melodramatic personal styles and melodrama in the theater or drama.6. Foregrounding of sensitivity (la sensibilidad; lo sensible) to nature, the poor and the sick, etc.7. Discovery or inclusion in the humanities of what traditional Latin American society, which had been dominated by culture from France, Spain, and Portugal, had been seen as exotic (i.e., coming from Asia, Oceania, or the Middle East, etc.).20

Gertrudis gomz de avellaneda(Cuba 1814-1873)Gertrudis gomz de avellanedaFeministSab, (1841)According to the cannon: This novel can be compared to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) in that both novels are literary protests against the practice of slavery. However, in Sab, the writer draws a parallel between the subjugation of the slave and the second-class status of women. She writes: Como los esclavos, ellas arrastran pacientemente su cadena y bajan la cabeza bajo el yugo de las leyes humanas. (Like slaves, women patiently drag their chains and lower their heads under the yoke of human laws.)Sab was banned in Cuba.22Gertrudis gomz de avellanedaFeministDos Mujeres, (Two Women) (1842)Her second novel was the equally controversial because it challenges the benefits of marriage.Deals with great topics of the 19th century: arranged marriages, adultery, infidelity, female education, womens roles in patriarchal societies. (Mara de los Angeles Ayala)

23Dos Mujeres, (Two Women) (1842)Examined women's roles in religion, history, government, and the intellectual sphere. Avellaneda was denied membership in the Royal Spanish Academy because of her gender, but she enjoyed enough success to earn a living from her writing. She was a popular figure in Cuba and Spain, and both countries claim her as part of their national literary heritage.

24Jos Mart (Cuba)1875 IsmaelilloBeginning of modernismoRubn Daro (Nicaragua)1888 Azul1916 (end of modernismo)Modernismo (2)

Jos mart: PUBLICATIONS AND SPEECHES:1882 Ismaelillo, modernista poetry. 1889 "Mother America Washington, D.C.

1891 Versos sencillos, modernista poetry.

1891 Article Nuestra Amrica / Our America in La Revista Ilustrada (New York).

1891 Gave two patriotic speeches in Ibor City, Tampa1892 Founded Patria.PUBLICATIONS AND SPEECHES:1882 Published Ismaelillo, modernista poetry. 1889 He delivered a major speech, "Mother America in Washington, D.C. 1891 Published Versos sencillos, modernista poetry.1891 Published his famous article Nuestra Amrica / Our America in La Revista Ilustrada (New York), in which he spelled out the modernista ideal of pride in Latin America as a place distinct. 1891 In Tampa, Florida, he gave two patriotic speeches at the Cuban-American Club Ignacio Agramonte in Ibor City, Tampa, Florida, and Herman Norman painted one of the famous portraits of Mart.1892 Founded Patria, a Cuban journal of letters and politics.

26Rubn daroend of modernismo

27He was illegitimate and that his heritage includes white, black, and indigenous forebears. In1888, his first major publication, Azul, which contains both prose and poetry.From this time onward he worked as a diplomat and journalist.He was a prolific, creative, innovative, and protean poet from Nicaragua. Dies in 1916.

Rubn daro(1867-1916)He is so significant a humanist that, traditionally speaking, his death in 1916 sets a kind of end mark for the entire movement. The year 1916 is a handy way to mark a transition to a rapid succession of changes in style and content in the humanities of Latin America that continues throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century.

28AZUL (1888) Carries no moral purpose, describe no feats of heroism, and do not use any clichd Spanish themes. The stories adopt a new worldly-wise tone, often suggesting Paris.Evokes an erotic, sensual mood; creates vivid, ethereal images, and describes the artist and the unappreciated role of art in a bourgeois society. Describes nymphs, fairies, and other characters that become symbolic or mythic.Unlike conventional Spanish literature to this date, carries no moral purpose, describe no feats of heroism, and do not use any clichd Spanish themes. The stories adopt a new worldly-wise tone, often suggesting Paris or some other place of mystery or intrigue. His work evokes an erotic, sensual mood, creates vivid, ethereal images, and describes the artist and the unappreciated role of art in a bourgeois society.Describes nymphs, fairies, and other characters that become symbolic or mythic.

29Modernism (1875-1916)Modernism appeared at a time when traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, and many other social organizations were being made obsolete by the new economic, political, and social ideals of an emerging industrial world. Humans