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MHI Copy 3 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL LIGHT ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY (AUT T jIC WEAPONS) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY · JULY 1956

LIGHT ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY · 2016. 4. 22. · *fm 44-2 field manual 1 department of the army no. 44-2 j washington 25, d.c., 12 july 1956 light antiaircraft artillery (automatic

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    DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL

    LIGHTANTIAIRCRAFT

    ARTILLERY(AUT T jIC WEAPONS)

    DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY · JULY 1956

  • *FM 44-2FIELD MANUAL 1 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYNo. 44-2 J WASHINGTON 25, D.C., 12 July 1956

    LIGHT ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY(AUTOMATIC WEAPONS)

    Paragraph PagePART ONE. ORGANIZATION AND

    TACTICSCHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION -------- 1, 2 3

    2. ORGANIZATIONSection I. Missions ------------------ 3-5 4

    II. Battalion ----------------- 6-18 5III. Battery, -. ................. 19-25 14

    CHAPTER 3. CHARACTERISTICS OFEQUIPMENT ---------- 26-32 17

    4. RECONNAISSANCE, SE-LECTION, AND OCCU-PATION OF POSITION

    Section I. Antiaircraft defense ------ 33-35 25II. Surface mission ----------- 36-39 30

    CHAPTER 5. COMMUNICATIONS .---- 40-46 356. OBSERVATION AND

    EARLY WARNING ---- 47-49 477. SECURITY AND PRO-

    TECTION ------------- 50-52 508. LOGISTICS.

    Section I. Supply and evacuation ---- - 53-56 58II. Transportation ------- 57, 58 60

    III. Messing -__-- 59, 60 61

    *This manual supersedes FM 44-2, 24 August 1950,including C 1, 26 November 1952.

  • Paragraph Page

    PART Two. GUNNERY AND FIRECONTROL DEVICES

    CHAPTER 9. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTIL-LERY (AUTOMATICWEAPONS) GUNNERYPROBLEM

    Section I. Introduction -------- __---- 61, 62 63II. Elements of data __--......63-67 64

    III. Solution of the problem- - .. 68-70 73IV. General application and anal-

    ysis of problem ---------- 71-73 77CHAPTER 10. TRACER OBSERVATION_ 74-82 85

    11. SPEED RING SIGHTS --- 83-88 10412. COMPUTING SIGHTS --- 89-93 12013. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTIL-

    LERY (AUTOMATICWEAPONS) SURFACEFIRING

    Section I. General .----------------- 94-96 146II. Direct fire --------------- __ 97, 98 148

    III. Indirect fire ---------------- 99-109 154APPENDIX I. REFERENCES ----------------- 174

    II. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY(AUTOMATIC WEAPONS)TRAINING AIDS ----------- 177

    III. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSISOF LEAD ------------------- 184

    IV. GLOSSARY OF ANTIAIRCRAFTARTILLERY (AUTOMATICWEAPONS) SYMBOLS ANDTERMS --------------------- 194

    INDEX ---------------------------------- 198

    2

  • PART ONEORGANIZATION AND TACTICS

    CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION

    1. Purpose and ScopeThis manual is for the use of battalion commanders

    and staff, battery commanders, platoon leaders, andfire unit leaders of AAA (AW) (antiaircraft artilleryautomatic weapons). It covers the organization,reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of posi-tions, communications, observation and early warn-ing, security, logistics, gunnery, and fire controlsighting devices of antiaircraft artillery automaticweapons -batteries and battalions. Part one includesbattalion organization and tactics. Part two in-cludes antiaircraft and surface gunnery techniquesand fire control devices. Fundamental tacticalemployment principles of antiaircraft artillery auto-matic weapons units are contained in FM 44-1.

    2. ReferencesFor a list of references containing material supple-

    menting this manual, see appendix I.

    3

  • CHAPTER 2ORGANIZATION

    Section I. MISSIONS

    3. General MissionThe mission of AAA (AW) is to attack and destroy

    enemy targets in the air, on land, and on water.This mission is divided into air defense and surfacemissions. Force commanders assign missions toAAA (AW) units. A commander may decide to useall or any part of his AAA (AW) against ground orwater targets while there is a threat of air attack if heconsiders that these targets offer a greater threat tothe successful accomplishment of his mission than anair attack. Antiaircraft artillery automatic weaponsare disposed and emplaced to best execute theassigned mission, air or surface defense. Whenpractical, the weapons are sited to permit attack ontargets other than those included in the assignedmission.

    4. Air Defense MissionThe mission of AAA (AW) in defense against air

    attack is to attack all forms of enemy aircraft andmissiles, to destroy them, to nullify their effective-ness, or to force them to abandon their mission.Automatic weapons are employed in the zone ofinterior, communications zone, and combat zone.It is the responsibility of the battalion commander

    4

  • in a one-battalion defense, or higher unit commanderin a multiple battalion defense, to design the entiredefense and designate position areas to be occupiedby the fire units. A discussion of AAA (AW)defense designing is contained in FM 44-1.

    5. Surface MissionThe mission of AAA (AW), when employed in

    defense against surface attack, is to give fire supportto other arms; to neutralize or destroy targets whichare most dangerous to the supported arm by provid-ing or reinforcing field artillery fires, and by attack-ing and destroying targets of opportunity on land orwater. Details of employment in a surface missionare covered in chapter 4.

    Section II. BATTALION

    6. Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons BattalionThe battalion is the basic tactical and administra-

    tive unit. It is composed of a headquarters andheadquarters battery and four firing batteries. Seeappropriate TOE (tables of organization and equip-ment) for specific organization and equipment.

    7. Battalion Commandera. The battalion commander is responsible for all

    battalion activities. He is responsible for the tacticaland technical employment of his unit and its combateffectiveness, its training, administration, discipline,supply and maintenance of equipment, and the well-being and morale of its personnel. He exercisescommand by making decisions and issuing orders tobattery commanders, and supervises the activities of

    S

  • the unit by means of reports and frequent personalvisits and inspections covering all phases of activityengaged in by elements of his command.

    b. In accordance with assigned missions and ordersof higher authority, the battalion commander willprepare and execute standing operating proceduresfor the unit. He must:

    (1) Keep himself and his subordinates informedof friendly and enemy situations for bothground and air.

    (2) Maintain communications and liaison withadjacent and supported units and insureproper functioning of those communicationsnets required for the tactical success of theunit.

    (3) Coordinate the AAAIS (antiaircraft artilleryinformation service) within the unit andinsure its proper functioning in accordancewith current instructions from higher head-quarters.

    (4) Make certain the commissioned officersassigned to duty as AAOO (antiaircraftartillery operations officer) are qualified forthat position.

    8. Battalion Staffa. A battalion staff is provided to assist the com-

    mander in the exercise of his command, in unit train-ing, and in forming and executing a plan for combat.The staff secures and furnishes required information,prepares details of plans and orders, transmits ordersto subordinate commanders when necessary, andprovides staff supervision over all activities of thebattalion.

    6

  • b. Figure 1 shows the organization of the AAA(AW) battalion staff. For detailed study of staffdoctrine, procedures, and duties, see FM 101-5.Specific duties applicable to AAA (AW) battalionstaff officers are in the following paragraphs. Com-mon responsibilities of the head of each staff sectioninclude:

    (1) Organization and supervision of the section.(2) Training personnel in section duties.(3) Maintaining such records, charts, or maps

    as required by specific duties, including prep-aration of appropriate portions of the unitreport.

    (4) Informing other staff members and batterycommanders of pertinent information re-ceived.

    (5) Advising the commander on technical as-pects of the staff position.

    (6) Serving as AAOO when required.

    9. Executive Officer

    The executive officer is second in command of thebattalion, acting as the principal assistant and ad-visor to the commander. His duties correspond tothose of chief of staff and/or deputy commander of adivision or higher. In general, his job is to relieve thecommander of detailed supervision of administrationand operations, enabling the commander to devotehimself to command functions. The executive officermust be prepared to assume command of the bat-talion at all times by keeping fully informed of thesituation. His duties are to-

    a. Supervise the battalion staff activities.

    7

  • BATTALIONCOMMANDER

    EXECUTIVEOFFICER

    PERS 0 ASST ASSTS t S4

    STRY COMMO O LN MTR 0 CHCMDR (WO)

    Figure 1. Organization of the battalion staff.

    b. Supervise the establishment and operation ofthe command post.

    c. Coordinate battalion security measures.d. Supervise the compilation of required reports,

    such as the unit journal and command report.e. Supervise the establishment and operation of

    the battalion AAOC..f. Coordinate and supervise the displacement and

    movement of the unit.g. Supervise the installation and operation of the

    AAAIS, and communication nets required for tacticalsuccess of the unit.

    10. SiThe S1, as battalion adjutant, plans, coordinates,

    and supervises administrative and personnel func-

    8

  • tions of the battalion. A personnel officer is hisassistant.

    a. Administrative duties of the S1 are to---(1) Process official correspondence.(2) Supervise publication, distribution, and

    authentication of all orders, except combatorders.

    (3) Maintain the records of the battalion.b. Personnel duties of the S1 are to-

    (1) Prepare strength records and reports.(2) Requisition and process personnel replace-

    ments.(3) Supervise discipline and legal activities in-

    cluding the processing of court-martialcases.

    (4) Handle the administration of civilian em-ployees, civil affairs, and prisoners of war.

    (5) Supervise and record the classification,assignment, promotion, pay, allotments,transfers, casualties, and separation ofpersonnel.

    (6) Supervise morale activities, including postalfacilities, awards and decorations, leavesand passes, recreation and exchange fa-cilities, and religious and welfare matters.

    (7) Maintain the unit journal and other recordsnot assigned to other staff sections.

    (8) Handle personal effects with the assistanceof the summary court officer.

    (9) Supervise administrative procedures.(10) Handle internal arrangement of battalion

    headquarters.

    9

  • 11. S2The S2 is the battalion intelligence officer. He

    collects, evaluates, interprets, and disseminates allcombat information ano. intelligence received atbattalion headquarters. In addition, his dutiesare to-

    a. Supervise the installation and operation of theAAAIS.

    b. Coordinate intelligence training.c. Coordinate all means of gathering information

    pertaining to the enemy situation, both air andground, from all sources.

    d. Make sure that this information is processed,evaluated, interpreted, and disseminated reliablyand efficiently.

    e. Make sure that a comprehensive system ofrecognition and identification of friendly aircraft isestablished. This system must provide for maximumexploitation of visual means and proper employmentof electronic means. Limitations imposed by thehuman element must be minimized.

    f. Requisition and distribute maps.

    12. S3The S3 is the battalion operations and training

    officer. He has one officer assistant. The principleduties of the S3 are to-

    a. Prepare plans for and supervise the organiza-tion, training, movement, and combat operation ofthe battalion.

    b. Assist in the preparation and issuance of opera-tions orders and instructions.

    c. Assist in the establishment and operation ofthe AAOC.

    10

  • d. Keep up-to-date information of the operatingstatus of materiel, training, weapon locations,and missions.

    e. Make sure that all commissioned and enlistedpersonnel assigned duties in the AAOC are competentand well trained.

    f. Make sure that the means of tactical battalioncontrol are adequate and that-

    (1) A complete but brief SOP (standing operat-ing procedure) for engagement control andtarget selection is provided for each fireunit leader and that fire unit personnel arewell versed in its contents.

    (2) A list of instructions for implementation ofthe fire unit SOP is composed for the useof the AAOO.

    g. Make certain that means of communicationprovided for the control of battalion elements isreliable, rapid, and within tactical requirements.

    h. Coordinate liaison activity, TIE (troop informa-tion and education) functions, use of training facili-ties, and the analysis of defenses.

    13. S4The S4 is the battalion supply officer and super-

    vises the operation of supply, evacuation, trans-portation, and maintenance. He has one warrantofficer assistant. Principle duties of the S4 are to-

    a. Requisition and distribute all supplies.b. Supervise food service.c. Coordinate the planning, supervision, and

    allocation of ammunition supply operations andcritical supplies with the S3.

  • d. Coordinate administrative orders and motormovements with S3.

    e. Keep current information for the battalioncommander on the status of supply, propertyaccounting procedures and records, and organiza-tional maintenance of equipment.

    f. Collect and process salvage.

    14. Communication OfficerThe battalion communication officer, under super-

    vision of the S3, supervises the installation andoperation of the communication nets that areneeded to meet the tactical and administrativerequirements of the battalion. Specific dutiesare to-

    a. Organize and operate the battalion com-munication center.

    b. Advise the battalion commander and staff on allmatters of communications, to include communi-cation training and the status of communicationsupply and maintenance.

    c. Maintain communication with the staff of thenext higher, lower, adjacent, and supported unitsas directed by higher headquarters.

    d. Install and maintain those means of com-munications used in the operation of the AAOCand AAAIS.

    15. Motor OfficerThe motor officer, under S4 supervision, advises

    the commander and staff on motor maintenanceand transportation. He supervises the operationand maintenance of battalion wheel and trackvehicles and trains his personnel.

    12

  • 16. ChaplainThe chaplain advises the commander and staff on

    moral and religious matters in the battalion. Heconducts religious services, advises personnel onspiritual matters, ministers to sick and wounded,and corresponds with relatives of sick, wounded,and deceased personnel. He does not performoperational duties such as AAOO.

    17. Liaison OfficerThe liaison officer is the personal representative of

    the battalion commander, acting as a link betweenthe battalion headquarters and the headquarters towhich he reports. Functioning under the super-vision of the S3, he makes sure that the tactics,techniques, and employment of the unit he repre-sents are understood by the commander of theorganization to which he is detailed.

    18. Radar Warrant OfficerThe radar warrant officer is a special staff officer

    and normally works under the supervision of the S2.The duties of the radar officer are to-

    a. Advise the commander and staff on the statusof radar equipment issued to the battalion.

    b. Supervise movement and siting of the surveil-lance radar.

    c. Supervise operation and maintenance of radarequipment.

    d. Supervise preparation of cover and clutterdiagrams.

    e. Assist in the establishment of the AAAIS and airwarning nets.

    13

  • Section III. BATTERY

    19. Headquarters BatteryHeadquarters battery furnishes the necessary per-

    sonnel and equipment to assist the battalion infunctions of command, control, reconnaissance, com-munication, intelligence, logistics, and administra-tion. See appropriate TOE for organization.

    20. Headquarters Battery CommanderThe headquarters battery commander commands

    headquarters battery and acts as headquarters com-mandant. He is responsible for the supply, mess,quarters, pay, conduct, training, health, and moraleof his unit personnel. As headquarters commandant,he is responsible for:

    a. Organization and security of the battalioncommand post.

    b. Physical movement of battalion headquarters.c. Supervision of mess and transportation facilities

    for battalion headquarters.

    21. Automatic Weapons BatteryThe automatic weapons battery consists of a

    battery headquarters and two platoons of eight fireunits each. An automatic weapons fire unit is con-sidered to be one weapons mount. The platoon hasfour multiple gun motor carriage M16A1's and four40-mm gun motor carriage M42's in self-propelledunits; four multiple machinegun trailer mount M55'splus four 40-mm gun on carriage M2A3's in mobileunits. The airborne automatic weapons batteryconsists of a battery headquarters and three platoonsof six fire units each. The airborne platoon has fourM55's plus two M42's.

    14

  • 22. Battery CommanderThe AAA (AW) battery commander is responsible

    for all activities of the battery, including administra-tion, training, and tactical employment. His spe-cific duties are to-

    a. Accomplish the combat mission of the battery.b. Carry out training schedules, supervise actual

    instruction, and maintain proper discipline.c. Keep battery records, supply and maintain

    clothing and equipment, and supervise food service.

    23. Battery Executive OfficerThe battery executive officer assists and advises

    the battery commander, and makes sure that hispolicies are carried out. He is second in commandof the battery and normally acts as battery liaisonofficer in surface or AA (antiaircraft) missions withinfantry, armor, or field artillery units.

    24. Platoon Leaders and Assistant Platoon LeadersThese officers are responsible to the battery com-

    mander for training personnel of their platoon, thetactical employment of the platoon, and the admin-istration of the platoon in the field.

    25. Fire Unit LeaderThe fire unit leader is directly subordinate to the

    platoon leader. He supervises target selection andexercises engagement control of his fire unit. Hisresponsibilities and functions are to-

    a. Train his crew in service of the piece.b. Train his crew in the SOP for engagement con-

    trol and target selection.

    15

  • c. Understand the application of such basic tacti-cal principles as:

    (1) The value of primary and secondary sectorsof fire.

    (2) The necessity for overlapping adjacent pri-mary sectors of fire.

    (3) The greater threat to the vital area of anincoming target than an outgoing target inthe primary sector of fire.

    (4) The rule for engaging an incoming target inthe secondary sector before an outgoingtarget in the primary sector of fire.

    (5) The necessity for engaging a target at maxi-mum effective range to produce maximumeffective fire.

    (6) The importance of smooth and rapid targettransfer during a multiple target raid.

    (7) The importance of maximum use of visualaircraft recognition means because of limita-tions of available fire control equipment.

    d. Inform his crew of the limited engagement timeavailable and the importance of communications.

    16

  • CHAPTER 3CHARACTERISTICS OF EQUIPMENT

    26. Generala. Antiaircraft artillery automatic weapons use a

    projectile which must hit the enemy aircraft, or sur-face target, to be effective. The 40-mm gun uses ashell with a supersensitive fuze which bursts on con-tact. If no contact is made as the tracer burns out,the relay ignition charge is ignited detonating thebursting charge of the shell. The caliber .50 ma-chinegun uses API (armor-piercing incendiary) am-munition with and without tracer.

    b. Automatic weapons have a flexibility that en-ables them to track aircraft at a high angular rateand shift quickly from one target to another. Thesefactors, plus a high rate of fire, make automaticweapons highly effective against low-flying aircraftat short ranges.

    c. The M42 and M16A1, self-propelled AAA (AW),because of their greater mobility, are desirable foruse with combat forces.

    27. Ammunitiona. Types. The principal types of ammunition for

    the caliber .50 machinegun are API and API-T(armor-piercing incendiary tracer). The 40-mm gunuses high explosive and armor-piercing tracer shot.The tracer element of the caliber .50 ammunitionburns out at ranges of 1,850 or 2,450 yards, depend-ing on the type. The 40-mm high explosive shell

    388163 0--56 2 17

  • destroys itself at the tracer burn-out point varyingfrom 3,500 to 5,500 yards, depending on the type.

    b. Uses. The various types of ammunition areused as follows:

    (1) Caliber .50 API-T and API ammunition and40-mm high explosive shells are used againstpersonnel and light materiel.

    (2) Caliber .50 API, API-T, and 40-mm armor-piercing ammunition are used against lightlyarmored vehicles, concrete shelters, andsimilar targets.

    (3) The tracer element of the caliber .50 and40-mm ammunition are used primarily forobservation of fire.

    (4) All types of automatic weapons ammunitionmay be employed against aerial targets.

    28. Range Capabilitiesa. Extreme Deterrent Range. The extreme deter-

    rent range is the tracer burn-out range of automaticweapons projectiles. At this range, the fire is in-accurate but, if delivered with maximum density,may cause enemy aircraft to take evasive action,break formation, and even abandon their mission.Extreme deterrent ranges of automatic weapons are:

    (1) Caliber .50 machineguns: 1,800 to 2,450yards.

    (2) 40-mm gun: 3,500 to 5,500 yards.b. Effective Hitting Range. Effective hitting range

    is the maximum distance within which hits may beexpected. It depends on tracer observation, but inaddition, is determined by the type of sighting de-vice, lead tolerance, angle of approach, and the aver-age state of training of personnel. The averageeffective hitting ranges are:

    18

  • (1) Caliber .50 machinegun: 800 yards.(2) 40-mm gun: 1,800 yards.

    c. Minimum Midpoint Tracking Range. This isthe shortest midpoint range at which the weapon cantrack a target. It depends on target speed and themaximum tracking rate of the gun mount. Thecaliber .50 machinegun turret mount can track a600-mile-per-hour target at a midpoint range of 300yards. The M42 can track a 600-mile-per-hourtarget at approximately 420 yards midpoint range.

    29. Weaponsa. 40-mm Gun. The 40-mm gun may be either

    fully automatic or semiautomatic; it can delivershort bursts at a rate of 120 rounds per minute. Itis air-cooled and, if fired at maximum rate, will over-heat after about 100 rounds are fired. Firing mustbe suspended and the barrel changed when it is over-heated. The horizontal range for antiaircraft tacti-cal planning is 1,800 yards.

    b. Caliber .50 Machinegun. The individual caliber.50 machinegun fires at a rate of 400 to 600 roundsper minute. Although the effective range is de-pendent upon the gunner's depth perception andtraining, a horizontal range of 800 yards is used fortactical planning purposes. The standard mountfor the caliber .50 machinegun is an electrically op-erated, quadruple gun mount. These quadruplemounts can be traversed and elevated at rates of 80 °

    per second by a single operator.

    30. Self-Propelled Carriagesa. The twin 40-mm gun motor carriage M42 (fig.

    2) has two 40-mm guns mounted coaxially on a fulltrack vehicle.

    19

  • b. The multiple gun motor carriage M16A1 (fig.3) is a quadruple machinegun mount (M45) installedin a half track vehicle.

    31. Towed Mounts and Carriagesa. 40-mm Gun on Carriage M2A3 (fig. 4). The

    40-mm gun on carriage M2A3 is used in mobileunits. The time required to emplace the carriagefrom traveling position and commence firing (utiliz-ing the primary means of on-carriage fire control) is1 to 2 minutes.

    b. Multiple Machinegun Trailer Mount M55 (fig.5). The multiple machinegun trailer mount is usedin mobile and airborne units. The mount may betowed for short distances but is generally transportedin a 2X-ton truck, or loaded without disassembly inconventional type troop carriers. The mount mustbe emplaced before firing, the time for emplacementrequiring 1 to 2 minutes. The turret in the trailermount is the M45.

    32. Fire Control Devicesa. 40-mm Speed Ring Sights (fig. 32). The 40-mm

    gun has two metal speed ring sights used as secondarymeans of fire control.

    b. M18 Reflex Speed Ring Sight (fig. 33). TheM45 caliber .50 multiple machinegun utilizes theM18 speed ring sight as the only means of firecontrol.

    c. Computing Sights M38 and M19A1 (figs. 43 and44). The computing sight is the primary means offire control on the 40-mm gun.

    20

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    a

    E6

    5~ s_

    21

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    * _ D ~~~~~~~~~sToi;

    22~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I-

    22

  • Io~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    th0

    p,

    Q9;s

    9-uz

    23

  • -i,

    Figure 6. Multiple machinegun trailer mount M55.

    24

  • CHAPTER 4

    RECONNAISSANCE, SELECTION, ANDOCCUPATION OF POSITION

    Section I. ANTIAIRCRAFT DEFENSE

    33. GeneralSince the AAA (AW) battalion may be given a

    variety of missions, for example, air defense, surface,or modifications of these two missions, it is necessaryto develop separate procedures for reconnaissance,selection, and occupation of positions to accomplisheach type of mission.

    34. Reconnaissance'a. General. The purpose of reconnaissance is to

    obtain accurate information concerning terrain onwhich personnel, vehicles, and weapons will be

    operating. The two general classifications of recon-naissance are route and position. Position recon-naissance establishes actual positions on the groundfor location of weapons, vehicles, and commandposts. Route reconnaissance is the selection' ofroutes suitable for moving personnel and equipmentto and from selected positions.

    b. Types of Reconnaissance.(1) A2ap reconnaissance. A map reconnaissance

    is generally used as a basis for planning aground or aerial reconnaissance. Higherheadquarters normally makes this type of

    25

  • reconnaissance. Lower headquarters, iftime is available, makes a more detailedground reconnaissance. In a rapidly mov-ing situation, however, there may be littletime available for reconnaissance other thanby map.

    (2) Aerial reconnaissance. This type of recon-naissance may be used preceding, simul-taneously with, or in place of, a groundreconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance isspeedier than ground reconnaissance butit does not provide as detailed informationas ground reconnaissance.

    (3) Ground reconnaissance. There is no sub-stitute for ground reconnaissance, whichprovides a detailed examination of theterrain.

    c. Time Available. Since time available for re-connaissance may often be very limited, each com-mander must anticipate possible displacements andperform a continuous progressive reconnaissance andstudy of the terrain. Whenever possible, com-manders must allow enough time for subordinatesto complete their reconnaissance during daylighthours.

    d. Battalion Reconnaissance. Since AAA (AW)batteries and platoons often operate in fluid situa-tions and are separated by considerable distances,the battalion commander can rarely perform a groundreconnaissance of all fire unit positions. When timeis limited, the battalion commander will decentralizereconnaissance to subordinates and will later con-solidate and organize as time permits. When timedoes permit, however, the following steps, subject to

    26

  • variations as the situation demands, are performed.He-

    (1) Makes a map reconnaissance to locate allelements.

    (2) Decides the exact time for start of troopmovements.

    (3) Decides when and how to make groundreconnaissance and who will accompanyhim.

    (4) Issues warning orders to subordinates cover-ing-

    (a) Enemy and friendly situation.(b) Troop movements desired.(c) Time and place for issue of further orders.(d) Probable route of reconnaissance party.

    (5) Performs reconnaissance, and verifies-(a) Sites for AAAIS surveillance radar and

    visual observer posts.(b) Location of battalion AAOC.(c) Position of headquarters battery service

    elements.(d) Routes to positions.(e) The location of each battery headquarters

    and as many fire unit positions as timewill allow.

    (6) Returns to assembly point and issues ordersto subordinates for occupation of positions.

    e. Battery Reconnaissance.(1) Adequate time. If the battalion commander

    makes a complete reconnaissance of all fireunit positions, the battery commander willbe responsible for the details of occupationand make arrangements for having his fireunits directed to positions. If, however,

    27

  • the battalion commander does not make aground reconnaissance, the battery com-mander will make a ground reconnaissancebased on the battalion commander's mapreconnaissance. This will determine-

    (a) Routes to all positions.(b) Position of each weapon.(c) Alternate positions and dummy positions.(d) Exact location of battery command post,

    bivouac area, and truck park.(e) Sectors of fire for each fire unit.

    (2) Procedure. Before departing, the batterycommander briefs his executive officer onorders of the battalion commander. If thebattery commander is to return before theelements of the battery start moving, theexecutive officer is informed of the probabletime the battery commander will returnfrom the reconnaissance. If elements ofthe battery start moving before the batterycommander completes his reconnaissance,the executive is given the time of movementfrom the assembly area, the route, andspecial instructions concerning the march.

    (3) Limited time. The battery commander mayhave his firing units so widely separatedthat time is not available to make a groundreconnaissance of all his unit positions.In this case, the platoon leaders and NCO(noncommissioned officers) must performthe reconnaissance. The battery com-mander will consolidate the unit positionsif and when time is available.

    28

  • f. Platoon Reconnaissance. When enough time isavailable, the platoon leaders accompany the batterycommander on reconnaissance to coordinate sectorsof fire. When time is limited, the platoon leaderswith the fire unit leaders perform the reconnaissanceand select positions in accordance with orders fromthe battery commander. In fast-moving situations,the platoon leader may designate the positions andgeneral layout of the fire units, while the actualground reconnaissance is made by the fire unitleaders just prior to moving into their positions.

    35. Selection and Occupationa. Sectors of Fire and Observation.

    (1) Each automatic weapons fire unit is assigneda primary and secondary sector of fire.All fire unit crews maintain constant vigi-lance in their primary sectors of fire, regard-less of the sector in which the weapons areactually engaged.

    (2) Since target selection and engagement con-trol depend upon visual means, the siteswhich are selected for the weapons mustprovide for maximum observation and unobstructed sectors of fire. Adjacent 40-mmfire units must be sited within 100 to 900yards of each other. Caliber .50 weaponsare sited within mutual support distancesof 100 to 400 yards. The limitation im-posed by tracer observation requires thatfire units be sited at least 100 yards apart.To provide the required concentration offire against aerial targets and insure cover-

    29

  • age of the dead area of adjacent weapons,40-mm fire units must be sited not fartherthan 900 yards apart.

    b. Level Ground. The ground for emplacing auto-matic weapons should be within 2° of level. Ifnecessary, the selected location should be leveledwithin tolerance using tools available.

    c. Cover. Immediately after a position has beenselected and occupied and the fire unit is preparedto engage the enemy, cover is provided for protec-tion of personnel and materiel. Fox holes or slittrenches are dug by all personnel.

    d. Occupation. Actual occupation of a position isdirected and supervised by the fire unit leader.Timely arrival and prompt readiness for fire are theprimary considerations. Weapons are emplaced firstand then, as time permits, the positions are improvedby fortification and construction of alternate posi-tions. Dummy positions are constructed as directedby higher headquarters.

    Section II. SURFACE MISSION

    36. Generala. The methods outlined in this section apply to

    all types of surface employment, whether in closesupport of infantry in offense or defense, in defenseagainst mechanized, airborne, guerilla, or infiltrationattacks, or in engagement of naval targets.

    b. Since infantry and armored divisions have anorganic AAA (AW) battalion assigned, the divisioncommander may designate the mission of this bat-talion as that of close support of infantry elements,in part or in whole. This AAA (AW) battalion con-

    30

  • tains self-propelled weapons, and as such is capableof diversified uses in the close support role. Althoughthe towed 40-mm gun may be used in a surface role,it is limited by its lack of mobility and the lengthof time needed to emplace it.

    37. Command, Control, and Coordinationa. When AAA (AW) units are assigned surface

    missions, they are normally attached to supportedunits. Antiaircraft artillery automatic weaponscommanders serve as special staff officers of the com-mander of the supported unit and advise these com-manders on the employment of AAA (AW). Anti-aircraft artillery automatic weapons platoon commandposts are located at or near the command post of thesupported unit. The normal role of automaticweapons battery and platoon commanders is to directthe operations of their units. Battery and platoonexecutives serve as liaison officers with supportedunits. Liaison is also established with each com-mitted rifle company. The AAA (AW) unit com-mander provides a noncommissioned officer assistedby a radio operator to advise the rifle companycommander of the capabilities of AAA (AW) and toact as a forward observer.

    b. Some of the automatic weapons attached forclose support are given interdiction, harassing, orneutralization fire missions. Other automatic weap-ons may augment the infantry heavy weapons byoverhead fire, and fire through gaps in the friendlylines. Regardless of what mission is given, the sup-port fires must be carefully prepared and coordinatedwith the plans of the attack or defense of the infantryor armor unit commander.

    31

  • 38. Reconnaissance and Plansa. The automatic weapons platoon leader is re-

    sponsible for performing the ground reconnaissancein the surface mission. After being briefed by theinfantry battalion commander as to the general planof action, the amount of fire support desired, theexact location of friendly units and of known andprobable enemy targets such as direct fire weaponsand observation posts, and after studying the mapcarefully, the platoon leader makes a personal groundreconnaissance, attempting to gain the followinginformation:

    (1) Primary and secondary firing positions foreach weapon.

    (2) Routes to primary and alternate positions.(3) Location of new firing positions to be used

    in case of lateral, forward, or rear displace-ments.

    (4) Routes to displacement positions.(5) Location of ammunition vehicle parks and

    routes of supply.(6) Platoon observation posts.(7) Positions for reinforcement of the main bat-

    tle position in the event of an envelopmentor penetration.

    (8) Key points in the battalion area essential tothe defense of the area.

    (9) Likely avenues of approach of hostileforces.

    b. The automatic weapons employment plan forsupport of infantry or armor will be coordinated withthe infantry or armor commander and should include:

    (1) Initial positions from which supporting firesare to be delivered. Positions will be in

    32

  • the same general area with the organicinfantry support weapons, as far forwardas is consistent with the tactical situation,and with adequate cover.

    (2) Plans and routes of displacement.(a) Weapons will be displaced by echelon,

    with one-half the weapons in each echelon,if possible.

    (b) Select routes affording the most rapiddisplacement, in order to supply con-tinuous fire support.

    (3) Ammunition supply points and protectedroutes.

    (a) Estimate the amount of ammunitionneeded at the initial position, and dumpthat amount on the ground and replenishsupplies so that weapons may displacewith full basic loads.

    (b) Select covered ammunition supply routesand instruct ammunition truck drivers onammunition resupply procedure.

    39. Selection and Occupation of Positionsa. The principal factor affecting the selection of

    positions in a surface role is complete integrationwith the supported unit's Fire Support Plan. Posi-tions selected for a surface role should-

    (1) Assist in the protection of vital terrainfeatures.

    (2) Retain essential observation to front andflanks.

    (3) Deny the enemy close observation into thebattle position.

    388163 0-56 3 33

  • (4) I/ocate positions so as not to interfere withfields of fire of weapons located in the rear.

    (5) Take maximum advantage of natural coverand concealment.

    (6) Site caliber .50 weapons within 1,000 yardsof possible target and 40-mm weapons within1,500 yards of possible target.

    (7) Provide mutual support with infantryweapons and have safety zones to protectagainst firing into friendly positions.

    (8) For naval targets, be as close to water levelas possible to take advantage of the flattrajectory.

    b. When reconnaissance and selection of positionshas been accomplished and the plan of action ap-proved by the infantry or armor commander, theautomatic weapons are moved to the selected posi-tions. This move must be coordinated with sup-ported units so that motor columns will not interferewith foot troop or tank movements. The moveshould be made at night, if possible, but in any case,with maximum cover and concealment.

    34

  • CHAPTER 5COMMUNICATIONS

    40. GeneralAntiaircraft artillery automatic weapons com-

    munications include all means employed to transmitinformation, intelligence, commands, orders of anoperational control nature, and the means to estab-lish liaison with other units. Due to the importanceof communication to effective operation, every personinvolved must be thoroughly grounded in com-munication operation and maintenance. This isespecially true in the case of the AAA (AW) unitswhich are sometimes widely dispersed or isolated.Primary and alternate means of communicationmust be provided and available for immediate useby all elements of the command. The basic meansof communication available to the automatic weap-ons units include radio, wire, and messenger. Wireis considered to be the more desirable means ofcommunication due to its greater degree of depend-ability. Maximum use should be made of thismeans during static situations. Frequent movementand wide dispersion will often dictate the use ofradio as the means of communication to be employed.The use of radio in the initial stages of an operation,in rapidly moving situations, and in amphibiousoperations will be essential. In many situations,wire and radio will be integrated.

    35

  • 41. Radioa. The capabilities and limitations of radio equip-

    ment must be thoroughly understood by all antiair-craft artillery officers and considered by a commanderwhen plans for radio communications are made.

    (1) Capabilities.(a) Radio sets are readily portable, may be

    placed in operation quickly, and may beoperated from moving vehicles.

    (b) No physical circuit is required betweenstations.

    (c) Radio is a readily available means of longrange communication.

    (2) Limitations.(a) Radio equipment is complex and fragile.

    It requires constant maintenance andintelligent care.

    (b) Operating and maintenance personnelrequires specialized individual training.

    (c) Radio messages are easily intercepted bythe enemy. Necessary cryptography de-lays transmission.

    (d) Radio is subject to enemy jamming andaffords the enemy means of locatingtransmitters, and thereby, commandposts and other installations.

    b. In radio nets which supplement wire nets,operators listen on assigned frequencies and do nottransmit unless instructed to do so. In other radionets, operation is normally continuous unless other-wise prescribed.

    36

  • 42. WireWire communication equipment provided by TOE

    is sufficient to install essential command linesbetween command posts. Additional wire to installother wire nets must be drawn from the appropriatesignal supply agency when required. The extent towhich wire communication is installed is governedby the tactical mission of the unit. The wire com-munication net of a unit employed in a static situa-tion should be as complete and extensive as timeand material permit. The wire communication netof a unit employed in a moving situation, wherefrequent changes of position are involved, will belimited.

    a. Capabilities.(1) Wire is flexible, reliable, and less subject to

    mechanical and electronic failure thanradio.

    (2) Wire requires a somewhat lesser degree oftechnical skill to install and maintainthan radio.

    (3) Wire communications are less easily inter-cepted than radio.

    b. Limitations.(1) Wire requires considerable time, labor,

    material, and equipment to install, operate,and maintain.

    (2) Wire is subject to failure due to vulnerabilityof long wire lines to bombing, artillery fire,enemy patrols, and damage by vehicles.

    43. Radiotelephone Procedurea. Radiotelephone procedure is covered in ACP

    125. All officers and enlisted men should be thor-

    37

  • oughly familiar with proper radiotelephone procedureand comply strictly with instructions contained inthat publication.

    b. Unnecessary and improper transmissions mustbe avoided in order to prevent the enemy from ob-.taining information which may reveal the tacticaldisposition, strength, or movement of friendly forces.Effective transmission security requires constantsupervision by the commander and a high state oftraining on the part of personnel using communica-tion nets.

    44. Communication Nets, GeneralCommunication nets required for an AAA (AW)

    defense include the following:a. Early Warning Net. This is a one-way wire or

    radio net (or both) between the AA teller (a memberof the AA liaison party) in the Air Force Agency andthe early warning plotter at the AAOC. In the fieldarmy, the primary AAOC in the area usually estab-lishes this net.

    b. Air Force Liaison Net. This is a two-way wireor radio net (or both) which connects the AA liaisonofficer in the Air Force Agency with the AA defensecommander's representative in the AAOC.

    c. Observation Post Net. This is the net establishedfor the transmission of information from the AAAvisual observation posts to the elements of the AAdefense. Due to the complexity of this net, it israrely practical to use wire. This is a two-way netbetween the observation posts and the NCS (netcontrol station) at the AAOC and a one-way net be-tween the observation posts and all other elementsof the defense.

    38

  • OPERATES FROM TO FROM COIRMAnOWITH AAOC AOC AAOC OPS IF DEFENSE TO MIGHER

    OPERATIONAL CONTROL RADAR rI INTELLIGENCE REPORTING

    O S-

    (44TRYS PER N T P

    (2 PLATS PER BTRY)

    (4 PER PLAT) P

    OP'S ORGANIC TO AW(4 PER PLAT)

    Figure 6. AAA bn (AW) (Mbl), radio nets under seniorAAOC.

    d. Radar Reporting Net. This is a two-way wireor radio net (or both) over which radars operating ina surveillance role within the AA defense transmitdata to the AAOC.

    e. Intelligence Net. This is a one-way wire orradio net (or both) over which the AAOC dissemi-nates intelligence to the elements of the defense andother interested agencies.

    f. Operational Control Net. This is a two-waywire or radio net (or both) over which the AA de-fense commander, or his representative from theAAOC, exercises operational control over the ele-ments of the AA defense.

    39

  • g. Command Net. This is a two-way wire or radionet (or both) over which all elements of command forwhich other nets are not established, including ad-ministration, are transmitted. This net is normallyestablished from the administrative headquarters ofthe AA commander and not from the AAOC.

    45. Radio Netsa. Mobile Battalion, Under Senior AAOC (fig. 6).

    (1) Higher headquarters command net (AM).The battalion operates a radio set in theAM (amplitude modulated) command netof the next higher headquarters. This netmay be a voice or CW (continuous wave)net and is used for command and adminis-trative purposes. This station operates ona frequency assigned by the higher head-quarters concerned.

    (2) Battalion command net (AM). The battal-ion command net includes a station at thebattalion headquarters and one at each ofthe firing batteries. The radio at the bat-talion headquarters is the NCS for this net.

    (3) Intelligence net (AM). The battalion oper-ations center, each firing battery, and eachautomatic weapons platoon operate a radioreceiver, AN/GRR-5, in this net.

    (4) Radar reporting net (AM). The battalionsurveillance radar is-connected to the seniorAAOC by a two-way radio over which in-formation concerning radar pick-ups istransmitted to the AAOC and over whichthe AAOC passes special instructions to thesurveillance radars.

    40

  • (5) Observation post net (AM). The battalionoperations center, each of the firing bat-teries, and each fire unit operate a radioreceiver, AN/GRR-5, in this net to receiveOP information direct from the OP.

    (6) Operational control net (AM). The bat-talion operations center, each firing battery,and each of the automatic weapons pla-toons operate a two-way radio in this netproviding direct communications betweenthese elements and the AAOC.

    b. Self-propelled Battalion, Under Senior AAOC(fig. 7).

    (1) Higher headquarters command net (AM).

    p

    A (ASPB--4 TEAMS) no C IA

    A PN/SS BN CD NE10 T(W)

    (2 PLATS PER TRT)

    (4-PER PLAT) P . T(

    (4-PER PLATI

    Figure 7. Self-propelled battalion antiaircraft mission, undersenior AAOC.

    41

  • The battalion operates a radio set in thecommand net of the next higher headquar-ters. This net may be a voice or CW netand is used for command and administra-tive purposes. This station operates on afrequency assigned by the higher head-quarters concerned.

    (2) Battalion command net (FM). The FM(frequency modulated) battalion commandnet includes at least one station at the bat-talion headquarters and one at each of thefiring batteries. This net may includevarious staff officers of the battalion.

    (3) Battery command net (FM). The batterycommand net consists of at least one sta-tion at the battery headquarters and oneat each automatic weapons platoon head-quarters.

    (4) Platoon command net (FM). The platooncommand net consists of a radio set at theplatoon headquarters and one at each fireunit. (When available frequencies do notpermit operation of separate platoon com-mand nets, these nets may be combinedwith the battery command net and alloperate on the same frequency.)

    (5) Intelligence net (AM). The battalion opera-tions center and each firing battery operatea radio receiver in this net.

    (6) Radar reporting net (AM). The battalionsurveillance radar is connected to the seniorAAOC by a two-way radio over whichinformation concerning pick-ups is trans-mitted to the AAOC and over which the

    42

  • AAOC passes special instructions, as neces-sary to the surveillance radar.

    (7) Observation post net (AM). The battalionoperations center and each fire unit operatea radio receiver in this net to receive OPinformation direct from the OP

    (8) Operational control net (AM). The battalionoperations center, each firing battery, andeach automatic weapons platoon head-quarters operate a two-way radio in thisnet providing direct communication be-tween these elements and the AAOC.

    c. Divisional-Antiaircraft Artillery AutomaticWeapons Battalion. The FM radio equipment of theAA (AW) battalion organic to the division will be

    ARTT 4 04* INTEL

    C AD t . NOS L A H

    aircraft mission radio nets.

    43

  • I (4 PER PLA TO.o ) (4 pER WPL& N) O

    ~~~~I ~ PLAWTOON CO .ANDp fII FIRE DIRECTION NOT

    P INF BN K"

    P 8AS IO O IICOMp TCO

    1F REITN.

    s- c .o GRE i i(W"IEN SMN OP'S ARE ED} 40' K A. SRI ErR! co

    MA I__TELLISESCE N, T- - AS LAO TO RECA CO

    Fi/ture 9. Self-propelled battalion (Infantry Division) surfacemission radio nets.

    of the same general type as that used within thedivision. When establishing an AA defense, thedivisional unit will establish essentially the samefacilities for communication as those required forAAOC operation at higher echelons (fig. 8). Whenassigned close support missions, divisional units willgenerally establish communication nets as indicatedin figure 9.

    d. Communication with Other Combat Arms. WhenAAA (AW) units are assigned missions which requireclose liaison with other combat arms, such as closesupport missions, radio communication becomes avital problem. If available radio sets are of thesame general type, with overlapping channels, as-signment of operating frequencies in the overlap

    44

  • band will permit communications between the AAA(AW) unit and the supported unit. If radio sets ofthe units concerned are not of the same general type,it will be necessary to effect a temporary trade ofradio sets between units so that each unit has therequired number of radio sets.

    46. Wire NetsFigure 10 shows a type wire net for an AAA bat-

    talion (AW), nondivisional, in an AA role. Figure11 shows a type wire net for a divisional type AAAbattalion (AW) in a ground support role. Becauseof the limited amount of wire and wire equipmentavailable, every effort must be made by all com-manders to conserve wire. The need for wire com-munication to each installation must be carefully

    AAOG aAOA

    ,:O~. AND rCo ST RRIP

    ST, T ...

    STRIP NAL

    IE R CLIC TO C I N

    I(4 PR PLTOON) (4 KIER PLTOON)

    Figure 10. AAA Bn. (AW) wire nets, AA mission, underSenior AAOC.

    45

  • considered. Command posts are located as near aspossible to subordinate units in order to reduce thelength of wire circuits. When no provision is madefor wire communication personnel within the battery,personnel from the fire units must- be trained toestablish, operate, and maintain wire communicationas well as radio communication.

    Ex R THER BTRYS IDENT

    AS RE IRED

    (4 PER PLATOON) (4 PER PLATOON) (4 PER PLATOON) (4 PER PLATOON)

    Figure t1. AAA Bn (AW) wire nets, surface mission (Div).

    46

  • CHAPTER 6

    OBSERVATION AND EARLY WARNING

    47. Warning SystemAdequate early warning information of the ap-

    proach of aircraft is a prime requirement for theeffective employment of AAA (AW). Adequateearly warning will provide enough time for thepersonnel and equipment of the unit to be in therequired condition of readiness to engage a hostileaircraft at the maximum effective range of theweapon.

    a. Conditions of Air Defense Warning. The con-dition of air defense warning is announced to thesenior AAOC by the air defense commander. Theconditions of warning are:

    (1) Warning Red. Hostile air attack imminent.(2) Warning Yellow. Hostile air attack prob-

    able.(3) Warning White. Attack by hostile aircraft

    improbable.

    b. Conditions of Readiness. The condition ofreadiness will be directed by the AAOC, but anyfire unit may assume a higher condition of readinessif conditions warrant. All units in forward areasnormally maintain one of the following conditions ofreadiness:

    (1) Battle stations. With a Warning Red, all

    47

  • equipment is fully manned ready for im-mediate effective delivery of fire.

    (2) Standby. With a Warning Yellow, weaponsare partially manned, communication netsand command posts fully manned. Fireunits are prepared to assume battle stationswithin a time limit prescribed by theAAOC.

    (3) Secure. With a Warning White, commandposts and communications are partiallymanned, surveillance and guard personnelare on duty. with all other personnel readyto assume battle stations within a timelimit prescribed by the AAOC.

    c. Action Status. Action status is the degree of en-gagement control imposed by the air defense com-mander through the AAOC on fire units in air de-fense. The terms are:

    (1) Guns Free. Fire at any aircraft not identi-fied as friendly.

    (2) Guns Tight. Fire only at aircraft identifiedas hostile.

    (3) Hold Fire. Do not open fire. Cease fire.

    48. Functions of AAOC and AAAISAntiaircraft artillery information service properly

    employed, will furnish information on the activityof aircraft within a limited zone of surveillance.The AAAIS is not capable of providing warningearly enough to eliminate the necessity for maintain-ing a constant condition of alert on the weapons.For detailed coverage of the AAOC and AAAIS inthe zone of interior, communications zone, and com-bat zone, see FM 44-1 and FM 44-8.

    48

  • 49. Aircraft IdentificationA comprehensive means of positive recognition

    and identification of aircraft is essential. Decisionsas to conditions of readiness (secure, standby, andbattle stations) must be based upon timely and ac-curate information as to the friendly or hostile natureof aircraft which have been detected. For detailedcoverage of recognition and identification, see FM30-30.

    388163 0--56 4 49

  • CHAPTER 7

    SECURITY AND PROTECTION

    50. GeneralAll AAA (AW) commanders must consider local

    defense capabilities while selecting fire unit positionsand command posts. Automatic weapons positionsare often widely separated and isolated, making itvitally important to establish effective local securityfor each position.

    51. Passive DefenseA passive defense is designed without the expecta-

    tion of taking the initiative or utilizing actionweapons. It is based on concealment, dispersion,deception, and protection.

    a. Cover and Concealment. The mission and timelimitation with automatic weapons may restrict theamount of cover and concealment used. Time per-mitting, slit trenches, fortifications, shelters, and dug-outs should be constructed (FM 5-15).

    b. Dispersion. With automatic weapons dispersedin an antiaircraft defense, the problem of localsecurity is increased. However, if the mission isprimarily ground defense, the fire units should beconcentrated in one locality to provide for moreeffective local security. Local security must be co-ordinated with adjacent or defended units.

    c. Alternate and Dummy Positions. When aprimary unit position becomes untenable or unsuit-

    50

  • able for further occupation, the unit should be movedto an alternate position. Subject to the direction ofhigher headquarters, dummy positions may be pre-pared to deceive the enemy. Dummy positions arelaid out a safe distance from all friendly troops andinstallations, and partially concealed to make themmore realistic.

    d. Blackout and Night Movement. Blackout dis-cipline should be strictly enforced with all units incombat. An installation may be concealed duringthe day, but revealed at night because of the slightestlight showing. Entrances to command post tents orshelters must have light locks and be checked fre-quently for light leaks. When a unit moves, it shouldbe done at night with blackout lights.

    e. Radio Silence. Radio silence is imposed to denythe enemy the opportunity of traffic analysis. Move-ments of units can be traced by listening to trans-missions, even though the messages may be valueless.Communication during radio silence may be carriedon by wire, messenger, or visual means.

    f. Warning Signals. In combat, observation teamswarn of enemy attack. Warning signals should bestandardized so they may be understood by allfriendly units. Different signals should be devisedto indicate each type of attack.

    g. Defilade. To hinder enemy observation, andprovide protection of materiel and personnel, posi-tions of AAA (AW) in a ground role should be placedso as to be shielded from direct fire of enemy artillery.

    52. Local Securitya. General. Local security is provided by the

    effective use of personnel and materiel available to a

  • unit. It includes all the measures necessary for pro-tection against local attack. Local security plansand procedures must be closely coordinated withsupported and adjacent units and conform with thearea defense plan and area damage control plan.

    b. Type of Attack. Antiaircraft units may expectany of the following types of attack:

    (1) Infiltration.(2) General breakthrough.(3) Reconnaissance in force.(4) Mechanized thrust.(5) Parachutist.(6) Glider.(7) Guerilla.

    c. Selection of Position. In selecting the AAposition, the following factors are considered inattaining local security:

    (1) Fields of fire for ground targets.(2) Routes of approach to and from the position.(3) Observation.(4) Tactical advantage of ground.(5) Camouflage.

    d. Organization of Position. The defended areashould be kept as small as possible, with the primaryarmament and available equipment within the per-imeter defense. Machineguns and rifles are sited toform bands of interlocking fire around the perimeterto prevent enemy penetration.

    e. Materiel. Weapons and equipment normallycontained within an automatic weapons unit willbe used for local security as follows:

    (1) Machineguns. Machineguns are the pri-mary ground defense weapons. They are

    52

  • sited for interlocking, grazing fire throughunobstructed fire lanes which are preparedon the far side of the wire or other obstacles.Multiple machine guns should be firedtwo barrels at a time only, and in shortbursts, to prevent overheating. Alternatemachinegun positions should be prepared.

    (2) 40-mm guns. The 40-mm gun, utilizinghigh explosive ammunition, is particularlyvaluable against enemy personnel in woodedor underbrush areas where air bursts canbe obtained.

    (3) Hand grenades. The added value of handgrenades is that they do not reveal thefriendly position to the enemy.

    (4) Mines and booby traps. Mines and boobytraps, in addition to being effective inafflicting casualties on the enemy, alsoserve as warning devices. Mines must belaid in bands far enough outside the de-fended area to minimize the danger ofinjuring friendly personnel. Before minesare laid, clearance must be obtained fromthe engineer of the headquarters to whichthe automatic weapons unit is attachedand also from adjacent units. See FM20-32 for mine laying information.

    (5) Barbed wire. Wire delays the enemy andprovides a warning to the defended area.Wire should be strung from 50 to 100yards from equipment. Noise-making de-vices may be attached to the wire. Detailson wire obstacle construction are containedin FM 5-15.

    53

  • (6) Individual arms. Wire and other obstaclesshould be covered by rifle, carbine, andmachine gun fire from foxhole positions..Small arms positions should provide flank-ing and crossfire. Riflemen should beplaced where they can provide protectionfor machineguns.

    (7) Rocket launchers. Rocket launchers arelocated to cover probable avenues of ap-proach in forward areas to provide for anti-mechanized defense. Launchers with super-sensitive detonating ammunition areeffective against enemy personnel.

    (8) Rifle grenades. Rifle grenades provide alonger range effect against enemy person-nel and lightly armored vehicles than doordinary hand grenades.

    f.'Standing Operating Procedure. An SOP forlocal security is necessary for every unit. It mustbe coordinated with adjacent higher, and lower units,and be thoroughly understood by every individual.It will include:

    (1) A plan for establishing and executing imme-diate local security upon occupation ofposition.

    (2) A system of marking restricted areas, in-cluding mines and booby traps.

    (3) The procedure for submitting mine andbooby trap reports.

    (4) Alert signals.(5) The organization of a mobile reserve to

    support units needing aid.(6) A system of challenges, passwords, and

    replies.

    54

  • (7) An alert plan for manning primary equip-ment for ground defense.

    (8) The establishment of ground observationand listening posts.

    (9) Priorities for opening fire on ground targets.(10) A plan for individual weapon ammunition

    supply and reserve.(11) A plan for defense against CBR attack.

    g. The Local Security Plan. The local securityplan must be simple and flexible. It makes provisionfor establishing:

    (1) An all-around perimeter defense.(2) Sites for weapons.(3) Sectors of fire for all weapons.(4) Guards and listening posts.(5) Guard details and orders.(6) Booby trap and mine locations.(7) Alert stations of personnel.(8) Procedure in the event of perimeter pene-

    tration.(9) Location of obstacles.(10) Location of sleeping stations.(11) Location and type of foxholes.(12) Restricted areas.(13) Night movement regulations.(14) Firing lane preparation.(15) Methods of communication.(16) CBR defense.(17) Chronological order of work to be done.

    h. Conduct of Defense. In most cases AAA (AW)fire units are isolated and therefore must defendthemselves. This presents a special problem be-cause manpower is limited. At least one man mustbe on the alert at all times. When an infiltration

    55

  • v\\ \

    I \

    [email protected] , \\\\ I

    \\ \I5

    Figure 12. Perimeter defense in daytime.

    becomes likely, men located on the perimeter remainalert and must conduct the defense with handgrenades until the enemy is definitely located orpenetrates the perimeter. Ordinarily primary weap-ons do not fire until grenades and small arms failto halt the penetration. If units are close enoughtogether, supporting and flanking fire should beplanned (fig. 12). At night when there is a threatof ground attack, weapons on the outer gun ring ofthe defense should be moved in and placed on the500-yard ring. Positions should then be organizedas strong points for local security (fig. 13).

    56

  • N'

    x~\ \ ,~ ,~x x..

    , \,\.A \\ ' A"

    ~0 \ \

    I~~~~~I~0,~.

    St

  • CHAPTER 8

    LOGISTICS

    Secion 1. SUPPLY AND EVACUATION53. General-Classes of Supply

    a. General. General supply procedures and defi-nitions are contained in FM 100-10 and FM 101-10.

    b. Class I (Rations). Class I supplies consist ofthose articles which are consumed by personnel oranimals at an approximately uniform rate, regardlessof local changes in combat or terrain conditions.Rations are picked up daily by the battalion supplysection. Issue is based on the daily battalion con-solidated report of actual strength.

    c. Class II (Supplies and Equipment Prescribedby TOE or TA). Battalion supply consolidatesclass II supply requisitions and forwards themthrough appropriate supply channels.

    d. Class III (Petroleum Products). These suppliesconsist of fuels and lubricants used for all purposesexcept the operation of aircraft and flame throwers.Class III supplies are characterized by reasonablyuniform demands, as in the case of class I supplies.They are, however, subject to sudden peak loadsbased on the tactical situation; they present atonnage, transportation, and control problem. Solidfuels are the responsibility of the engineers. Quarter-master handles all other class III items.

    e. Class IV (Miscellaneous Unclassified Articles).Class IV supplies are those for which allowances are

    58

  • not prescribed or are not otherwise classified. Thesesupplies are issued by item; automatic supply israre except in the case of certain medical items.

    f. Class V (Ammunition). Class V supply in-cludes both ordnance and chemical ammunitionitems. Flamethrower fuel and those demolitionsand explosives which are closely allied with engineeractivities are included in class V supply.

    54. Supply Agenciesa. Antiaircraft artillery automatic weapons bat-

    talions have the necessary personnel and trans-portation to draw and deliver all classes of supply.Antiaircraft artillery groups do not function as asupply agency except for allocating critical suppliesor ammunition.

    b. Requisitions for supplies are submitted bybatteries to the battalion supply officer, who con-solidates and forwards them through appropriatesupply channels.

    c. When requisitioned supplies become available,the battalion is notified. Instructions concerningdrawing and distributing supplies are normallypublished by higher headquarters. The battalionsupply section issues and the batteries pick up theavailable supplies.

    d. When AAA (AW) batteries are attached toother units, they will be supplied by the unit towhich they are attached.

    55. Airborne Suppliesa. The organic tactical loads of airborne units

    include an initial supply, or basic load, of ammuni-tion. All other supplies carried by the airborne unit

    59

  • are limited and will last for a short time only. Per-sonnel must be trained to conserve all supplies,particularly during the earlier stages of a missionwhen resupply is very difficult.

    b. Supply of airborne units follows normal pro-cedures, except that supplies for the airborne aretransported by air until ground units have effected ajunction with airborne troops.

    56. Medical Agencies and Evacuationa. For complete information on evacuation and

    medical agencies, see FM 100-10, FM 8-5, and FM8-10.

    b. The AAA (AW) battalion may or may not haveattached medical personnel depending on the assign-ment, mission, and tactical situation. The medical de-tachment is an integral part of the battalion, at-tached for command, administration, and supply.Personnel of the detachment establish an aid stationat battalion headquarters, with an aid man attachedto each battery or platoon for first aid. Casualtiesare evacuated through the battalion or nearest aidstation and from there as directed by higher head-quarters.

    Section II. TRANSPORTATION

    57. Organic TransportationThe current TOE shows the transportation avail-

    able to each type of unit. Mobile units normallyhave adequate transportation to move all equipmentand personnel at the same time. Because of thelimited number of cargo trucks in the self-propelledbattalion, their allocation for use requires careful

    60

  • planning. The airborne battalion has the greatestproblem because of limited organic transportation.

    58. Mobility and Securitya. The mobility of an AAA (AW) unit depends

    largely on carefully prepared loading plans. In self-propelled and airborne units, each weapons mountmust carry its own personnel and allied equipment.Platoon, battery, and battalion headquarters musthave stringent loading plans because of the limitednumber of vehicles available.

    b. During all motor movements, convoys should beprotected against enemy air and guerilla attacks.By interspersing self-propelled weapons and manningother organizational weapons along the march col-umn, a convoy will be assured of maximum protec-tion against surprise attack.

    c. Detailed information applicable to maintenance,operation, and security of motor transportation isfound in FM 25-10.

    Section III. MESSING

    59. ResponsibilityDue to the widely scattered positions of automatic

    weapons in a normal antiaircraft mission, the prob-lem of messing becomes an acute one. The solutionof the problem rests with the commanding officer.

    60. Combat MessingWhen a fire unit is located near another installa-

    tion, arrangements should be made to have the anti-aircraft troops mess with that installation. If noinstallation is nearby, food must be prepared by thebattery or battalion mess and transported in insu-

    61

  • lated containers to the gun positions or prepared atthe fire unit; there are so many disadvantages to thelast arrangement, however, that every effort shouldbe made to have personnel mess with an adjacentinstallation.

    62

  • PART TWOGUNNERY AND FIRE CONTROL DEVICES

    - CHAPTER 9ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY (AUTOMATIC

    WEAPONS) GUNNERY PROBLEM

    Section I. INTRODUCTION

    61. Generala. A knowledge of the basic AAA (AW) gunnery

    problem is essential for a study of the sighting devicesused with AAA (AW). Since these sighting devicesare utilized on highly mobile weapons, and sincethese weapons are used in the defense of low-flying,bard hitting enemy aircraft, they are not expectedto have round-for-round accuracy. Rather, theaccuracy depends on the skill, speed, and knowledgeof personnel operating them. It is therefore neces-sary, in training these personnel, to have a thoroughunderstanding of the working parts of these devices,and the role those parts have in the overall solutionof the gunnery problem.

    b. Basically, the LAAA (AW) gunnery problem isto locate a point in space ahead of a target and tohit it. LAA (AW) sighting devices attempt to solvethe problem with fixed assumptions. It is assumed,first, that the target is flying a straight course duringengagement. Second, the target is assumed to beflying at a constant speed. These assumptions arelogical due to the short engagement ranges of under2,000 yards and the inability of modern high-speedtargets to maneuver within a very short period of

  • time. The third assumption is that the closest thetarget will come to the gun during its flight is afixed distance or a fixed midpoint slant range. Asexplained in appendix III, variations in range effectthe problem of correct lead very slightly short of1,500 yards slant range.

    62. Slant Plane ConceptTo facilitate the understanding of the AAA (AW)

    problem and the sighting devices used in the solution,a geometric approach has been developed. This isknown as the slant plane concept. The future posi-tion of the target is located by reducing the probleminto one imaginary tilted surface, or slant plane,containing the firing weapon, the present positionof the target, and future position of the target. Inthis mathematical solution, the weapon and targetpositions are reduced to points. (In the practicalsolution and analysis of the problem, the pointrepresenting the target reverts to its original shape,allowing for a small margin for error.) The slantplane concept is a simplified approach to the gun-nery problem which places the single lead angle inan imaginary plane surface. With this accomplished,it remains only to apply superelevation. In anti-aircraft automatic weapons this is a very smallfactor because of the high muzzle velocity and shorteffective range of the weapon.

    Section II. ELEMENTS OF DATA

    63. GeneralTo present this gunnery problem, it is necessary

    to name and define certain geometric plane surfaces,points, lines, and angles used in the problem.

    64

  • 64. Planesa. General. By definition, a geometric plane is an

    imaginary flat surface of infinite dimensions, and isestablished among other conditions, by a straightline and a point not on that line, or by three pointsnot in a straight line.

    b. Slant Plane. The slant plane is that geometricplane established by the target course line and thepintle center of the gun. The target course line forpractical purposes is a straight line established byextending the longitudinal axis of the target fuselageto infinity. The pintle center of the gun is thatpoint around which the gun bore moves laterallyand vertically. As long as the target course linedoes not pass through the pintle center of the gun,a geometric plane surface exists and is called theslant plane (fig. 14).

    c. Horizontal Plane. The horizontal plane is thatplane established by the pintle center of the gun andall imaginary points at that same elevation, dis-regarding the curvature of the earth (fig. 14).

    65. Points (fig. 15)a. G. Point G is the gun and is defined as the

    pintle center of the gun.b. To (T sub o). Point To is the present position

    (observed position) of the target and is defined asthe location of center of mass of the target themoment a round is assumed to be fired.

    c. T, (T sub p). Point T, is the future position(predicted position) and is defined as the point onthe course line where the assumed round, if correctlyaimed, will intersect the center of mass of the target.

    d. Tm (T sub m). Point Tm is midpoint and is

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  • defined as that point on the course line at minimumslant range from the gun.

    66. Lines (fig. 15)a. Do (D sub o). The line Do is present slant

    range and is defined as the straight line distance inyards between the gun and the present position.

    b. D, (D sub p). The line D, is future slant rangeand is defined as the straight line distance in yardsbetween the gun and the future position.

    c. Dm (D sub m). The line Dm is midpoint slantrange and is defined as the straight line distance inyards between the gun and midpoint.

    d. Target Course Lines (fig. 16). In any discussionof AA (AW) gunnery, the attitude of the targetcourse line in space is of prime importance. Todescribe these different attitudes, target courses arenamed according to the altitude from the horizontalplane and the direction of flight in respect to the gun.Every target course will be described by two words;one describing altitude and the other describingdirection.

    (1) Level. A level course is formed by a targetflying at a constant altitude.

    (2) Climbing. A climbing course is formed by atarget flying at increasing altitude.

    (3) Diving. A diving course is formed by a tar-get flying at decreasing altitude.

    (4) Incoming. An incoming course is formed bythe target flying toward a vertical lineerected through the pintle center of the gun,perpendicular to the horizontal plane.

    (5) Outgoing. An outgoing course is formed by atarget flying directly away from a vertical

    68

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    I 69

  • line erected through the pintle center of thegun, perpendicular to the hori7ontal plane.

    (6) Crossing. A crossing course is formed whenthe target course line does not pass directlyover the gun.

    (7) Directly-at-the-gun. A directly-at-the-guncourse is formed when the target is flyingdirectly toward the pintle center of the gun.

    e. By combining the above names, any course canbe described; for example, "Incoming Diving","Crossing Level", "Climbing Outgoing" or "DivingDirectly-at-the-gun."

    f. Every target course line can be divided, for gun-nery purposes, into two portions called legs. Theapproaching leg is that portion of the target courseline along which the target is flying toward midpoint.The receding leg is that portion of the target courseline along which the target is flying away from mid-point.

    g. Vt, (V small t sub p). The line Vt, is targettravel distance and is defined as the straight line dis-tance in yards from the present position to the futureposition of the target. The letter V is the targetspeed (velocity) in yards per second along the courseline. The letter t is the time of flight in seconds of theprojectile assumed to be fired. The subscript pdesignates future position. Vt,, then, has the valuein yards of the speed of the target (in yards persecond) multiplied by the time of flight of theprojectile (in seconds) from the gun to the futureposition.

    67. Angles (fig. 15)a. Eo (E sub o). The angle E, is present angular

    height and is defined as the vertical angle between

    70

  • the line of present slant range and the horizontalplane.

    b. E, (E sub p). The angle E, is future angularheight and is defined as the vertical angle betweenthe line of future slant range and the horizontal plane.

    c. Em (E sub m). The angle Em is midpoint angu-lar height and is defined as the vertical angle betweenthe line of midpoint slant range and the horizontalplane.

    d. E, (E sub s). The angle E, is slant plane angu-lar height and is defined as the vertical angle betweenthe slant plane and horizontal plane measured per-pendicular to their line of intersection.

    e. Angular Height Variations.(1) ES, the slant plane angular height, cannot

    vary with any single target course line,because the position of one course line isfixed in space, just as the gun is at a fixedpoint.

    (2) Eo and EP, present angular height and futureangular height, will both change in value assuccessive rounds are assumed to be firedalong a target course line, provided thattarget course line does not lie in the-hori-zontal plane. On level courses, Eo and E,increase to midpoint and decrease there-after. On climbing and diving courses theyincrease to a point other than midpointwhere angular height to that point is equalto slant plane angular height and decreasethereafter. This point is located on theapproaching leg of a diving course and onthe receding leg of a climbing course.

    71

  • f. d, (Phi sub s). The angle b, is superelevationand is defined as the vertical angle required to elevatethe gun bore above the line of future slant range, inorder to overcome the effect of curvature of trajectorycaused by gravity. This angle varies inversely withthe elevation of the gun bore and directly with rangeto the target (future slant range).

    g. 0 (Phi). The angle 0 is quadrant elevation andis defined as the vertical angle between the axis ofthe gun bore and the horizontal plane.

    h. a (Alpha). The angle a is the angle of approachand is defined as the angle formed by To, T,, and Gwith the apex at T,. This angle increases along agiven course line as successive rounds are assumedto be fired and it varies, theoretically, from 0° to1800. It always lies in the slant plane.

    i. LR (L sub R). The angle LR is the required leadangle and is defined as the mathematically correctlead angle between the lines of present slant rangeand future slant range. This is a slant plane angle.

    j. La (L sub G). The angle La is the generatedlead angle and is defined as the angle between thetracker's line of sight and the axis of the gun bore(disregarding superelevation). The tracker's line ofsight is a line projected from the tracker's eyethrough, or along, a sighting device. The axis ofthe gun bore (disregarding superelevation) is animaginary line along which the axis of the gun borewould lie if the angle of superelevation were not setin. The generated lead angle and required leadangle are two distinctly separate angles. Therequired lead is a mathematically correct lead. Thegenerated lead is the lead which actually exists on

    72

  • the gun. The problem, therefore, is to make thegenerated lead coincide with the required lead.

    Section III. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    68. GeneralWith certain mathematically fixed points, lines,

    and angles established in and between the slant andhorizontal planes, the AAA (AW) gunnery problemcan now be solved. In conjunction with the mathe-matical solution to the problem, the practical andmechanical solution must also be explained. Theproblem of obtaining a hit is reduced to two basicrequirements, line and lead. A set of four conditionsor steps called links of the gunnery chain exist which,if collectively satisfied, will accomplish the tworequirements.

    69. Gunnery Chaina. Link I. To establish and maintain the tracker's

    line of sight on center of mass of the target. Thetracker's line of sight has been defined as a line fromthe tracker's eye through, or along, a sighting device.Link I, then, is to make the tracker's line of sight liealong the line of Do, present slant range.

    b. Link II. To establish the axis of the gun bore(disregarding superelevation) in the slant plane.With antiaircraft artillery automatic weapons, super-elevation is mechanically applied. It is thereforenecessary to stipulate, in academic definitions, thatthe angular height of the axis of the gun bore doesnot contain additional angle of superelevation.

    c. Link III. To establish the correct amount oflead. This is to make the generated lead angle,LG, equal to the required lead angle, LR, or, having

    73

  • established links I and II, to make the axis of thegun bore (disregarding superelevation), lie along theline of future slant range, D,.

    d. Link IV. To establish the correct amount ofsuperelevation. With the axis of the gun bore (dis-regarding superelevation) lying along D,, the laststep to obtain a hit is to elevate the gun bore a smallamount necessary to overcome curvature of trajec-tory caused by gravity.

    70. Requirements for a Hita. General. It can be seen that the men who aim

    and fire the gun would have little time to establisheach link of the gunnery chain separately. Theirimmediate problem, while firing, is therefore reducedto two requirements for a hit. These are line andlead.

    b. Line. This requirement is satisfied if the pro-jectile is made to intersect the target course linewithin tolerance. In the line tolerance, a margin forerror is introduced by the fact that the projectileneed not intersect the narrow line of the projectedlongitudinal axis of the target fuselage in order tobe effective. Intersecting the bottom or top of thefuselage is a hit. By definition, the line tolerance isone-half the angle subtended at the gun by thediameter of the fuselage of the target. The amountof this line tolerance increases with the diameter ofthe target fuselage and decreases with increasingrange (D,) to the target (fig. 17).

    c. Lead. This requirement is satisfied, after lineis obtained, when the projectile is made to intersectthe target.

    (1) Lead tolerance. Again, a margin for error is

    74

  • 0. SLANT-PLANE VIEW, CROSSING COURSE.

    INCOMING COURSE

    CROSSING COURSES

    DI AMETER OF FUSELAGE

    LINE TOLERANCE

    G b. CROSS- SECTIONAL VIEW.Figure 17. Line tolerance.

    introduced. The projectile need not hit thecenter of mass of the target to be effective.An intersection with the nose or tail is

    classified as a hit. By definition, the leadtolerance is one-half the angle subtended atthe gun by the length of the target fuselage.The amount of this lead tolerance increaseswith the length of the target fuselage, de-

    creases with greater range (Dp) to the tar-get, and increases with the sine of the angleof approach to minimum slant range anddecreases thereafter (fig. 18 and app. III).

    (2) Mathematical solution ql lead angles. Tofully understand the lead problem, it is

    75

  • LEADTOLERANCE

    LRT

    Figure 18. Lead tolerance.

    necessary to have a working knowledge oftrigonometry. In figure 15, the trianglesin the slant plane are formed by the gun(G), the target's present position (To),future position (T,), and midpoint (Tm).These points are mathematically locatedwhen a target is flying a certain courseand a particular round is assumed to befired. The mathematical problem is todetermine the magnitude of the angle LR,the lead angle required to hit the target.By applying the law of sines to the triangle

    76

  • GToT,, the following proportion is found:sin LR sin a

    Vt, DVSolving the proportion for sin LR, the result

    i VtpXsin ais: sin L= sin a Since antiaircraft

    automatic weapons have a high muzzlevelocity, and are effective at short ranges,t, may be considered a function of Dr, per-mitting the combination of values for t,

    and D, into the factor tp or the rangeDp

    factor. Thus, the required lead equation

    emerges in its final form: sin LR=(V) (P )(sin a). It can be seen by a completemathematical analysis of this equation(app. III) that the amount of the requiredlead angle will increase with the speed ofthe target and the angle of approach tominimum range, but will change veryslightly with range variations within effec-tive ranges of antiaircraft automaticweapons.

    Section IV. GENERAL APPLICATION ANDANALYSIS OF PROBLEM

    71. GeneralWith a knowledge of the mathematical solution to

    the gunnery problem, the officer supervising firingpractice can analyze errors, and apply corrections infiring, by utilizing the links of the gunnery chain.In the critique of a particular firing course, each

    77

  • round must be sensed for line and lead. It is pos-sible to do this through tracer observation, which isexplained in chapter 10. The officer conductingthe critique will then have line information; whethereach round is High, Low, or On line within the toler-ance, and lead information; whether each round isAstern, Ahead, or On in lead within tolerance. Withthis information recorded, the officer conducting thecritique can analyze the problem with the tools athand, the links of the gunnery chain, applying themfirst to line, then to lead.

    72. LineThe supervising officer must realize that line shots

    must be obtained before corrections for lead (by theman on the gun) can be made. This is emphasizedin Tracer Observation (ch. 10). He must alsorealize that obtaining line shots is as difficult, ifnot more so, than establishing correct lead, becauseof the smaller line tolerance provided by the shape ofthe target. The average AAA (AW) target fuselageis approximately 2 yards wide, or about 1 yardeither way from the center. This 1 yard producesthe line tolerance and, at a range of 1,000 yards fromthe gun, would subtend 1 mil, a very small margin forerror. In addition, the line requirement must besatisfied, on crossing courses, by manipulating threelinks of the gunnery chain.

    a. Link I. The tracker's line of sight must bekept on the target, and if possible the center of mass,at all times. The sighting device uses this line asthe basic reference for its solution to the problem.Since automatic tracking devices are not available toAAA (AW), the physical and mental skills of the gun

    78

  • crew must be highly developed. Constant trackingpractice is just as important to AAA (AW) accuracyas physical training is to the athlete. Techniques oftracking must be thoroughly covered in AA (NW)training, and even a highly trained tracker mustcontinue practicing daily to maintain tracking skill.

    b. Link II. Point the axis of the gun bore (dis-regarding superelevation) ahead of the target alongthe target course line. With the tracker's line ofsight established, the axis of the gun bore (disre-garding superelevation) is moved separately fromthe tracker's line of sight until it lies ahead of thetarget, pointing at the target course line, or lying inthe slant plane. This operation is accomplished bymanipulating the sighting device, or by the trackercarrying the target at a certain attitude in his sight-ing device. It again requires physical skill andtechnique. If link II is in error only a mil or twothe round fired will be off line. The combinederrors in link I and link II must be no greater than aaverage of 1 mil in one direction in order to obtain aline shot.

    c. Link III. Since this link considers only theangular displacement between the tracker's line ofsight and the axis of the gun bore (disregarding super-elevation),