LECTURE 4 LATE ADULTHOOD 1. OUTLINE 1) Issues of Late Adulthood Development 2) Developmental Task 2

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1OUTLINEIssues of Late Adulthood DevelopmentDevelopmental Task

2ISSUES OF LATE ADULTHOOD DEVELOPMENTEriksons Theory the stage he propose for late adulthood is ego integrity vs despairThe older must think back over her life and try to come terms with who she has been and who she now isButler proposed that in old age, all of us go through a process he called a life reviewSeveral studies show that a process of structured of reminiscence may increase the life satisfaction or self esteem of older adults.3DEPENDENCEMain issue to overcomeDependence in terms of: financial physical emotional

4FINANCIAL DEPENDENCESaving for futureMost of older people dont have insuranceIncome sources : children, pension, investment, rent, business, work & etc. Financial protection is needed

5PHYSICAL DEPENDENCEDecreased physical ability loss of ability to live alone loss of energy loss of control over daily routine possible inability to do favorite things Older people need attention especially from family members. Social welfare program for older people6


8EMOTIONAL DEPENDENPCEOlder people need love and social interactionFeel lonely because of death event and community involvement decrease can disturb mental illnessFriendship network decrease and only have interaction with adult children.


10DEVELOPMENT TASKStaying physically healthy and adjusting to limitationsPlanning finances to ensure adequate means of supportLearning and adjusting to revised work rolesLearning to use leisure time pleasurablyFinding companionship and friendsEstablishing new roles in the familyAchieving integrity through acceptance of ones life


The task of staying healthy becomes more difficult as people ageThis is one of the important challenges of late adulthoodIt involves good habits and preventive medicine getting regular medical and dental checkupsMany of illness in later years develop into chronic problems because of neglect not because of agingOlder adults should also attend to their physical appearancePhysical health depends partially on mental attitude


Financial planning should be implemented early and this requires careful long-term planningGood planning will help older people have financial independence The disable who depend on others need to investigate what resources might be able from children or other relatives, pension, public old assistance programs ect.Many adults have to consider revising their life style to cut down on expenses 13LEARNING AND ADJUSTING TO REVISED WORK ROLESOrdinarily, government or non-government workers are retired at this stage and do an adjustmentThey have to consider a major change in work roles & learn new types of workRetirement for them means retraining, changing jobs or going into business for themselves.Retirement offers the opportunity to do their own activities. 14LEARNING TO USE LEISURE TIME PLEASURABLY

As work decline, more leisure time is available for preferred pursuitsPleasure is the feeling of being pleased and happy; it is gladness and joyMany of older adults have not learned to enjoy themselves because of they are the work generation. 15FINDING COMPANIONSHIP AND FRIENDSLoneliness is one of the most frequent complaints of older peopleTheir challenge is to find meaningful relationships with othersRequire joining formal organizations or groups in the community or extending oneself to others to cultivate friendsInvolves personal initiative in contacting others, extending invitations or making phone calls. 16ESTABLISHING NEW ROLES IN THE FAMILYSeveral events bring about the adjustment of family rolesChildren marrying & moving awayGrandparenthoodRetirementThe death of spouseBecoming dependence on ones childrenAll of these circumstances require major adjustment and realignment of family roles and responsibilities17ACHIEVING INTEGRITY THROUGH ACCEPTANCE OF ONES LIFE

Erikson (1959) says that the development of ego integrity is the chief psychosocial task of the final stage of lifeThis includes life review, being able to accept the facts of ones life without regret, being able to face death without great fearIt entails appreciating ones own individuality, accomplishments, and satisfactions as well as accepting the hardship, failures and disappointment