Lenin’s Russia 1917 - 1924 Romanovs, Marxism & Bolshevik Revolution, Civil War & Soviet Union

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  • Lenins Russia 1917 - 1924 Romanovs, Marxism & Bolshevik Revolution, Civil War & Soviet Union
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  • Contents Russia in 1917: The Tsar Romanov Dynasty Russia 1905 1917 : The Medieval Feudal System The February Revolution (1917) The Provisional Government, February October 1917 Communism: Marxist Ideology & Class Consciousness Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov: Lenin Origin of the Soviets April October 1917: A Power Struggle Begins The October Revolution (1917) The Russian Civil War 1918 1920 Treaty of Brest - Litovsk The Comintern War Communism Lenins New Economic Policy (1921) Death of Lenin: A Power Struggle Begins 2(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • 1905 1917 Political Parties & Groups A revolution in 1905 (Bloody Sunday) had resulted in the introduction of a parliament Duma - however, this had little power and the Tsar simply continued to rule undisputed if they disagreed with him It did however, produce the formation of embryonic political parties. These parties could now organise and propose social & political changes, even if their powers were virtually non-existent. Cadets Middle class party who wanted a parliamentary style democracy like Britain Social Revolutionaries wanted a peasant revolution Communists made of Mensheviks & Bolsheviks who wanted change by social and political uprising Octobrists Rights 3(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Tsar Romonov Dynasty 1905 - 1917 Nicholas II ruled over all the Russian peoples as had his family for the previous 300 years. Autocratic and distant from the people, he had little understanding of the hardships of ordinary Russians. The Nobles were loyal to the Tsar, controlling the peasantry in the countryside. Secret police (Okhrana) & press censorship. In 1917, he was at the front directing the Russian Army in its war against the German & Austrian Central Powers Alliance. Russia was allied with Britain & France. 1905 Revolution had introduced a government without real power = DUMA Tsar was supported by the Church, the Nobles & the Army (Cossacks) 4(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Russia 1905 - 1917 Ruled by the Romanov dynasty of Tsar Nicholas II Most of the country was peasantry Tsar rule created a stagnated society, not much removed from the Feudal System of the Middle Ages. Population: 125 million people Area: 2000 miles squared A vast country spread across Europe & Asia containing many nationalities, languages & religions. Living & working conditions were very cramped and basic in industrial centres such as St. Petersburg. TSAR NICHOLAS II A Feudal System? Aristocracy -Church & Nobles -Supported by Army DUMA since 1905 PEASANTRY 5(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • The Medieval Feudal System KING/ LORD VASSALS Lords, Earls, Bishops & Church KNIGHTS Freemen Serfs AUTOCRACY DIVINE RULE? (inevitable culture of absolute power) A society whereby the KING was absolute ruler, but required the political support of the VASSALS and the military strength of the KNIGHTS to maintain his position & authority. Freemen & Serfs had little or no influence, representation or protection. 6(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Revolution Stirs The situation is getting worse. Something has to be done immediately. Tomorrow is too late. The last hour has struck. The future of the country and the royal family is being decided. - Rodzianko, the President of the Duma, telegraphs the Tsar. 12 th March 1917 Tsar Nicholas II opening the Russian Duma in 1906 7(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • February Revolution 1917 8 th March International Womens Day: Civil unrest began when the Russian factory workers were placed on a bread rationing scheme. Protests moved onto the streets. Initially, the Russian Army was brought in to support the police in putting down this protest. However, when soldiers refused to shoot protestors, army mutiny spread quickly throughout the ranks. Tsar Nicholas II was busy directing the Russian Army at the front. He eventually returned to St. Petersburg to deal with the civil strife. On 13 th March 1917,the Duma forced the Tsar to abdicate However, he was intercepted on the way and arrested as an enemy of the people. Russia was now under the control of the Duma Government. 8(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • The Provisional Government February October 1917 The Duma now took control of Russia, setting up a Provisional Government, led by the middle-class Cadets of the old Duma. Created a 12-man Executive led by Alexander Kerensky of the Social Revolutionary Party. Its HQ was the Winter Palace Ruled Russia from February to October 1917. Conservative by nature, Kerenskys government was faced with many difficulties. 1.Soviets were in control of the people, especially in Petrograd. Forbade their members from obeying Provisional Government unless they agreed. 2.Food shortages were still commonplace. 3.The Provisional Government tried to continue the war, attacking Austria, until the Germans drove them back. 4.Return of Lenin & the growing power of the Bolsheviks All Power to the Soviets. 5.Pro-Tsar Kornilov revolt Kerensky had to ask the Soviets (controlled by Bolsheviks) to defend St. Petersburg. The Red Guards were used. 9(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Communism: A Marxist Ideology Karl Marx (1818 1883) Published the Communist Manifesto in 1848 Advocated class consciousness of the Proletariat (factory & agricultural workers) to rise up and seize the means of production from the Bourgeoisie (capitalist owners of factories & landowners) Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinct feature: it has simplified class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. - Communist Manifesto The workers have nothing to lose but their chains. Workers of the world, unite! Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto (1848). 10(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Class Consciousness TSAR NICHOLAS II PROLETARIAT Vast Majority poor, uneducated industrial & agricultural workers, possessing no economic or political power BOURGEOISIE Powerful Minority possessing vast economic power *Means of Production* Source of all economic power = political power Seizing the Means of Production* = Seizing Power 11(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin 1870 1924 In 1896, Lenin was exiled to Siberia. Upon his release in 1900, he decided to leave Russia with his partner. Returned to Russia (St. Petersburg) on a sealed train in April 1917. On this journey, Lenin wrote what became known as the April Theses in which he advocated his main ideas: Peace, Land, Bread All Power to the Soviets End to the Imperialistic War 12(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Origin of the Soviets The Soviet was the axis of all events, every thread ran towards it, every call to action emanated from it. Leon Trotsky, 1905 Originated in 1905 in the aftermath of the Bloody Sunday repression of striking workers (town of Ivanovo-Voznesensk first organised all its workers into Soviets simultaneously) Translates as council Made up of factory workers, agricultural workers & soldiers Over 900 in existence by 1917 In urban areas, made up of factory workers & soldiers In rural areas, made up of agricultural workers & soldiers Represented, pre-1917, the only way for people to protect and maintain their interests in a society without proper representation & without workers rights. 13(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • April October 1917 A Power Struggle Begins Provisonal Government Kerensky The Provisional Government was moderate & conservative, made up of the Cadets middle-class people who wanted a parliamentary democracy like Britain Economic interests = create a strong middle class to promote economic growth & personal wealth. This would be dependant on creating a large working class, with little control over economic resources. Pursue an aggressive foreign policy, maintaining allegiances with other countries like Britain & France i.e. World War I. Bolsheviks Lenin Soviets represented poor factory & agricultural workers Lenin & the Bolsheviks were militant revolutionaries = they had no interest in creating a western-style, unequal society with upper, middle and lower classes. Peace, Land, Bread Lenin & the Bolsheviks had no interest in pursuing aggressive foreign policies, using the ordinary rural & urban workers as cannon fodder to achieve conquests against other countries who used THEIR rural & urban workers as cannon fodder. Inevitably, the mass of factory, agricultural workers & soldiers knew that Lenin & the Bolsheviks protected their interests and promoted social equality 14(c) W. McSweeney 2011
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  • Reasons for October Revolution 1917 By October, Kerenskys Provisional Government was in complete disarray. Aims were complicated, communication with the people was confused. Lenin led a powerful Bolshevik organisation, responsible for defending St. Petersburg from Kornilovs attack Lenin was also backed by German money. (Germans hoped that funding revolutionary change in Russia would relieve them from continuing war on Eastern Front). The Red Guards (armed & trained factory workers, first organised in 1905 Revolution & re-constituted in 1917) led by Leon Trotsky were efficient and determined. Had already succeeded in defending St. Petersburg from K