Text of LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS: MENU CAUSES of the Revolution LEADERS of the Revolution EFFECTS of the...
LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS: MENU CAUSES of the Revolution LEADERS of the Revolution EFFECTS of the Revolution
CAUSES of Latin American Revolutions PROBLEMS OF THE SPANISH EMPIRE THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT * Government is based on a contract between the ruler and the ruled. Before the Age of Enlightenment, kings were placed on the throne by God. Only God can remove them. * Government exists to protect the citizens natural rights of life, liberty, & property. * If the government violates the natural rights of the people, the citizens have a right to revolt against that tyranny. CAUSES * However, after the age of Enlightenment, people realized that:
Part I PROBLEMS IN THE SPANISH EMPIRE Part I * Political Disempowerment (deprived of influence or importance) : Those directives were carried out by the viceroys, officials appointed by Spain to govern the colonies. Spanish colonies were run by the Council of the Indies, a group appointed by the King that met in Spain and sent its directives across the Atlantic. (Directives are orders or demands of the Colonists in the Americas).
Part II PROBLEMS IN THE SPANISH EMPIRE Part II * Economic Disempowerment: Spain had the first right to colonial goods and resources. Excluding all competitors, economic policy was set for Spains maximum benefit. Spanish Colonies in the Americas Spain So, these are the poor colonists in the Americas! Whats it to me?
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION * The success of the American Revolution showed others that colonies could succeed in overthrowing their more powerful mother countries. CAUSES
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION * The people of France grow disgusted with treatment from King Louis and Marie Antoinette * The people storm the palaces and overthrow the monarchy (king and queen). * The Enlightenment leads many European writers to criticize the absolute monarchy and espouse democratic ideas MENU CAUSES
There was an influence of the ideas developed during the Age of Enlightenment The successful revolutions in the American colonies and the French Revolution Spain demanded control of trade with its colonies
SOCIAL PYRAMID Latin American Social Hierarchy P C M & M I & A Peninsulares Native Spaniards Creoles People of pure European blood But born in the New World Mestizos: Indian + European blood Mulattos African + European blood Indians and Africans CAUSES
LEADERS BOLIVARBOLIVAR HIDALGOHIDALGO MORELOSMORELOS SANMARTINSANMARTIN Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico Dom Pedro of Brazil Toussaint LOuverture of Haiti Simon Bolivar, liberator of Southwest South America
Toussaint LOuverture *Haitian slave who was inspired by French Revolution *Joined French after the revolutionary government abolished slavery MENU LEADERS *He began military career as leader of 1791 slave rebellion in St. Dominque. * Haiti became first of Latin American colonies to gain independence in 1804
MIGUEL HIDALGO * Highly educated Creole priest assigned to town of Dolores. * September 16, 1810: El Grito de Dolores. Hidalgo rang church bells and called upon his mestizo and indigenous parishioners to take up arms against the Spanish. * Led a rag-tag army toward Mexico City, unleashing mass slaughter of peninsulares in path. * Never made it to the capital. Instead, he was captured and shot in 1811. His work was completed by Jose Morelos. LEADERS
Dom Pedro * In early 1800s, French armies invaded Portugal * Portugals royal family fled to Brazil *The king returned to Portugal in 1821, leaving his son, Dom Pedro to rule the colony (Brazil). *Dom Pedro took more power than expected by declaring Brazil independent LEADERS *Brazil and Canada to the north were two examples of non- violent revolutions
SIMON BOLIVAR * He was called the George Washington of South America. * He liberated territories of modern day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia * His plan for a federated Latin America was crushed by political in-fighting. * He was an elite Creole planter who became a military general LEADERS
EFFECTS of Latin American Revolutions ECONOMIC POLITICALINTERNATIONAL
POLITICAL Effects: THE CAUDILLOS * By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos. * The upper classes supported dictatorship because it kept the lower classes out of power. * The lower classes did not have experience with democracy. So, dictatorship seemed normal. WHY? EFFECTS
INTERNATIONAL Effects: THE MONROE DOCTRINE The American continentsare henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. - James Monroe, 1823
WHY was the Monroe Doctrine Important? * The War of 1812 with Britain had shown the U.S. that some- times revolutionary victories could lead to sequels. * The U.S. had political and economic interests in keeping Europe out of the Western hemisphere. From 1823 on, it would be the U.S. backyard. * Though the U.S. did not have the muscle to back up its threats, Great Britain agreed to support the Monroe Doctrine due to its new favorable trading position in Latin America. EFFECTS * After the War of 1812 with England, America realized the first war for freedom may not be the only one. They wanted to prevent possible follow up wars for other new nations in the Western Hemisphere.
ECONOMIC Effects of the Revolutions: ONE-CROP ECONOMIES * Now that trade was not restricted to the Latin Americans mother country, the U.S. and Great Britain became the new Latin American countries major trading partners. * A colonial economy continued - Latin America mainly exported cash crops and raw materials while importing manufactured goods.
AN IMBALANCE OF TRADE * As the imbalance of trade grew, Latin American countries took out large loans from the U.S., Britain, and Germany to build infrastructure. * When the countries could not pay back their loans, foreign lenders gained control of major industries in Latin America.
THE QUESTION OF LAND * Thus, the creole replaced the peninsular at the top of the social pyramid * Once the Spaniards were expelled, the new governments seized their lands and put them up for sale, BUT NO! EFFECTS DID THE SOCIAL PYRAMID CHANGE? * Only the creoles could afford to buy them. * But other classes remained at the bottom of the social pyramid.
Latin American countries were able to trade as they wished. Sold cash crops and imported manufactured goods which led to debt. Dictatorship of the Caudillos Unequal trade relationship with Spain benefiting King and council decided on laws and viceroys carried them out Native Spaniards at the top of the social ladder, followed by creoles, and with the rest of the population at the bottom Creoles at the top of the ladder with the rest of the population at the bottom.