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LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS. The Spaniards attack the Aztecs. The Spaniards capture the Inca King. SOCIAL HIERARCHY. Peninsulares: Native Spaniards. Creoles: People of pure European blood But born in the New World. Mulattos: African + European blood. Mestizos: Indian + European - PowerPoint PPT Presentation




The Spaniards attack the Aztecs

The Spaniards capture the Inca King

SOCIAL HIERARCHYPCMI & APeninsulares:Native SpaniardsCreoles:People of pureEuropean bloodBut born in theNew WorldMestizos: Indian +European bloodMulattos:African +European bloodIndians and Africans


MThe Haitian Revolution: 1791-1804

Modern Map of Haiti

Situation by 1789

Events in Europe would shape the history of AmericaThe French Revolution began in 1789 & overthrown the monarchy by 1793.Haitians were inspired by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man, and hoped they too would gain freedom. Blacks were especially hopeful.Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804Haiti is the jewel of the French Empire due to its coffee & sugar production; coffee produced by slave laborPre-rev. Haiti had a distinct, stratified social hierarchyWhat is unique about Haitis revolution is that it was a massive slave revolt, & slaves ran the country after they wonExtreme brutality between white French & slaves, thousands massacred during warToussaint Louverture

I was born a slave, but nature gave me the soulof a free man.Born a slave, but educated early in lifeFreed around 1776George Washington of HaitiOwned a small plantation with slaves by 1791Devout CatholicExtremely able general who turned common slaves into effective fighting forceNamed himself governor for life in 1801, proclaimed Catholicism as official religion of HaitiAftermath1st Independent Nation in L. America1st post-colonial black-led nation in the world1st successful slave rebellionEconomy in ruinsClass structure (though different, less strict) still in placeVenezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia: All freed by Simon BolivarThe "Bolivian" RevolutionsSimon BolivarBorn in Caracas to wealthy familyFriend & mentor Don Simon taught Bolivar about the Enlightenment, liberty, & freedomEntered military academy in Panama at age of 14Greatly admired American & French Revolutions, and George Washington & Thomas JeffersonVery anti-slavery, but nervous about mixed-race peopleDid not believe U.S.-style government would work well in Latin AmericaNo children, only wife died of yellow fever

The Napoleonic Wars (again!)Spanish Americans formed juntas to rule in the absence of the true kingJunta: Spanish word meaning councilThe juntas led to confusion and struggles for power between competing juntasRoyalists and liberals fought for control of the juntasBy 1815 (end of P. War), Spanish America divided between royalists and pro-independence forcesThe Mask of Ferdinand: did Spanish Americans invoke Ferdinand VIIs name only to achieve their goals?Bolivars Military CampaignsBolivar returns to Venezuela in 1807, given a command by the junta in 1813As the Peninsular War drew to a close, Spain began focusing on their American empire againBolivar fought against royalists and forces that did not recognize authority of the United Provinces

First Campaign

After political & military disputes in 1815, Bolivar fled to Jamaica & HaitiReturned in 1816, defeated royalists and proclaimed independence of Gran Columbia on Sept 7, 1821Gran Columbia = modern day Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, & northern PeruBolivar named 1st president of Gran ColumbiaBattle of Ayacucho in 1824: Bolivars forces captured last Spanish viceroy; considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independenceAftermathBolivar dreamed of uniting South America into one nation (like the United States)This never happened due to competing interests among the new statesNot wanting Gran Columbia to start breaking apart, Bolivar took measures to strengthen central power; named lifetime president then dictator in 1828Bolivars moves angered liberals, who tried to assassinate the leader in the same yearSlightly disillusioned, Bolivar resigned in April 1830 to move to Europe; died in September before he could set sail