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Lean Manufacturing - An Overview Dr. Richard A. Wysk [email protected] Fall 2008 [email protected]

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Text of Lean Manufacturing - An Overview Dr. Richard A. Wysk [email protected] Fall 2008 [email protected]

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  • Lean Manufacturing - An Overview Dr. Richard A. Wysk [email protected] http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim Fall 2008 [email protected]
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  • Broad Agenda Overview of Lean Manufacturing Lean according to R. Wysk Set-up reduction and rapid response production systems Changing in order to change more quickly Case Study Lean at home in the kitchen Some models and discussions Learning/forgetting 6 sigma in rapid response systems
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  • Agenda Review brief history of manufacturing systems Distinguish between mass, craft and lean manufacturing Introduce key Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Review the kinds of changes needed to be considered a lean manufacturer.
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  • Readings Chapter 18 of Computer Aided Manufacturing, Wang, H.P., Chang, T.C. and Wysk, R. A., 4 th Edition (2008 expected) http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim/ie550/ie550lean.pdf
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  • Objectives To identify waste elements in a system To apply value stream analysis to a complex engineering/manufacturing system To implement 3 Ms in a complex engineering environment To be able to identify and implement the 5Ss of lean
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  • Craft Manufacturing Late 1800s Car built on blocks in the barn as workers walked around the car. Built by craftsmen with pride Components hand-crafted, hand-fitted Good quality Very expensive Few produced
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  • Mass Manufacturing Assembly line - Henry Ford 1920s Low skilled labor, simplistic jobs, no pride in work Interchangeable parts Lower quality Affordably priced for the average family Billions produced - identical
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  • Lean Manufacturing Cells or flexible assembly lines Broader jobs, highly skilled workers, proud of product Interchangeable parts, even more variety Excellent quality mandatory Costs being decreased through process improvements. Global markets and competition.
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  • Definition of Lean Half the hours of human effort in the factory Half the defects in the finished product One-third the hours of engineering effort Half the factory space for the same output A tenth or less of in-process inventories Source: The Machine that Changed the World Womack, Jones, Roos 1990 Materials LaborEquipment Energy Methods Products
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  • Lean Manufacturing uis a manufacturing philosophy which shortens the time line between the customer order and the product shipment by eliminating waste. Customer Order Waste Product Shipment Time Customer Order Product Shipment Time (Shorter) Business as Usual Waste Lean Manufacturing
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  • 11 The Nature of Lean Mfg What Lean Mfg is not JIT Kanban Six sigma Characteristics Fundamental change Resources Continuous improvement Defined A system which exists for the production of goods or services, without wasting resources.
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  • Introduction In 1926 Henry Ford wrote To standardize a method is to choose out of the many methods the best one, and use it. Standardization means nothing unless it means standardizing upward. Todays standardization, instead of being a barricade against improvement, is the necessary foundation on which tomorrows improvement will be based. If you think of standardization as the best that you know today, but which is to be improved tomorrow - you get somewhere. But if you think of standards as confining, then progress stops.
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  • Kaizen vs Reengineering Creating an useable and meaningful standard is key to the success of any enterprise. Businesses usually utilize two different kinds of improvements. Those that suppose a revolution in the way of working. Those that suppose smaller benefits with less investment. Kaizen Final situation Initial situation time Reengineering productivity
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  • Kaizen vs Reengineering The evolution consists of continuous improvements being made in both the product and process. A rapid and radical change (kaikaku) process is sometimes used as a precursor to kaizen activities. Carried out by the utilization of process reengineering or a major product redesign. Require large investments and are based on process automation. In the U.S., these radical activities are frequently called kaizen blitzes.
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  • Kaizen vs Reengineering If the process is constantly being improved (continuous line), the innovation effort required to make a major change can be reduced (discontinuous line in the left). Otherwise, the process of reengineering can become very expensive (discontinuous line in the right). Kaizen Final situation Initial situation time Reengineering productivity
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  • What makes a manufacturing system lean? the 3 Ms of lean muda waste mura - inconsistency muri - unreasonableness
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  • What makes a manufacturing system Lean?
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  • 18 Definitions Systems Recognition Efficiencies Waste Muda 7 types Truly lean
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  • Waste Anything that adds Cost to the product without adding Value Anything that adds Cost to the product without adding Value
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  • 20 7 Types of Muda Excess (or early) production Delays Transportation (to/from processes) Inventory Inspection Defects or correction Process inefficiencies and other non-value added movement (within processes)
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  • 7 Forms of Waste Types of Waste CORRECTION WAITING PROCESSING MOTION INVENTORY CONVEYANCE OVERPRODUCTION Repair or Rework Any wasted motion to pick up parts or stack parts. Also wasted walking Wasted effort to transport materials, parts, or finished goods into or out of storage, or between processes. Producing more than is needed before it is needed Maintaining excess inventory of raw matls, parts in process, or finished goods. Doing more work than is necessary Any non-work time waiting for tools, supplies, parts, etc..
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  • Lets use lean for something we know about cooking for a party
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  • Excess /Over-production As applied to fast food preparation ________________
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  • Waiting/Delays __________
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  • Transportation/Movement _________
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  • Layout efficiency
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  • Inventory _________
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  • Inspection __________________ ______________
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  • Corrections and defects ____________
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  • Processing inefficiencies __________________
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  • Processing inefficiencies Automatics vs. manual
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  • Over-Processing inefficiencies Two people doing some thing that one could do Workplace layout Congestion Labeling Automatics vs. manual
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  • Over-Processing inefficiencies Material waste
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  • Manufacturing inefficiencies Processes (value added) Inefficient process selection Inefficient process operation Too much direct labor Delays Schedules Blocking Congestion Quality Any defects Rework Set-up Setting up a machine instead of running it Accumulation of tooling and other processing needs
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  • Machining example CNC versus manual Tool changer Pallet changer/bar feeder
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  • How do CAD/CAM systems work? Developing NC code requires an understanding of: 1.Part geometry 2.Tooling 3.Process plans 4.Tolerances 5.Fixturing Most CAD/CAM systems provide access to: 1.Part geometry 2.Tooling
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  • Instructions can be generated for a generic NC machine A set of tool paths and positions can be automatically generated These paths can be edited and modified These paths and instructions can then be posted to a specific machine
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  • The Design Process : Then and Now Before CADAfter CAD
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  • Exercise (3-5 minutes) Discuss how CAD/CAM helps in Lean Manufacturing? Elaborate on any one aspect. What advantages does CAD/CAM approach offer in NC Programming?
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  • CAD/CAM Support AutoCAD Pro Engineer Solidworks MasterCAM
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  • What do I need to begin MasterCAM? Part geometry Draw or import Tooling Library or create Process plans Fixtures Define orientation and location
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  • Who wants what... Customer Low Cost High Quality Availability Your Company Profit Repeat Business Growth Cash !! $ Value !!
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  • 43 Elements of Lean Manufacturing Waste reduction Continuous flow Customer pull 50, 25, 25 (80,10,10) Percent gains
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  • 44 Benefits of Lean Manufacturing 50 - 80% Waste reduction WIP Inventory Space Personnel Product lead times Travel Quality, costs, delivery
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  • 45 Setting the Foundation Evaluating your organization Management culture Manufacturing culture Lean Manufacturing Analysis Value stream (from customer prospective) Headcount WIP Inventory Capacity, new business, supply chain
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  • 46 Tools of Lean Mfg/Production Waste reduction Full involvement, training, learning Cellular mfg Flexible mfg Kaikaku (radical change) Kaizen (continuous improvement) & st

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