Lecture 2 Avoiding Plagiarism in Academic Writing.ppt

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    Academic Honesty:

    Avoiding Plagiarism inAcademic Writing

    Westminster International University in Tashkent

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    A plagiarism case

    in show business

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    Outline

    What is plagiarism?

    Students reasons for plagiarising

    Ways of avoiding plagiarism

    Common knowledge or intellectual

    property? Referencing in academic writing

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    What is plagiarism?

    comes from Latin word plagiariusanabductor, and plagiare,to steal (HNN,2008 )

    someones ideas, thoughts or findings areused or presented without anyreferencing and acknowledgment.

    violates the rights of an author whoseideas, thoughts or findings were usedwithout giving any credit for his work.

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    Why do studentsplagiarise?

    1. They are afraid of failing.2. They think that their own ideas are not as

    good as those of others.

    3. They have no confidence in their ownwriting ability in English.4. They are not familiar with the techniques

    of referencing.

    5. They cannot manage their timeeffectively.

    6. They think there is nothing unethicalabout it.

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    How to avoid plagiarising?You need to develop your own

    research skills

    writing skills

    personal skills

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    Research skills

    thinking about the question/topic andusing your own ideas and experience

    managing the information you collectfrom sources

    developing an effective note-takingsystem

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    Writing skills planning

    drafting and redrafting

    referencing

    quoting

    paraphrasing

    summarising

    editing

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    Personal skills time management

    talking to teachers

    asking for help

    acting on feedback

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    Plagiarism - are you at risk?

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    Successful paraphrasing

    paraphrasing is used instead of a direct

    quotation

    in a paraphrase, the meaning is the sameas in the original text but the words are

    different

    a reference to a paraphrase must beprovided

    Practical activities on avoiding

    plagiarism

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    An example of paraphrasing

    Original Source Material

    Technology has significantly transformed educationat several major turning points in our history. In the

    broadest sense, the first technology was theprimitive modes of communication used byprehistoric people before the development ofspoken language. Mime, gestures, grunts, and drawingof figures in the sand with a stick were methodsused to communicate -- yes, even to educate.

    Taken from: Frick, T., (1991). Restructuring Education Through Technology.Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

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    A paraphrase

    According to Frick (1991),one of the

    earliest technologies was non-verbalsigns that our prehistoric ancestorsused before spoken language

    emerged.

    d l

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    Avoiding plagiarism

    Successful quoting

    should be properly incorporated in

    academic research

    a correct reference is provided

    has an appropriate length

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    Examples of direct

    quotes:The domestication of dogs long

    predated the domestication of other

    animals.(Sheldrake, 1999, p.5).

    Sheldrake (1999) asserts that thedomestication of dogs long predatedthat of other animals. (p.5).

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    Common knowledge or

    intellectual property?

    Material is normally considered common

    knowledge if its something most peoplealready know or could easily be found ina general reference source (Tensen,n.d. cited in SCC, 2008)

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    Examples of common

    knowledge Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan.

    World War 1 began in 1914.

    Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911.

    A cow has four stomachs.

    Uzbekistan became independent in 1991.

    (Adapted from Tensen, n.d. cited in SCC, 2008)

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    Referencing in academic

    writing shows that you have done some

    research on a topic

    acknowledges someones ideas andwork

    helps to refer to works or findings ofother scholars

    Adapted from Hania Salter-Dvorak, 2008

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    What do you need to includein a bibliography?

    Printed books Author/editors surname and initials.,

    (Year of publication).

    Title of book: including subtitles.

    (in italics or underlined)

    Edition. (if applicable)

    Place of publication: (followed by a colon) Name of publisher.

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    E-journal article accessed via websiteon the open Internet

    Authors surname, initials., (Year of print publication). Title of article. Name of journal. (in italics or underlined) Date of print publication (if applicable, e.g.

    May/June) Volume number (in bold) Page numbers. (or online equivalent) [online] Available from:

    [Accessed (enter date you viewed the article)].

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    BibliographyCopyright, (2007). Extreme Gall. [online] Available from:

    http://benedict.com/Audio/Vanilla/Vanilla.aspx[Accessed 3 May 2008].

    History News Network (HNN), (2008). The American Historical Associations(AHA)Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct. [online] GeorgeMason University. Available from: [Accessed1 May 2008].

    Martin, B., (2004). Plagiarism: policy against cheating or policy for learning?

    [online] University of Wollongong. Available from: [Accessed1May2008].

    Salter-Dvorak, H., (2008). What is Successful Academic Writing? EAP lecturedelivered on 25th April 2008

    Seminole Community College (SCC),(2008). Avoid plagiarism through practice,Available from: [Accessed28th April 2008].

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