LECTURE SEVENCause and Effect
III. Types of Writing
Cause and Effect Essay Analysis Writing Practice
Cause and EffectA cause-effect essay explains why or how some event happened, and what resulted from the event, that is, the cause and/or effect of something.This essay is a study of the relationship between two or more events or experiences. The essay could discuss both causes and effects, or it could simply address one or the other.Two questions should be answered in a causal analysis: 1. What is the cause of something that has happened? 2. What effect will follow if something has happened?
A Cause EssayA cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened. A cause essay begins with an introduction which briefly describes the effect, and then the entire body analyses the causes, each of which is generally discussed in one paragraph. Cause 1EffectCause 3Cause 2 Introduction (Effect, including thesis) Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3, 4, 5 Conclusion
An Effect EssayAn effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance. A cause essay begins with an introduction which briefly describes the cause, and then the entire body analyses the effects, each of which is generally discussed in one paragraph.CauseEffect 1Effect 2Effect 3Introduction (cause, including thesis) Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3, 4, 5... Conclusion
Logical RequirementsDo not over-simplify causes;Beware especially of making a mistake in logic known as the fallacy of after this therefore because of this; Distinguish between direct and indirect causes and effects and between major and minor causes and effects;Do not omit links in a chain of causes and effects;Be objective and support the analysis with solid, factual evidence.
Essay analysis: Stresses of being a celebrity
Does the opening attract the readers interest? How?Which sentence is the thesis statement of the essay? A woman signing herself Wants the Truth in Westport wrote to Ann Landers with a question she just had to have answered. Please find out for sure, she begged the columnist, whether or not Oprah Winfrey has had a face-life. Fortunately for Ms. Winfreys privacy, Ann Landers refused to answer the question. But the incident was disturbing. How awful it would be to be a celebrity, always in the public eye. Celebrities lead very stressful lives, for no matter how glamorous or powerful they are, they have too little privacy, too much pressure, and no safety.
Essay analysisWhat is the topic sentence of the paragraph?What details are used to support the topic sentence?
For one thing, celebrities dont have the privacy an ordinary person has. The most personal details of their lives are splashed all over the front pages of the National Enquirer and the Globe so that bored supermarket shoppers can read about Leonardo DiCaprios Awful Secret or The Heartbreak Behind Winona Ryders Smile. Even a celebritys family is hauled into the spotlight. A teenage sons arrest for pot possessions or a wifes drinking problem becomes the subject of glaring headlines. Photographers hound celebrities at their homes, in restaurants, and on the street, hoping to get a picture of Halle Berry in curlers or Jim Carrey guzzling a beer. When celebrities try to do the things that normal people do, like eat out or attend a football game, they run the risk of being interrupted by thoughtless autograph hounds or mobbed by aggressive fans.
Essay analysisWhich sentence functions as a linking sentence between paragraphs?What are details used to support the idea? After which sentence in this paragraph are more specific details needed?What transition words or phrases are included in this paragraph? In addition to the loss of privacy, celebrities must cope with the constant pressure of having to look great and act right. Their physical appearance is always under observation. Famous women, especially, suffer from the spotlight, drawing remarks like She really looks old or Boy, has she put on weight. Unflattering pictures of celebrities are photographers prizes to be sold to the highest bidder; this increases the pressure on celebrities to look good at all times. Famous people are also under pressure to act calm and collected under any circumstances. Because they are constantly observed, they have no freedom to blow off team or to do something just a little crazy.
Essay analysisWhat is the topic sentence of this paragraph?What details are used to support the idea?What methods are used in this paragraph to support the idea? Most important, celebrities must deal with the stress of being in constant danger. The friendly grabs, hugs, and kisses of enthusiastic fans can quickly turn into uncontrolled assaults on a celebritys hair, clothes, and car. Most people agree that photographers bear some responsibility for the death of one of the leading celebrities of the 1990s ----Princess Diana. Whether or not their pursuit cause the crash that took her life, its clear she was chased as aggressively as any escaped convict by bloodhounds. And celebrity can even lead to deliberately lethal attacks. The attempt to kill Ronald Reagon and the murder of John Lennon came about because two unbalanced people became obsessed with these world-famous figures. Famous people must live with the fact that they are always fair game ---- and never out of season.
Essay analysisWhat method does the author use to conclude the essay?Some people dream of starring roles, their name in lights, and their picture on the cover of People magazine. But the cost is far too high. A famous person gives up private life, feels pressured to look and act certain ways all the time, and is never completely safe. An ordinary, calm life is far safer and sane than a life of fame.
Outline Celebrities lead a stressful life. 1. loss of privacy a. details on the magazine b. trouble on families c. annoying photographs 2. look great and act right a. physical appearance b. calm behaviour 3. constant danger a. uncontrolled assault caused by fans etc b. vulnerability to lethal attacks
Writing Practice You are required to write a comparison/contrast essay of about 200 words on the topic: Credit Cards or Paying CashYou are required to write a cause-effect essay of about 200 words on the topic: Computer Addiction
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