Lesson 1 Business Communication - ?· Lesson 1 Business Communication Concept of communication ... Communication…

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>Lesson 1 </p><p>Business Communication </p><p>Concept of communication </p><p>Communication begins when one person sends a message to another with the intent of evoking a </p><p>response. Effective communication occurs when the receiver interprets the message exactly as </p><p>the sender intended. </p><p>Effective communication is essential for the functioning of any organization. </p><p> Managers need to transmit orders and policies, build cooperation and team spirit, and </p><p>identify problems and their solutions. </p><p> Employees need to clarify directives, provide feedback, and make their problems known. </p><p> Team members need to share feelings and perceptions to solve problems and resolve </p><p>conflicts. </p><p> Communication in organizations serves three major purposes. It allows members to </p><p> Coordinate actions, </p><p> Share information, and </p><p> Satisfy social needs. </p><p>The word communicate is derived from the Latin word communicare, which means - to </p><p>share, exchange, send, and transmit. A number of definitions have been given to the term </p><p>communication. A few important ones are: </p><p>Definitions: </p><p>Communication is sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in </p><p>the mind of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of </p><p>telling, listening and understanding. (Allen Louis) </p><p>Communication in its simplest form is conveying of information from one person to another. </p><p>(Hudson) </p><p>Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. </p><p>(George Terry) </p><p>Important characteristics of communication </p><p> Communication is a two way process. </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p> Communication always happens between or among two or more persons or parties </p><p>sender and receiver. </p><p> Communication involves exchange of facts, ideas, feelings or thoughts. </p><p> Communication uses verbal ways like words spoken or written, or non-verbal ways like </p><p>gestures, postures, etc. </p><p> Communication needs a mutuality of understanding between sender and receiver. </p><p>Purposes of communication </p><p>The purpose of communication may be to: </p><p>1) Initiating action </p><p>When a person feels a need to communicate to another, he/she initiates the </p><p>communication. Initiating action may be achieved by two basic categories of </p><p>communication. </p><p>a) Expressing needs and requirements </p><p>b) Persuading and motivating others. </p><p>2) Imparting information </p><p>Imparting information, feelings, ideas and beliefs etc., this may have any number of </p><p>specific reasons. </p><p>a) Creating awareness </p><p>b) Creating understanding </p><p>c) Influencing others etc. </p><p>3) Establishing relation: </p><p>Establishing, acknowledging and maintaining relations with other people, is vital function </p><p>of communication. </p><p>The Communication Process / Cycle </p><p>Before the communication can take place, a purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed is </p><p>needed. It passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver. The message is encoded </p><p>(converted to a symbolic form) and passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver. </p><p>The receiver translates (decodes) the message initiated by the sender to understand the contents </p><p>of the message, and replies the message (feedback). The result is the transfer of meaning from </p><p>one person to another. </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>Communication Cycle Diagram </p><p>Components of Communication Cycle </p><p>The main components of communication process are the sender, the receiver, the message and </p><p>the channel. The communication process includes the sequential steps of encoding, transmission </p><p>and decoding. </p><p>The Source / Sender: The source or sender is the person or place from where the message being </p><p>communicated emerges. The sender desires to communicate to the receiver some idea, feeling, </p><p>or intention. An idea is generated which is then translated to into words or symbols called </p><p>message. </p><p>Encoding: After the sender generates the idea, he/she translates this idea into words, symbols or </p><p>actions. This act of producing a symbolic message, for example, spoken or written is called as </p><p>encoding. Encoding is thus translating the information into a format that will get the idea across </p><p>to the receiver. </p><p>The Message: The message is the actual physical outcome from source encoding. For example, </p><p>when we speak, the speech is the message or when we write, it forms the message. </p><p>Sender / Source </p><p>Message </p><p>Receiver </p><p>Feedback/reply </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>The Channels: The channels are the media through which the message travels from the sender </p><p>to the receiver. It is selected by the sender, who must determine the appropriate medium to </p><p>transmit the message formal or informal, verbal or non-verbal, spoken or written; depending </p><p>upon the circumstances in which the communication is initiated. </p><p>Receiver: The receiver is the person or place to whom the message is directed or sent. </p><p>Decoding: When the receiver receives the message he/she will try to understand the content of </p><p>the message. This act of understanding the message is known as decoding. Here the receiver tries </p><p>to decode the message to develop the appropriate understanding of the message. </p><p> Feedback: The receiver after understanding the message replies to the sender. This reply to the </p><p>original message is known as feedback. The feedback forms the final loop in the communication </p><p>process. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been, in transmitting the message as </p><p>originally intended. The feedback gives the sender a clear picture as to whether the </p><p>communication made was successful or not. </p><p>In this reversal, the receiver now becomes the responder and the original sender becomes the </p><p>receiver, and the process continues. </p><p>Barriers to Communication </p><p>These are the internal or external influences which do not allow the message to be transmitted </p><p>properly. These communication barriers occur in everyday business communications. </p><p>Misinterpretation or misunderstanding occurs when the receiver understands the message to his </p><p>or her own satisfaction but not in the sense that the sender intended. Misinterpretation can be a </p><p>consequence of sender or channel noise, poor listening habits, erroneous inferences on the part of </p><p>the receiver, or differing frames of reference. </p><p>Frames of Reference: A combination of past experience and current expectations often leads </p><p>two people to perceive the same communication differently. Although each hears the actual </p><p>words accurately, he/ she may catalogue those words according to his or her individual </p><p>perceptions, or frames of reference. </p><p>Semantics: Semantics pertains to the meaning and use of words. This is especially true when </p><p>people from different cultures are trying to communicate. </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>Value Judgments: When a receiver evaluates the worth of a sender's message before the sender </p><p>has finished transmitting it. Often such value judgments are based on the receiver's previous </p><p>experience either with the sender or with similar types of communications. </p><p>Selective Listening: When a message conflicts with what a receiver believes or expects, </p><p>selective listening may cause the receiver to block out the information or distort it to match </p><p>preconceived notions. For example feedback to an employee about poor performance, may not </p><p>be "heard" because it doesn't fit the employee's self-concept or expectations. </p><p>Filtering: Filtering is selective listening in reverse; in fact, we might call it "selective sending." </p><p>When senders convey only certain parts of the relevant information to receivers, they are said to </p><p>be filtering their message. </p><p>Distrust: A lack of trust on the part of either communicator is likely to evoke one or more of the </p><p>barriers mentioned above. Senders may filter out important information if they distrust receivers, </p><p>and receivers may form value judgements, make inferences, and listen only selectively. </p><p>Effective Communication </p><p>Effective communication requires considerable skill in both sending and receiving information. </p><p>Clarity of Messages: A sender can take the initiative in eliminating communication barriers by </p><p>making sure a message is clear and credible and that feedback is obtained from the receiver to </p><p>ensure that understanding is adequate. </p><p>Develop Credibility: The credibility of a sender is probably the single most important element </p><p>in effective interpersonal communications. Sender's credibility is reflected in the receiver's belief </p><p>that the, sender is trustworthy. </p><p>Feedback: Effectiveness of communication depends on feedback. Feedback can be used to </p><p>clarify needs and reduce misunderstanding to improve relationships and keep both parties </p><p>updated, to determine which issues need further discussion, and to confirm all uncertain verbal, </p><p>vocal, and visual cues. </p><p>Communication Channels Used in Organizations </p><p>To meet its business and task needs, any business organization will be required to communicate </p><p>with the people within and outside the organization. </p><p>Internal Communication: The communication made by the organization internally within the </p><p>organization is called internal communication, such as, communication with or between </p><p>employees; or communication of one department with another. </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>External Communication: The communication made by the organization with the external stakeholders </p><p>such as, customers, suppliers, investors, banks, financers, shareholders etc. </p><p>All communications made by the organization whether internal or external may be Formal or Informal. </p><p>Formal Communication: Formal communication whether internal or external follows the established </p><p>chain of command or line of hierarchy, and is made under proper code of procedures and guidelines. The </p><p>formal communication within the organization may be categorized as: </p><p>a) Downward Communication: The downward communication is the communication which </p><p>flows from higher levels of hierarchy to lower levels. </p><p>b) Upward Communication: The upward communication is the communication which flows </p><p>from lower levels in the hierarchy to higher levels. </p><p>c) Horizontal Communication: Horizontal communication takes place among peers (people at </p><p>the same hierarchy level) and can cut across departments and work groups. </p><p>Informal Communication: Informal communication channels exist to serve the interests of those </p><p>people, who make them up, regardless of their positions in the organization. They are not formally </p><p>sanctioned by management and do not follow the organization's hierarchy; however, informal </p><p>communications are often perceived by employees as more believable than communications received </p><p>through formal organizational channels. Some typical informal channels are the grapevine, social </p><p>gatherings, informal one-to-one discussions, and small-group networks. </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>Lab Practice 1 </p><p>Review Use of the Present Simple: </p><p>PAIR WORK </p><p>Task 1: Make pair with one of your class mates. Interact with him/her as if you are </p><p>meeting for the first time. Ask your partner the following questions and note </p><p>down his/her answers. After you are done, reverse the roles. </p><p>1. How are you? ______________________________________________________________ </p><p>2. What is your name? _________________________________________________________ </p><p>3. Where do you come from? ____________________________________________________ </p><p>4. Where do you live? _________________________________________________________ </p><p>5. How far is your place from the university? _______________________________________ </p><p>6. Are you staying in the hostel? _________________________________________________ </p><p>7. What is your major of studies? ________________________________________________ </p><p>8. Why do you choose this major? ________________________________________________ </p><p>9. Which languages can you speak? _______________________________________________ </p><p>10. What is your mother tongue (first language)? _____________________________________ </p><p>11. Have you ever been to Muscat? ________________________________________________ </p><p>12. Which places in Muscat do you like? ____________________________________________ </p><p>13. Which place in Muscat is your favorite for shopping? ______________________________ </p><p>14. How much pocket money do you get from your home? _____________________________ </p><p>15. How much money you spend a week? __________________________________________ </p><p>16. What are your hobbies? _____________________________________________________ </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>Task 2 (Pair work): Ask your partner questions starting with How to get the following </p><p>answers? </p><p>Example: I am 20. How old are you? / What is your age? </p><p>1. He goes round the village for morning walks. _____________________________________ </p><p>2. There are three helpers in this office. ____________________________________________ </p><p>3. This computer is expensive. Its price is OMR 500. __________________________________ </p><p>4. He is 22. ___________________________________________________________________ </p><p>5. His home is 25 km from this place. ______________________________________________ </p><p>6. My father is doctor. __________________________________________________________ </p><p>7. I am from Ibri. ______________________________________________________________ </p><p>8. His brother is 25 year old. _____________________________________________________ </p><p>9. I stay in the hostel. ___________________________________________________________ </p><p>10. I study in University of Nizwa. ______________________________________________ </p><p>Task 3 (Pair work): Ask your partner the following questions using the frequency </p><p>adverb often, and get the answers using one of the following </p><p>frequency adverbs (often, rarely, sometimes, never). </p><p>Example: How often do you go to a gym? I rarely go to a gym. </p><p>1. __________________ travel by bus? ____________________________________ </p><p>2. ___________________ read a newspaper? ____________________________________ </p><p>3. ___________________ play a sport? ____________________________________ </p><p>4. ____________________ go to a cinema? ____________________________________ </p><p>5. ____________________ visit your friends? ___________________________________ </p><p>6. ____________________ eat in a restaurant? ___________________________________ </p><p>7. ____________________ forget your homework? ______________________________ </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>Task 4: Review: the present progressive </p><p>Read the following: </p><p>1. What are you doing? I am </p><p> You, We, They are eating. </p><p> He, She is </p><p>For Example: </p><p>1. What are you doing this weekend? I am going to Muscat with my friends. </p><p>2. What is she doing now? She is doing her homework. </p><p>Are you going to Muscat this weekend? (Interrogative) </p><p> I am going to Muscat this weekend. (Positive) </p><p> I am not going to Muscat this weekend. (Negative) </p><p>Task 5: Change the following questions in Present Progressive. </p><p>Example: Do you go to the tuition classes? Are you going to tuition classes tomorrow? </p><p>1. Do you often visit this company? _______________________this company next month. </p><p>2. What do you usually have for lunch? ______________________ for lunch today? </p><p>3. Do you take the university bus? __________________the university bus tomorrow? </p><p>Task 6: Change the sentences into Negative form. </p><p>Example: My father is a docto...</p></li></ul>