Lesson 2: Latin American Independence Lesson Questions: How did Latin America achieve independence from Spain and Portugal? What obstacles did new Latin American nations face in the 19 th century? Lesson Objectives: The students will understand the general causes of Latin American independence in the early 19 th century. The students will also understand the basic obstacles in Latin American societies to building stable, democratic nations. Slide 2 Latin American Independence 1810 1830 1. Colonial Conditions: Centralized Government Dependency and Resentment Political Inexperience Catholicism Societal Divisions Race, region, class 2. Causes of Independence: American Revolution 1776-1783 French Revolution 1789-1799 Haitian Revolution 1799-1804 Napoleons Invasion of Portugal 1807 and Spain 1808 Creoles vs. Peninsulares Juntas Slide 3 3. Four Theaters Mexico Father Miguel de Hidalgo d. 1811 Augustin de Iturbide (Emperor: 1821) Northern So. America Simon Bolivar 1783-31 Gran Columbia 1819 - 1831 Southern So. America Jose de San Martin 1778-1850 United Provinces of Rio de la Plata 1816 = Argentina 1826 Brazil Pedro I 1822 Empire of Brazil 1822-1889 4. 50 Years of Turmoil 1830 1880 Creole Leaders: Liberal vs. Conservatives Personalist Leaders: caudillos Underdevelopment 19 th century British Protection Raw Materials and Markets Slide 4 Slide 5 Mexican Empire 1821-1830 Slide 6 Gran Columbia 1819-1831 Slide 7 United Provinces of Rio de La Plata 1816 Slide 8 Empire of Brazil 1822-1889 Slide 9 Latin American Reading Notes Slide 10 According to Simon Bolivar, what are the challenges facing Latin America after independence? Slide 11 According to Sarmiento, what have been the main problems with Latin American revolutions? Slide 12 Lesson Questions: How did Latin America achieve independence from Spain and Portugal? What obstacles did new Latin American nations face in the 19 th century?