Latin American Peoples Win Independence Warm-Up Activity: During the colonial period, most people had few rights or opportunities. Have you ever felt that way? Describe your feelings?
Divisions in Spanish Colonial Society
Independence for Haiti Slaves in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) revolted because: Enslaved Africans outnumbered their masters White master used brutal methods to terrorize them and keep them powerless
Haitis Independence Toussaint LOuverture led Africans in a revolt against the French that ended slavery and resulted in the new nation of Haiti. Toussaint was leader of revolution but imprisoned by the French General Dessalines took over the rebellion and declared the colony an independent country First black colony to free itself from European control
South American Wars of Independence Events in Europe lead to revolution in the Spanish colonies: Motivated by Enlightenment ideals, creoles finally revolted against Spanish colonial rule when Napoleon made his brother, who was not Spanish, king of Spain.
Creole Generals: Bolivar & San Martin Bolivar declared Venezuelas independence from Spain in 1811 Used surprise tactics to defeat the Spanish in Bogota, Colombia. San Martins Argentina declared its independence in 1816 With the help of Bernando OHiggins, drove the Spanish out of Chile
Creole Generals: Bolivar & San Martin San Martin and Bolivar met in Ecuador in 1822 devise plan to drive Spanish forces out of Lima, Peru. San Martin left his army for Bolivar to command This unified revolutionary force Under Bolivar, Peru won its independence Spanish colonies in Latin America won their freedom!
End of Spanish Rule in Mexico Creoles led revolutionary movements in most Latin American countries Mexico Indians and mestizos played the leading role
The Cry of Dolores 1810 Miguel Hidalgo, priest who believed in Enlightenment ideals, took first step toward independence in Mexico The Cry of Dolores Miguel Hidalgo called upon peasants to rebel against Spanish rule.
Mexicos Independence Indians and mestizos began the revolution; later, creoles, fearing the loss of privileges under a new liberal regime in Spain, supported independence. Hidalgo was defeated in 1811 Rebels rallied around Jose Maria Morelos who led the revolution for four years. 1815 Creole officer, Augustin de Iturbide defeated him 1821 Augustin de Iturbide proclaimed independence!
Central America Central America was part of viceroyalty of New Spain Declared independence from both Spain and Mexico United provinces of Central America
Brazil Independence occurred without violent upheavals King John of Portugal in charge then his son, Dom Pedro Creoles of Brazil demanded independence from Portugal 8,000 signed a petition asking Dom Pedro to grant independence 1822 Dom Pedro declared Brazils independence.
Europe Faces Revolutions How can people make their opinions heard?
Review Congress of Vienna What did it do? Restored the balance of power in Europe Restored Europes monarchs to their thrones Successful because it lasted for 40 years and influenced world politics for the next 100 years. Long term legacy foreign control led to calls for revolution. Nationalism spread in Italy, Germany, Greece, and other areas the Congress had put under foreign control Result Nationalistic feelings exploded into REVOLUTIONS!!!!
Schools of Political Thought Conservatives Property owners and nobility who wanted to maintain the traditional monarchies of Europe. Liberals Middle class business leaders and merchants who wanted Parliaments in which educated voters and landowners could vote Radicals Wanted dramatic change in order to give power to the people as a whole
Nationalism Develops Nationalism loyalty to ones nation Belief that peoples greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire Nation-State nation with its own independent government Defended the nations territory and way of life, represented the nation to the rest of the world.
Revolutions How did the success of the French Revolution impact Europe? Fueled nationalist movements and revolutions throughout Europe
Greeks Gain Independence Greeks demanded independence from Ottoman Turks A combined British, French, and Russian fleet defeated the Ottomans and Greece gained its independence!
Nationalists Uprisings Nationalist groups in Budapest, Prague, and Vienna demanded independence and self- government. Resulted in the forced resignation of Metternich, triggered liberal uprisings throughout German states, but revolutionaries failure to unite led to the return of conservatism.
Radicals Change France King Charles X of France tries to set up an absolute monarchy in France. Led to riots that forced him to flee to Britain and led to the replacement by Louis-Philippe, a supporter of liberal reforms.
Radicals Change France Paris mobs overthrow monarchy of Louis- Philippe and establish a republic Republican government set up, but factions turn to violence, resulting in bloody battles
France accepts a strong Ruler Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (nephew of Napoleon) is elected president of France and later assumes the title of Emperor Napoleon III. Under this strong ruler, prosperity, peace and stability are restored.
Reforms in Russia In the Crimean War, Czar Nicholas I threatens to take over part of the Ottoman Empire Russia is defeated by combined forces of France, Great Britain, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire Alexander II, begins to modernize Russia
Alexander II Alexander II issues the Edict of Emancipation Serfs were legally free but remained tied to the land through debts
Nationalism Nationalism is the basis of world politics today and has often caused conflicts and wars.
Breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Austrian Empire defeated by Prussia in Austro- Prussian War. To satisfy nationalist spirit, Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria split his empire in half, declaring Austria and Hungary independent states, with himself as the ruler of both Austro- Hungarian Empire 40 years later, after WWI, Austro-Hungarian Empire split into several separate nation-states.
Breakup of the Russian Empire 370 year old empire of the czars in Russia Policy of Russification forcing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire Nationalist feeling of non-Russian peoples, fueled by the policy of Russification, weakened the empire, which fell as a of World War I and the communist revolution Last Romanov czar - 1917
Breakdown of the Ottoman Empire Conservative Turks, angered by the Ottoman policy of granting equal citizenship to nationalist groups, caused tensions that eventually broke up the empire.
Unification of Italy
Camillo di Cavour How did Cavour help unify Italy? Prime Minister of Sardinian king, worked to expand Sardinian empire; through war, alliances, and help of nationalist rebels, succeeded; in the process, unified Italy Led unification process
Giuseppe Garibaldi How did Garibaldi help unify Italy? Captured Sicily and united the southern areas of Italy he conquered with kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
King Victor Emmanuel How did Emmanuel help unify Italy? Pulled together northern and southern regions of Italy and took over the Papal states unifying Italy
Realpolitik How did the policy of realpolitik lead to German unification? The politics of reality tough power politics with no room for idealism. This policy of tough politics allowed Bismarck to expand Prussia and achieve dominance over Germany
Seven Weeks War How did the Seven Weeks War lead to German Unification? The victory over Austria Prussia control over northern Germany.
Franco-Prussian War How did the Franco-Prussian War lead to German unification? Victory over France motivated southern Germany to accept Prussian leadership.