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Office of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for Religious Communities Bureau du Gouvernement de la Rpublique de Slovnie des communauts religieuses

LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM LES ASPECTS JURIDIQUES DE LA LIBERT CONFESSIONNELLE

International Conference, 1518 September 2008 Confrence internationale, du 15 au 18 septembre 2008

Office of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for Religious Communities Bureau du Gouvernement de la Rpublique de Slovnie des communauts religieuses

LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM LES ASPECTS JURIDIQUES DE LA LIBERT CONFESSIONNELLE

International Conference, 1518 September 2008 Confrence internationale, du 15 au 18 septembre 2008

Ljubljana 2008

CIP - Kataloni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjinica, Ljubljana 342.731(063)(082) LEGAL aspects of religious freedom : international conference, September 15 and 18, 2008 = Les aspects juridiques de la libert confessionnelle : confrence international, 15-18 Septembre 2008 / [uredila Drago epar, Bla Ivanc]. Ljubljana : Office of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for Religious Communities = Bureau du Gouvernement de la Rpublique de Slovnie des communauts religieuses, 2008 ISBN 978-961-92439-1-6 1. Vzp. stv. nasl. 2. epar, Drago, 1946240847616

Izdal Urad Vlade Republike Slovenije za verske skupnosti Uredila dr. Drago epar, dr. Bla Ivanc Grafino oblikovanje Urad Vlade Republike Slovenije za verske skupnosti Tiskarna Birografika Bori d.o.o. Naklada 200 izvodov Ljubljana, 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. II.

PREFACE PRFACE OPENING LECTURE CONFRENCE D'OUVERTURE Legal Aspects of Religious Freedom, Gerhard Robbers

9 10

11

III.

CONSTITUTIONAL JURISPRUDENCE IN THE AREA OF FREEDOM OF RELIGION AND BELIEFS LA JURISPRUDENCE CONSTITUTIONNELLE EN MATIRE DE LIBERT DE RELIGION ET DE CROYANCE 25

1. BELGIUM The Case Law of the Belgian Constitutional Court, Jan Theunis 2. BULGARIA La jurisprudence constitutionnelle en Rpublique de Bulgarie dans le domaine de la libert de culte et des communauts religieuses, Snejana Nacheva 3. CYPRUS Legal Aspects of Religious Freedoms, Myron Nicolatos 4. CZECH REPUBLIC Constitutional Guarantees of Freedom of Faith and Positions of Churches in the Czech Republic, Vclav Mezick 5. FINLAND Status of Religious Communities, Matti Kotiranta 6. FRANCE La jurisprudence constitutionnelle en matire de libert de religion et de croyance, Pierre Joxe 7. GERMANY Constitutional Jurisprudence in the Area of Freedom of Religion and Beliefs, Elke Luise Barnstedt 8. HUNGARY The Hungarian Constitutional Court's Rulings on Freedom of Religion, Pter Paczolay

41 51

52 63

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9. IRELAND Constitutional Jurisprudence in the Area of Freedom of Relgion and Beliefs, Flannan Brennan 10. LATVIA Freedom of Religion in the Decisions of the Constitutional Court of Latvia, Anita Kovaevska 11. LITHUANIA Legal Aspects of Religious Freedom, Ramut Rukyt 12. POLAND Legal Status of the Religious Communities in Poland, Marian Grzybowski 13. PORTUGAL La jurisprudence constitutionnelle en matiere de liberte de religion et de croyance, Antnio Duarte Silva and Jos de Sousa Brito 14. ROMANIA Constitutional Jurisprudence in the Area of Freedom of Religion and Beliefs, Valentina Brbeanu and Doina Suliman 15. SLOVENIA The Protection of Data and Data on the Demography of Religious Affiliation, Miroslav Mozeti 16. SLOVENIA The Case Law of the Slovenian Constitutional Court in the Area of Freedom of Religion and Beliefs, Bla Ivanc 17. SWEDEN Constitutional Jurisprudence in the Area of Freedom of Religion and Beliefs, Lars Friedner

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147 149

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IV.

ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL MATTERS IN THE AREA OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES QUESTIONS ADMINISTRATIVES ET FINANCIRES DANS LE DOMAINE DE LA LIBERT DE RELIGION ET DES COMMUNAUTS RELIGIEUSES

1. AUSTRIA Religious Freedom and the Concept of Law and Religion in Austria, Richard Potz 2. BELGIUM Administrative and Financial Matters The Situation in Belgium, Marc Tysebaert 3. BULGARIA Legal Framework of the Relation Between the State and Religious Denominations in Bulgaria Today, Ivan Zhelev Dimitrov 4. CZECH REPUBLIC Religious Freedom and State in the Czech Republic, Jakub K 5. ESTONIA Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Ringo Ringvee 6. FINLAND Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Matti Kotiranta 7. FRANCE Questions administratives et financieres dans le domaine de la liberte de religion et des communautes religieuses, Pierre Joxe 8. GERMANY Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Bernd Kster 9. HUNGARY Facts about the Relationship of State and Church in Hungary, Andrs Csepregi

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10. ITALY Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Maura Curcio 11. LATVIA Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities in Latvia, Jekaterina Macuka 12. LITHUANIA Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities: Case of Lithuania, Donatas Glodenis 13. POLAND Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Mariusz Radajewski 14. PORTUGAL Portugal Towards Religious Freedom, Eduardo Andr Folque da Costa Ferreira 15. SLOVAK REPUBLIC Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Jn Juran 16. SLOVENIA Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Drago epar 17. SPAIN State-Religion Relations in Spain: Legal and Constitutional Framework, Juan Ferreiro 18. SWEDEN Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Lars Friedner 19. UNITED KINGDOM Administrative and Financial Matters in the Area of Religious Freedom and Religious Communities, Amanda van Eck Duymaer van Twist

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476

V.

APPENDIX ANNEXE Topics of the Conference Legal Aspects of Religious Freedom Thmes de la confrence Les aspects juridiques de la libert confessionnelle" 499 506

I. PREFACEThis publication contains the proceedings of the international conference "Legal Aspects of Religious Freedom", which was organised by the Office of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for Religious Communities and the Commission of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for Solving Open Issues of Religious Communities between 15 and 18 September 2008 at Brdo Ljubljana, Republic of Slovenia. The proceedings volume reflects the structure of the conference, focused on two main topics: 1. Constitutional jurisprudence in the area of freedom of religion and beliefs and 2. Administrative and financial matters in the area of religious freedom and religious communities. The organisers' intention was, primarily, to review developments in constitutional jurisprudence in the area of freedom of religion and beliefs that have come about in European Union Member States since 1999 and, secondly, to collect information on the legislation adopted in these countries since 1990, their plans and the most recent data on churches and religious communities. Special attention has been placed on the legal dimensions of the dialogue between the European Union and churches and religious communities, as well as of interreligious dialogue. Most written reports were prepared by representatives of constitutional courts and governments of European Union Member States in their final edited form. The organisers wish to express special thanks to Professor Gerhard Robbers (Univesitt Trier) for his valuable contribution to the conference and to the distinguished academics who chaired the debate or prepared written reports for their countries: Professor Silvio Ferrari, Professor Rik Torfs, Professor Malcolm Evans, Professor Javier Martnez-Torrn, Professor Lars Friedner, Professor Lisbet Christoffersen, Professor Richard Potz and Professor Matti Kotiranta.

Ljubljana, September 2008

Bla Ivanc, Drago epar Editors

9

I. PRFACECette publication prsente le droulement de la confrence internationale " Les aspects juridiques de la liberte confessionnelle qui est organise par le Bureau du Gouvernement de la Rpublique de Slovnie des communauts religieuses et la Commission du Gouvernement de la Rpublique de Slovnie charge de rsoudre les questions en suspens qui concernent les communauts religieuses. Cette confrence se tiendra Brdo Ljubljana, en Slovnie, du 15 au 18 septembre 2008. Ce livret reflte la structure de la confrence, laquelle portera sur deux thmes principaux: 1. La jurisprudence constitutionnelle en matire de libert de religion et de croyance; 2. Les questions administratives et financires dans le domaine de la libert de religion et des communauts religieuses. Lintention de lorganisateur est, tout dabord, dexaminer lvolution de la jurisprudence constitutionnelle dans le domaine de la libert de religion et de croyance dans les tats membres de lUnion europenne depuis 1999 puis, de recueillir des informations sur la lgislation adopte dans ces pays depuis 1990, leurs plans et des donnes rcentes sur les glises et les communauts religieuses. La dimension juridique du dialogue entre lUnion europenne et les glises et les communauts religieuses ainsi que le dialogue interreligieux bnficient dune attention particulire. La majorit des rapports crits ont t prpars par des reprsentants des cours constitutionnelles et des gouvernements des tats membres de lUnion europenne. Ils sont publis dans leur forme finale. Les organisateurs souhaitent exprimer leurs remerciements aux minents universitaires qui ont contribu de manire significative la confrence, et notamment M. Gerhard Robbers (professeur luniversit de Trves), ainsi qu M. Silvio Ferrari, M. Rik Torfs, M. Malcolm Evans, M. Javier Martnez-Torrn, M. Lars Friedner, Mme Lisbet Christoffersen, M. Richard Potz et M. Matti Kotiranta, qui ont prsid le dbat ou prpar des rapports crits pour leur pays.

Ljubljana, septembre 2008

Bla Ivanc, Drago epar Rdacteurs

10

II. OPENING LECTURE CONFRENCE D'OUVERTURE LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOMProf. Dr. Gerhard ROBBERS University of Trier, Germany

IReligion matters again. Of course, religion always matters and has done so throughout. Yet, many have said that secularisation of society will grow. Religion, was said, will be overcome. For long at least in Europe -, religion did not matter in public opinion, was forgotten in the media. No, religion is on the rise again. Again, religion matters. Freedom of religion: Is this a notion past? Hasnt secular society overcome all religion? Isnt at least Europe all secular? And perhaps: should it not be so? No we see a renaissance of religion. People look for belief again. And people believe again. Religion is on the rise again, fruitful and sometimes also frightening. New religious wars are being waged, and should not be. Religion cannot be suppressed. All attempts to do so have failed. All attempts to reduce religion to a mere factor of society among other factors of society have failed. Failed have all attempts to make religion a purely personal matter. Religion is a public factor, forming public identity. Religion is part of the public sphere everywhere in Europe, everywhere in the world, because religion is a structure basic to human existence. He who forgets religion forfeits life. Religion is more than a mere factor of society among other factors of society. Religious communities have a different function from organizations such as trade unions, football clubs or automobile associations. Religion is not a limited interest. Religion pervades all aspects of life. Those who are religious are religious whatever they do. Religious people very often would die for their beliefs - as did Father Kolbe in the Nazi extermination camp of Auschwitz when he saved the father and his family by going into death for him. The new rise of religion in Europe and elsewhere will not only foster worship and culture. The new relevance of religion for people and society will also sharpen basic antagonisms. There is a growing challenge for ecumenical community, for inter-religious coexistence. Religion can lead to the best abilities of mankind and to the worst of war.

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LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

IIReligion matters in personal life. Religion matters in politics. Religion matters in law. Let me turn to the courts. Religion matters again in the courts. What is the specific function of the courts in this rise of religion? Their function is to apply the law. In doing this, the courts must also respect and support the key functions of the law: to preserve peace and to preserve freedom. Applying the law in disregard of these functions would compromise the very idea of the law. Any decisions of the courts must aim at preserving peace and freedom in the long run. This can be done only when courts have an understanding, perhaps a feeling, of the specific needs of specific circumstances. It is significant that while the constitutional and supreme courts of the individual States have adjudicated about legal issues in religious matters for long, international and supranational courts have been reluctant. In fact, this signifies an underlying understanding that religious issues are closely related with individual, with regional, with national experiences. There are few other areas of law in which historic experience, emotional ties and basic convictions have as direct an influence as in the law on religion. The diversity of the law on religion in the European Union mirrors the diversity of the national cultures and identities. On the other hand the different systems have common roots in the basic experiences of shared history. All the systems are based on the common background of Christianity. As can be said of European law in general, the law on religion particularly is rooted in Christianity. At the same time, however, the contribution made by Islam and Judaism to European culture must not be forgotten. Both religions also are important factors of today in most of the Member States of the European Union to which the law on religion must give adequate consideration. And finally there is a multitude of small religious communities, often linked with larger communities in other parts of the world, which forms a social factor in the structure of the law on religion. In the European Union it is possible to differentiate between three basic types of civil ecclesiastical law systems. The first basic type is characterised by the existence of a State Church or predominant religion. In this system there ar...

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