Text of Lesson 5: Vitamins Presented by: Dana Kennedy, RDN LDN Jessica Quinn, RDN LDN Jessica Quinn, RDN LDN
Lesson 5: VitaminsPresented by: Dana Kennedy, RDN LDN
Jessica Quinn, RDN LDN
What You Will Learn:
Types of Vitamins
Functions of Vitamins
Sources of Vitamins
Vitamin Supplements- Are they needed?
Vitamins are grouped into two categories:
• Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue. The four fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are absorbed more easily by the body in the presence of dietary fat.
• There are nine water-soluble vitamins. The body must use water-soluble vitamins right away. Any leftover water-soluble vitamins leave the body through the urine.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Functions: helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft
tissue, mucus membranes, and skin.
Sources: Dark-Colored Fruit Dark leafy vegetables Egg yolk Fortified milk and dairy products (cheese, yogurt, butter,
and cream) Liver, beef, and fish
Functions: Also known as the "sunshine vitamin," since it is made by the body
after being in the sun. 10-15 minutes of sunshine 3 times a week is enough to produce the
body's requirement of vitamin D for most people at most latitudes. People who do not live in sunny places may not make enough vitamin D. It is very hard to get enough vitamin D from food sources alone.
Helps the body absorb calcium.
Sources: Fish (fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring, and orange roughy) Fish liver oils (cod's liver oil) Fortified cereals Fortified milk and dairy products (cheese, yogurt, butter, and cream)
Functions As an antioxidant Treating/preventing cardiovascular disease Skin protectant sometimes used for improving physical endurance,
increasing energy, reducing muscle damage after exercise, and improving muscle strength.
The only water soluble vitamin that can be stored (can be stored in the liver for years)
Functions: Important for protein metabolism Helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the
central nervous system
Sources: Found naturally in a wide variety of animal proteins
The body absorbs animal sources of Vitamin B12 much better than plant sources (plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are fortified) To find out whether B12 has been added to a food product check the nutrition
facts label on the food product Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 vary in their amount of B12. They are not
thought to be reliable sources of the vitamin.
Organ meats (beef liver) Shellfish (clams) Meat, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy foods Some breakfast cereal and nutritional yeasts
We could spend weeks discussing this, nutrition 101 we should say, but here are some important take home items:
People who have digestive disorders, such as celiac disease, or Crohn's disease, may not absorb enough vitamin B12.
People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified foods or talk to their health care provider about taking B12 supplements.
The best way to get all the daily vitamins you need is to eat a balanced diet that contains a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, fortified dairy foods, legumes (dried beans), lentils, and whole grains.
If you take supplements, DO NOT take more than 100% of the RDA. Be very careful about taking large amounts of fat-soluble vitamin supplements. These include vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are stored in fat cells, and they can build up in your body and may cause harmful effects
Populations at high risk for nutritional deficiencies include: Vegetarians/vegan Older adults Populations with compromised immune function
Points for Athletes
Performance will not be improved if individuals consuming nutritionally-adequate diets use nutritional supplements.
Only athletes with a defined nutrient deficiency or deficiencies will benefit from supplementation of the limiting nutrient(s).
Concerns about the nutritional adequacy of an individual's diet should be evaluated by a registered dietician experienced in counseling athletes.
Athletes should consume a diet that includes a variety of foods to optimize vitamin and mineral intakes rather than use nutritional supplements.
Use of mega-doses of vitamins and minerals is not recommended because of potential adverse interactions among nutrients and toxicity.
Physically active people who intermittently use vitamin and mineral supplements as a prophylaxis should use a product that does not exceed the RDA for essential nutrients.
Weekly Lesson Question
Question: How could you ensure that you would not
become deficient in any vitamin levels, without taking a daily supplement and why would it wasteful to consume more than 100% RDA for water soluble vitamins? Please send your answer to your coach no later