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Life Cycle: Life Cycle: Adolescence into Adolescence into Adulthood Adulthood Lesson 35 Lesson 35

Life Cycle: Adolescence into Adulthood Lesson 35

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Text of Life Cycle: Adolescence into Adulthood Lesson 35

  • Life Cycle: Adolescence into AdulthoodLesson 35

  • ObjectivesIdentify the physical changes that occur during adolescenceIdentify the mental, emotional and social changes that occur during adolescenceDescribe the physical, mental/emotional and social transitions that occur during middle and later adulthoodIdentify and analyze lifestyle behaviors that promote health and prevent disease throughout the life spanExplain how dating, marriage and parenthood affect the family and society as well as the individual

  • AdolescencePeriod from childhood to adulthoodTime of many exciting changesPhysical growthVoice changesBodies filling outFastest period of growth after infancyChanges in mental/emotional and social life

  • PubertyTime when a person begins to develop certain traits of adults of his or her own genderMarks the beginning of adolescence Generally occurs between ages of 12-18Hormones responsible for changesTestosterone in malesExtrogen and progesterone in females

  • Physical Changes GrowthSex characteristicsTraits related to a persons genderPrimary sex characteristicsRelated directly to the production of reproductive cellsSperm in malesEggs ova in femalesSecondary sex characteristicsOther changes that occur during pubertyFigure 20.1 page 515

  • Mental ChangesDevelopment of the brainBy the time a person is 6, his/her brain is 95% of its adult sizeThe cerebrumthe thinking part of the braincontinues to develop in adolescenceIncreases memoryIncreases cognitionThat ability to reason and think out abstract solutionsIncreased cognition allows you to anticipate consequences, think logically and understand different points of view

  • Figure 20.2 pg 516Responsible for planning, strategizing and judgmentArea undergoes a growth spurt when a child is 11-12 years old, followed by a growth period when new nerve connections fromConnects the two sides of the brainThough to be involved in creativity and problem solvingGrows and changes significantly during adolescenceCoordinates muscles and physical movementInvolved in the coordination of thinking processesUndergoes dramatic growth and change during adolescenceAssociated with emotionTeens use this part of the brain rather than the more analytical frontal cortex that adults use in emotional responses

  • Emotional ChangesBursts of energyWaves of strong emotionsMood swingsIntense feelingsSupport from friends and family can give you a sense of security when you need it, helping you become more confident

  • Social ChangesNeed to make friends and be accepted into a peer groupClose friends Peer pressurePeers may challenge what you stand for, your beliefs and valuesClose friends will never ask you to go against your values

  • Developmental TasksEstablish emotional and psychological independenceMay move back and forth between desire for independence and the security of family supportOngoing communication with parents can help teens learn the advantages of seeking advice and feedbackDevelop a sense of identityDevelop confidenceContinue to develop identity, which began when you were a child and saw your parents as role modelsAdopt a person value systemBegin to assess your own values when they differ from those of your peers and othersEstablish adult vocational goalsIdentify your skills and what you would like to do when you grow upDevelop control over behaviorMake decisions regarding participation in risk behaviorsConsider valuesSet short and long term goals to help you make good decisions

  • Moving into Adulthood

  • Successful MarriagesGood communicationShare feelings Express needs and concernsEmotional MaturityAbility to understand their spouses needsConsider what is best for the relationship, not always what is best for the individualSimilar values and interestsShare attitudes about importance of health, religion, culture, family and friendshipsInterests allowing them to spend time together can strengthen a marriage

  • Resolving ConflictsCommon issuesDifferences in spending and saving habitsConflicting loyalties involving friends and familyLack of communicationLack of intimacyJealously, infidelity or lack of attentionDecisions about having children and arranging child careAbuse tendencies or attitudesGood communication can help to solve conflictsCounseling may be necessary

  • Teen MarriagesMaturity is one of the most important factors in a successful marriageTeens are still struggling to figure out their own identity60% in teen marriages end in divorcesMost end in the first few yearsMarriage may interfere with personal freedom, educational and career goalsLack of life experience Financial pressures strain the relationship

  • ParenthoodAfter marriage many people decide to start a familyHave a childAdoptionFoster childrenRaising a child is challenging and rewardingSerious responsibilityProvide protection, food, clothing, shelter, education and medical careProvide guidance, instill values, set limits, give unconditional love

  • Middle AdulthoodPhysical, mental, emotional and social changes dont stop when adolescence endsContinues throughout a life span

  • Physical ChangesSkin loses elasticityFunctioning of bodys organs slowsBodys immune system become less effectiveFemales experience menopause Age 45-55Stopping of ovulation and menstruationFemale can no longer become pregnantHealthful behaviors, including weight management, nutritious eating, and physical activity makes these changes less severeStrength training increases muscle mass, preserves bone density and protects major joints from injury

  • Figure 20.4 pg 530

  • Mental TransitionMental activities strengthen the brainSolving puzzles, reading and playing board games provide mental stimulationContinue learning

  • Emotional TransitionsMost people have experienced many of lifes greatest joys by this pointChildrenPersonal accomplishmentSome disappointmentsmidlife crisisQuestions and concerns about whether they have met goals, feel loved and made a positive difference in others livesKeeping the health triangle in balance will help people avoid these concerns

  • Social TransitionsFocus on familyAdults faced with the death of a parent and their children growing up and leaving homeEmpty-nest syndromeFeelings of sadness or loneliness that accompany childrens leaving home and entering into adulthoodMaintaining healthy relationships with family and friends makes it less difficult to adjust to these changesTime to apply talents and life experience to community and social programs

  • Late AdulthoodGoal is to look back at life with satisfaction and a sense of fulfillmentLiving life with integrity increases satisfactionMaking decisions with adherence to a moral codeRetirementAbility to pursue new interestsVolunteeringRemaining mentally and physically active will allow older adults to enjoy their later years more than those who dont challenge themselvesSocial security and Medicare are government programs created to benefit older adults (over 65)