DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL
ARTILLERY(AUT T jIC WEAPONS)
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY · JULY 1956
*FM 44-2FIELD MANUAL 1 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYNo. 44-2 J
WASHINGTON 25, D.C., 12 July 1956
LIGHT ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY(AUTOMATIC WEAPONS)
Paragraph PagePART ONE. ORGANIZATION AND
TACTICSCHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION -------- 1, 2 3
2. ORGANIZATIONSection I. Missions ------------------ 3-5 4
II. Battalion ----------------- 6-18 5III. Battery, -.
................. 19-25 14
CHAPTER 3. CHARACTERISTICS OFEQUIPMENT ---------- 26-32 17
4. RECONNAISSANCE, SE-LECTION, AND OCCU-PATION OF POSITION
Section I. Antiaircraft defense ------ 33-35 25II. Surface
mission ----------- 36-39 30
CHAPTER 5. COMMUNICATIONS .---- 40-46 356. OBSERVATION AND
EARLY WARNING ---- 47-49 477. SECURITY AND PRO-
TECTION ------------- 50-52 508. LOGISTICS.
Section I. Supply and evacuation ---- - 53-56 58II.
Transportation ------- 57, 58 60
III. Messing -__-- 59, 60 61
*This manual supersedes FM 44-2, 24 August 1950,including C 1,
26 November 1952.
PART Two. GUNNERY AND FIRECONTROL DEVICES
CHAPTER 9. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTIL-LERY (AUTOMATICWEAPONS)
Section I. Introduction -------- __---- 61, 62 63II. Elements of
data __--......63-67 64
III. Solution of the problem- - .. 68-70 73IV. General
application and anal-
ysis of problem ---------- 71-73 77CHAPTER 10. TRACER
OBSERVATION_ 74-82 85
11. SPEED RING SIGHTS --- 83-88 10412. COMPUTING SIGHTS ---
89-93 12013. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTIL-
LERY (AUTOMATICWEAPONS) SURFACEFIRING
Section I. General .----------------- 94-96 146II. Direct fire
--------------- __ 97, 98 148
III. Indirect fire ---------------- 99-109 154APPENDIX I.
REFERENCES ----------------- 174
II. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY(AUTOMATIC WEAPONS)TRAINING AIDS
III. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSISOF LEAD ------------------- 184
IV. GLOSSARY OF ANTIAIRCRAFTARTILLERY (AUTOMATICWEAPONS) SYMBOLS
ANDTERMS --------------------- 194
INDEX ---------------------------------- 198
PART ONEORGANIZATION AND TACTICS
1. Purpose and ScopeThis manual is for the use of battalion
and staff, battery commanders, platoon leaders, andfire unit
leaders of AAA (AW) (antiaircraft artilleryautomatic weapons). It
covers the organization,reconnaissance, selection, and occupation
of posi-tions, communications, observation and early warn-ing,
security, logistics, gunnery, and fire controlsighting devices of
antiaircraft artillery automaticweapons -batteries and battalions.
Part one includesbattalion organization and tactics. Part two
in-cludes antiaircraft and surface gunnery techniquesand fire
control devices. Fundamental tacticalemployment principles of
antiaircraft artillery auto-matic weapons units are contained in FM
2. ReferencesFor a list of references containing material
menting this manual, see appendix I.
Section I. MISSIONS
3. General MissionThe mission of AAA (AW) is to attack and
enemy targets in the air, on land, and on water.This mission is
divided into air defense and surfacemissions. Force commanders
assign missions toAAA (AW) units. A commander may decide to useall
or any part of his AAA (AW) against ground orwater targets while
there is a threat of air attack if heconsiders that these targets
offer a greater threat tothe successful accomplishment of his
mission than anair attack. Antiaircraft artillery automatic
weaponsare disposed and emplaced to best execute theassigned
mission, air or surface defense. Whenpractical, the weapons are
sited to permit attack ontargets other than those included in the
4. Air Defense MissionThe mission of AAA (AW) in defense against
attack is to attack all forms of enemy aircraft andmissiles, to
destroy them, to nullify their effective-ness, or to force them to
abandon their mission.Automatic weapons are employed in the zone
ofinterior, communications zone, and combat zone.It is the
responsibility of the battalion commander
in a one-battalion defense, or higher unit commanderin a
multiple battalion defense, to design the entiredefense and
designate position areas to be occupiedby the fire units. A
discussion of AAA (AW)defense designing is contained in FM
5. Surface MissionThe mission of AAA (AW), when employed in
defense against surface attack, is to give fire supportto other
arms; to neutralize or destroy targets whichare most dangerous to
the supported arm by provid-ing or reinforcing field artillery
fires, and by attack-ing and destroying targets of opportunity on
land orwater. Details of employment in a surface missionare covered
in chapter 4.
Section II. BATTALION
6. Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons BattalionThe
battalion is the basic tactical and administra-
tive unit. It is composed of a headquarters andheadquarters
battery and four firing batteries. Seeappropriate TOE (tables of
organization and equip-ment) for specific organization and
7. Battalion Commandera. The battalion commander is responsible
battalion activities. He is responsible for the tacticaland
technical employment of his unit and its combateffectiveness, its
training, administration, discipline,supply and maintenance of
equipment, and the well-being and morale of its personnel. He
exercisescommand by making decisions and issuing orders tobattery
commanders, and supervises the activities of
the unit by means of reports and frequent personalvisits and
inspections covering all phases of activityengaged in by elements
of his command.
b. In accordance with assigned missions and ordersof higher
authority, the battalion commander willprepare and execute standing
operating proceduresfor the unit. He must:
(1) Keep himself and his subordinates informedof friendly and
enemy situations for bothground and air.
(2) Maintain communications and liaison withadjacent and
supported units and insureproper functioning of those
communicationsnets required for the tactical success of
(3) Coordinate the AAAIS (antiaircraft artilleryinformation
service) within the unit andinsure its proper functioning in
accordancewith current instructions from higher head-quarters.
(4) Make certain the commissioned officersassigned to duty as
AAOO (antiaircraftartillery operations officer) are qualified
8. Battalion Staffa. A battalion staff is provided to assist the
mander in the exercise of his command, in unit train-ing, and in
forming and executing a plan for combat.The staff secures and
furnishes required information,prepares details of plans and
orders, transmits ordersto subordinate commanders when necessary,
andprovides staff supervision over all activities of
b. Figure 1 shows the organization of the AAA(AW) battalion
staff. For detailed study of staffdoctrine, procedures, and duties,
see FM 101-5.Specific duties applicable to AAA (AW) battalionstaff
officers are in the following paragraphs. Com-mon responsibilities
of the head of each staff sectioninclude:
(1) Organization and supervision of the section.(2) Training
personnel in section duties.(3) Maintaining such records, charts,
as required by specific duties, including prep-aration of
appropriate portions of the unitreport.
(4) Informing other staff members and batterycommanders of
pertinent information re-ceived.
(5) Advising the commander on technical as-pects of the staff
(6) Serving as AAOO when required.
9. Executive Officer
The executive officer is second in command of thebattalion,
acting as the principal assistant and ad-visor to the commander.
His duties correspond tothose of chief of staff and/or deputy
commander of adivision or higher. In general, his job is to relieve
thecommander of detailed supervision of administrationand
operations, enabling the commander to devotehimself to command
functions. The executive officermust be prepared to assume command
of the bat-talion at all times by keeping fully informed of
thesituation. His duties are to-
a. Supervise the battalion staff activities.
PERS 0 ASST ASSTS t S4
STRY COMMO O LN MTR 0 CHCMDR (WO)
Figure 1. Organization of the battalion staff.
b. Supervise the establishment and operation ofthe command
c. Coordinate battalion security measures.d. Supervise the
compilation of required reports,
such as the unit journal and command report.e. Supervise the
establishment and operation of
the battalion AAOC..f. Coordinate and supervise the displacement
movement of the unit.g. Supervise the installation and operation
AAAIS, and communication nets required for tacticalsuccess of
10. SiThe S1, as battalion adjutant, plans, coordinates,
and supervises administrative and personnel func-
tions of the battalion. A personnel officer is hisassistant.
a. Administrative duties of the S1 are to---(1) Process official
correspondence.(2) Supervise publication, distribution, and
authentication of all orders, except combatorders.
(3) Maintain the records of the battalion.b. Personnel duties of
the S1 are to-
(1) Prepare strength records and reports.(2) Requisition and
process personnel replace-
ments.(3) Supervise discipline and legal activities in-
cluding the processing of court-martialcases.
(4) Handle the administration of civilian em-ployees, civil
affairs, and prisoners of war.
(5) Supervise and record the classification,assignment,
promotion, pay, allotments,transfers, casualties, and separation
(6) Supervise morale activities, including postalfacilities,
awards and decorations, leavesand passes, recreation and exchange
fa-cilities, and religious and welfare matters.
(7) Maintain the unit journal and other recordsnot assigned to
other staff sections.
(8) Handle personal effects with the assistanceof the summary
(9) Supervise administrative procedures.(10) Handle internal
arrangement of battalion
11. S2The S2 is the battalion intelligence officer. He
collects, evaluates, interprets, and disseminates allcombat
information ano. intelligence received atbattalion headquarters. In
addition, his dutiesare to-
a. Supervise the installation and operation of theAAAIS.
b. Coordinate intelligence training.c. Coordinate all means of
pertaining to the enemy situation, both air andground, from all
d. Make sure that this information is processed,evaluated,
interpreted, and disseminated reliablyand efficiently.
e. Make sure that a comprehensive system ofrecognition and
identification of friendly aircraft isestablished. This system must
provide for maximumexploitation of visual means and proper
employmentof electronic means. Limitations imposed by thehuman
element must be minimized.
f. Requisition and distribute maps.
12. S3The S3 is the battalion operations and training
officer. He has one officer assistant. The principleduties of
the S3 are to-
a. Prepare plans for and supervise the organiza-tion, training,
movement, and combat operation ofthe battalion.
b. Assist in the preparation and issuance of opera-tions orders
c. Assist in the establishment and operation ofthe AAOC.
d. Keep up-to-date information of the operatingstatus of
materiel, training, weapon locations,and missions.
e. Make sure that all commissioned and enlistedpersonnel
assigned duties in the AAOC are competentand well trained.
f. Make sure that the means of tactical battalioncontrol are
adequate and that-
(1) A complete but brief SOP (standing operat-ing procedure) for
engagement control andtarget selection is provided for each
fireunit leader and that fire unit personnel arewell versed in its
(2) A list of instructions for implementation ofthe fire unit
SOP is composed for the useof the AAOO.
g. Make certain that means of communicationprovided for the
control of battalion elements isreliable, rapid, and within
h. Coordinate liaison activity, TIE (troop informa-tion and
education) functions, use of training facili-ties, and the analysis
13. S4The S4 is the battalion supply officer and super-
vises the operation of supply, evacuation, trans-portation, and
maintenance. He has one warrantofficer assistant. Principle duties
of the S4 are to-
a. Requisition and distribute all supplies.b. Supervise food
service.c. Coordinate the planning, supervision, and
allocation of ammunition supply operations andcritical supplies
with the S3.
d. Coordinate administrative orders and motormovements with
e. Keep current information for the battalioncommander on the
status of supply, propertyaccounting procedures and records, and
organiza-tional maintenance of equipment.
f. Collect and process salvage.
14. Communication OfficerThe battalion communication officer,
vision of the S3, supervises the installation andoperation of
the communication nets that areneeded to meet the tactical and
administrativerequirements of the battalion. Specific dutiesare
a. Organize and operate the battalion com-munication center.
b. Advise the battalion commander and staff on allmatters of
communications, to include communi-cation training and the status
of communicationsupply and maintenance.
c. Maintain communication with the staff of thenext higher,
lower, adjacent, and supported unitsas directed by higher
d. Install and maintain those means of com-munications used in
the operation of the AAOCand AAAIS.
15. Motor OfficerThe motor officer, under S4 supervision,
the commander and staff on motor maintenanceand transportation.
He supervises the operationand maintenance of battalion wheel and
trackvehicles and trains his personnel.
16. ChaplainThe chaplain advises the commander and staff on
moral and religious matters in the battalion. Heconducts
religious services, advises personnel onspiritual matters,
ministers to sick and wounded,and corresponds with relatives of
sick, wounded,and deceased personnel. He does not
performoperational duties such as AAOO.
17. Liaison OfficerThe liaison officer is the personal
the battalion commander, acting as a link betweenthe battalion
headquarters and the headquarters towhich he reports. Functioning
under the super-vision of the S3, he makes sure that the
tactics,techniques, and employment of the unit he repre-sents are
understood by the commander of theorganization to which he is
18. Radar Warrant OfficerThe radar warrant officer is a special
and normally works under the supervision of the S2.The duties of
the radar officer are to-
a. Advise the commander and staff on the statusof radar
equipment issued to the battalion.
b. Supervise movement and siting of the surveil-lance radar.
c. Supervise operation and maintenance of radarequipment.
d. Supervise preparation of cover and clutterdiagrams.
e. Assist in the establishment of the AAAIS and airwarning
Section III. BATTERY
19. Headquarters BatteryHeadquarters battery furnishes the
sonnel and equipment to assist the battalion infunctions of
command, control, reconnaissance, com-munication, intelligence,
logistics, and administra-tion. See appropriate TOE for
20. Headquarters Battery CommanderThe headquarters battery
headquarters battery and acts as headquarters com-mandant. He is
responsible for the supply, mess,quarters, pay, conduct, training,
health, and moraleof his unit personnel. As headquarters
commandant,he is responsible for:
a. Organization and security of the battalioncommand post.
b. Physical movement of battalion headquarters.c. Supervision of
mess and transportation facilities
for battalion headquarters.
21. Automatic Weapons BatteryThe automatic weapons battery
consists of a
battery headquarters and two platoons of eight fireunits each.
An automatic weapons fire unit is con-sidered to be one weapons
mount. The platoon hasfour multiple gun motor carriage M16A1's and
four40-mm gun motor carriage M42's in self-propelledunits; four
multiple machinegun trailer mount M55'splus four 40-mm gun on
carriage M2A3's in mobileunits. The airborne automatic weapons
batteryconsists of a battery headquarters and three platoonsof six
fire units each. The airborne platoon has fourM55's plus two
22. Battery CommanderThe AAA (AW) battery commander is
for all activities of the battery, including administra-tion,
training, and tactical employment. His spe-cific duties are to-
a. Accomplish the combat mission of the battery.b. Carry out
training schedules, supervise actual
instruction, and maintain proper discipline.c. Keep battery
records, supply and maintain
clothing and equipment, and supervise food service.
23. Battery Executive OfficerThe battery executive officer
assists and advises
the battery commander, and makes sure that hispolicies are
carried out. He is second in commandof the battery and normally
acts as battery liaisonofficer in surface or AA (antiaircraft)
missions withinfantry, armor, or field artillery units.
24. Platoon Leaders and Assistant Platoon LeadersThese officers
are responsible to the battery com-
mander for training personnel of their platoon, thetactical
employment of the platoon, and the admin-istration of the platoon
in the field.
25. Fire Unit LeaderThe fire unit leader is directly subordinate
platoon leader. He supervises target selection andexercises
engagement control of his fire unit. Hisresponsibilities and
functions are to-
a. Train his crew in service of the piece.b. Train his crew in
the SOP for engagement con-
trol and target selection.
c. Understand the application of such basic tacti-cal principles
(1) The value of primary and secondary sectorsof fire.
(2) The necessity for overlapping adjacent pri-mary sectors of
(3) The greater threat to the vital area of anincoming target
than an outgoing target inthe primary sector of fire.
(4) The rule for engaging an incoming target inthe secondary
sector before an outgoingtarget in the primary sector of fire.
(5) The necessity for engaging a target at maxi-mum effective
range to produce maximumeffective fire.
(6) The importance of smooth and rapid targettransfer during a
multiple target raid.
(7) The importance of maximum use of visualaircraft recognition
means because of limita-tions of available fire control
d. Inform his crew of the limited engagement timeavailable and
the importance of communications.
CHAPTER 3CHARACTERISTICS OF EQUIPMENT
26. Generala. Antiaircraft artillery automatic weapons use a
projectile which must hit the enemy aircraft, or sur-face
target, to be effective. The 40-mm gun uses ashell with a
supersensitive fuze which bursts on con-tact. If no contact is made
as the tracer burns out,the relay ignition charge is ignited
detonating thebursting charge of the shell. The caliber .50
ma-chinegun uses API (armor-piercing incendiary) am-munition with
and without tracer.
b. Automatic weapons have a flexibility that en-ables them to
track aircraft at a high angular rateand shift quickly from one
target to another. Thesefactors, plus a high rate of fire, make
automaticweapons highly effective against low-flying aircraftat
c. The M42 and M16A1, self-propelled AAA (AW),because of their
greater mobility, are desirable foruse with combat forces.
27. Ammunitiona. Types. The principal types of ammunition
the caliber .50 machinegun are API and API-T(armor-piercing
incendiary tracer). The 40-mm gunuses high explosive and
armor-piercing tracer shot.The tracer element of the caliber .50
ammunitionburns out at ranges of 1,850 or 2,450 yards, depend-ing
on the type. The 40-mm high explosive shell
388163 0--56 2 17
destroys itself at the tracer burn-out point varyingfrom 3,500
to 5,500 yards, depending on the type.
b. Uses. The various types of ammunition areused as follows:
(1) Caliber .50 API-T and API ammunition and40-mm high explosive
shells are used againstpersonnel and light materiel.
(2) Caliber .50 API, API-T, and 40-mm armor-piercing ammunition
are used against lightlyarmored vehicles, concrete shelters,
(3) The tracer element of the caliber .50 and40-mm ammunition
are used primarily forobservation of fire.
(4) All types of automatic weapons ammunitionmay be employed
against aerial targets.
28. Range Capabilitiesa. Extreme Deterrent Range. The extreme
rent range is the tracer burn-out range of automaticweapons
projectiles. At this range, the fire is in-accurate but, if
delivered with maximum density,may cause enemy aircraft to take
evasive action,break formation, and even abandon their
mission.Extreme deterrent ranges of automatic weapons are:
(1) Caliber .50 machineguns: 1,800 to 2,450yards.
(2) 40-mm gun: 3,500 to 5,500 yards.b. Effective Hitting Range.
Effective hitting range
is the maximum distance within which hits may beexpected. It
depends on tracer observation, but inaddition, is determined by the
type of sighting de-vice, lead tolerance, angle of approach, and
the aver-age state of training of personnel. The averageeffective
hitting ranges are:
(1) Caliber .50 machinegun: 800 yards.(2) 40-mm gun: 1,800
c. Minimum Midpoint Tracking Range. This isthe shortest midpoint
range at which the weapon cantrack a target. It depends on target
speed and themaximum tracking rate of the gun mount. Thecaliber .50
machinegun turret mount can track a600-mile-per-hour target at a
midpoint range of 300yards. The M42 can track a
600-mile-per-hourtarget at approximately 420 yards midpoint
29. Weaponsa. 40-mm Gun. The 40-mm gun may be either
fully automatic or semiautomatic; it can delivershort bursts at
a rate of 120 rounds per minute. Itis air-cooled and, if fired at
maximum rate, will over-heat after about 100 rounds are fired.
Firing mustbe suspended and the barrel changed when it is
over-heated. The horizontal range for antiaircraft tacti-cal
planning is 1,800 yards.
b. Caliber .50 Machinegun. The individual caliber.50 machinegun
fires at a rate of 400 to 600 roundsper minute. Although the
effective range is de-pendent upon the gunner's depth perception
andtraining, a horizontal range of 800 yards is used fortactical
planning purposes. The standard mountfor the caliber .50 machinegun
is an electrically op-erated, quadruple gun mount. These
quadruplemounts can be traversed and elevated at rates of 80 °
per second by a single operator.
30. Self-Propelled Carriagesa. The twin 40-mm gun motor carriage
2) has two 40-mm guns mounted coaxially on a fulltrack
b. The multiple gun motor carriage M16A1 (fig.3) is a quadruple
machinegun mount (M45) installedin a half track vehicle.
31. Towed Mounts and Carriagesa. 40-mm Gun on Carriage M2A3
(fig. 4). The
40-mm gun on carriage M2A3 is used in mobileunits. The time
required to emplace the carriagefrom traveling position and
commence firing (utiliz-ing the primary means of on-carriage fire
control) is1 to 2 minutes.
b. Multiple Machinegun Trailer Mount M55 (fig.5). The multiple
machinegun trailer mount is usedin mobile and airborne units. The
mount may betowed for short distances but is generally
transportedin a 2X-ton truck, or loaded without disassembly
inconventional type troop carriers. The mount mustbe emplaced
before firing, the time for emplacementrequiring 1 to 2 minutes.
The turret in the trailermount is the M45.
32. Fire Control Devicesa. 40-mm Speed Ring Sights (fig. 32).
gun has two metal speed ring sights used as secondarymeans of
b. M18 Reflex Speed Ring Sight (fig. 33). TheM45 caliber .50
multiple machinegun utilizes theM18 speed ring sight as the only
means of firecontrol.
c. Computing Sights M38 and M19A1 (figs. 43 and44). The
computing sight is the primary means offire control on the 40-mm
* _ D ~~~~~~~~~sToi;
Figure 6. Multiple machinegun trailer mount M55.
RECONNAISSANCE, SELECTION, ANDOCCUPATION OF POSITION
Section I. ANTIAIRCRAFT DEFENSE
33. GeneralSince the AAA (AW) battalion may be given a
variety of missions, for example, air defense, surface,or
modifications of these two missions, it is necessaryto develop
separate procedures for reconnaissance,selection, and occupation of
positions to accomplisheach type of mission.
34. Reconnaissance'a. General. The purpose of reconnaissance is
obtain accurate information concerning terrain onwhich
personnel, vehicles, and weapons will be
operating. The two general classifications of recon-naissance
are route and position. Position recon-naissance establishes actual
positions on the groundfor location of weapons, vehicles, and
commandposts. Route reconnaissance is the selection' ofroutes
suitable for moving personnel and equipmentto and from selected
b. Types of Reconnaissance.(1) A2ap reconnaissance. A map
is generally used as a basis for planning aground or aerial
reconnaissance. Higherheadquarters normally makes this type of
reconnaissance. Lower headquarters, iftime is available, makes a
more detailedground reconnaissance. In a rapidly mov-ing situation,
however, there may be littletime available for reconnaissance other
(2) Aerial reconnaissance. This type of recon-naissance may be
used preceding, simul-taneously with, or in place of, a
groundreconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance isspeedier than ground
reconnaissance butit does not provide as detailed informationas
(3) Ground reconnaissance. There is no sub-stitute for ground
reconnaissance, whichprovides a detailed examination of
c. Time Available. Since time available for re-connaissance may
often be very limited, each com-mander must anticipate possible
displacements andperform a continuous progressive reconnaissance
andstudy of the terrain. Whenever possible, com-manders must allow
enough time for subordinatesto complete their reconnaissance during
d. Battalion Reconnaissance. Since AAA (AW)batteries and
platoons often operate in fluid situa-tions and are separated by
considerable distances,the battalion commander can rarely perform a
groundreconnaissance of all fire unit positions. When timeis
limited, the battalion commander will decentralizereconnaissance to
subordinates and will later con-solidate and organize as time
permits. When timedoes permit, however, the following steps,
variations as the situation demands, are performed.He-
(1) Makes a map reconnaissance to locate allelements.
(2) Decides the exact time for start of troopmovements.
(3) Decides when and how to make groundreconnaissance and who
(4) Issues warning orders to subordinates cover-ing-
(a) Enemy and friendly situation.(b) Troop movements desired.(c)
Time and place for issue of further orders.(d) Probable route of
(5) Performs reconnaissance, and verifies-(a) Sites for AAAIS
surveillance radar and
visual observer posts.(b) Location of battalion AAOC.(c)
Position of headquarters battery service
elements.(d) Routes to positions.(e) The location of each
and as many fire unit positions as timewill allow.
(6) Returns to assembly point and issues ordersto subordinates
for occupation of positions.
e. Battery Reconnaissance.(1) Adequate time. If the battalion
makes a complete reconnaissance of all fireunit positions, the
battery commander willbe responsible for the details of
occupationand make arrangements for having his fireunits directed
to positions. If, however,
the battalion commander does not make aground reconnaissance,
the battery com-mander will make a ground reconnaissancebased on
the battalion commander's mapreconnaissance. This will
(a) Routes to all positions.(b) Position of each weapon.(c)
Alternate positions and dummy positions.(d) Exact location of
battery command post,
bivouac area, and truck park.(e) Sectors of fire for each fire
(2) Procedure. Before departing, the batterycommander briefs his
executive officer onorders of the battalion commander. If
thebattery commander is to return before theelements of the battery
start moving, theexecutive officer is informed of the probabletime
the battery commander will returnfrom the reconnaissance. If
elements ofthe battery start moving before the batterycommander
completes his reconnaissance,the executive is given the time of
movementfrom the assembly area, the route, andspecial instructions
concerning the march.
(3) Limited time. The battery commander mayhave his firing units
so widely separatedthat time is not available to make a
groundreconnaissance of all his unit positions.In this case, the
platoon leaders and NCO(noncommissioned officers) must performthe
reconnaissance. The battery com-mander will consolidate the unit
positionsif and when time is available.
f. Platoon Reconnaissance. When enough time isavailable, the
platoon leaders accompany the batterycommander on reconnaissance to
coordinate sectorsof fire. When time is limited, the platoon
leaderswith the fire unit leaders perform the reconnaissanceand
select positions in accordance with orders fromthe battery
commander. In fast-moving situations,the platoon leader may
designate the positions andgeneral layout of the fire units, while
the actualground reconnaissance is made by the fire unitleaders
just prior to moving into their positions.
35. Selection and Occupationa. Sectors of Fire and
(1) Each automatic weapons fire unit is assigneda primary and
secondary sector of fire.All fire unit crews maintain constant
vigi-lance in their primary sectors of fire, regard-less of the
sector in which the weapons areactually engaged.
(2) Since target selection and engagement con-trol depend upon
visual means, the siteswhich are selected for the weapons
mustprovide for maximum observation and unobstructed sectors of
fire. Adjacent 40-mmfire units must be sited within 100 to 900yards
of each other. Caliber .50 weaponsare sited within mutual support
distancesof 100 to 400 yards. The limitation im-posed by tracer
observation requires thatfire units be sited at least 100 yards
apart.To provide the required concentration offire against aerial
targets and insure cover-
age of the dead area of adjacent weapons,40-mm fire units must
be sited not fartherthan 900 yards apart.
b. Level Ground. The ground for emplacing auto-matic weapons
should be within 2° of level. Ifnecessary, the selected location
should be leveledwithin tolerance using tools available.
c. Cover. Immediately after a position has beenselected and
occupied and the fire unit is preparedto engage the enemy, cover is
provided for protec-tion of personnel and materiel. Fox holes or
slittrenches are dug by all personnel.
d. Occupation. Actual occupation of a position isdirected and
supervised by the fire unit leader.Timely arrival and prompt
readiness for fire are theprimary considerations. Weapons are
emplaced firstand then, as time permits, the positions are
improvedby fortification and construction of alternate posi-tions.
Dummy positions are constructed as directedby higher
Section II. SURFACE MISSION
36. Generala. The methods outlined in this section apply to
all types of surface employment, whether in closesupport of
infantry in offense or defense, in defenseagainst mechanized,
airborne, guerilla, or infiltrationattacks, or in engagement of
b. Since infantry and armored divisions have anorganic AAA (AW)
battalion assigned, the divisioncommander may designate the mission
of this bat-talion as that of close support of infantry elements,in
part or in whole. This AAA (AW) battalion con-
tains self-propelled weapons, and as such is capableof
diversified uses in the close support role. Althoughthe towed 40-mm
gun may be used in a surface role,it is limited by its lack of
mobility and the lengthof time needed to emplace it.
37. Command, Control, and Coordinationa. When AAA (AW) units are
missions, they are normally attached to supportedunits.
Antiaircraft artillery automatic weaponscommanders serve as special
staff officers of the com-mander of the supported unit and advise
these com-manders on the employment of AAA (AW). Anti-aircraft
artillery automatic weapons platoon commandposts are located at or
near the command post of thesupported unit. The normal role of
automaticweapons battery and platoon commanders is to directthe
operations of their units. Battery and platoonexecutives serve as
liaison officers with supportedunits. Liaison is also established
with each com-mitted rifle company. The AAA (AW) unit com-mander
provides a noncommissioned officer assistedby a radio operator to
advise the rifle companycommander of the capabilities of AAA (AW)
and toact as a forward observer.
b. Some of the automatic weapons attached forclose support are
given interdiction, harassing, orneutralization fire missions.
Other automatic weap-ons may augment the infantry heavy weapons
byoverhead fire, and fire through gaps in the friendlylines.
Regardless of what mission is given, the sup-port fires must be
carefully prepared and coordinatedwith the plans of the attack or
defense of the infantryor armor unit commander.
38. Reconnaissance and Plansa. The automatic weapons platoon
leader is re-
sponsible for performing the ground reconnaissancein the surface
mission. After being briefed by theinfantry battalion commander as
to the general planof action, the amount of fire support desired,
theexact location of friendly units and of known andprobable enemy
targets such as direct fire weaponsand observation posts, and after
studying the mapcarefully, the platoon leader makes a personal
groundreconnaissance, attempting to gain the
(1) Primary and secondary firing positions foreach weapon.
(2) Routes to primary and alternate positions.(3) Location of
new firing positions to be used
in case of lateral, forward, or rear displace-ments.
(4) Routes to displacement positions.(5) Location of ammunition
vehicle parks and
routes of supply.(6) Platoon observation posts.(7) Positions for
reinforcement of the main bat-
tle position in the event of an envelopmentor penetration.
(8) Key points in the battalion area essential tothe defense of
(9) Likely avenues of approach of hostileforces.
b. The automatic weapons employment plan forsupport of infantry
or armor will be coordinated withthe infantry or armor commander
and should include:
(1) Initial positions from which supporting firesare to be
delivered. Positions will be in
the same general area with the organicinfantry support weapons,
as far forwardas is consistent with the tactical situation,and with
(2) Plans and routes of displacement.(a) Weapons will be
displaced by echelon,
with one-half the weapons in each echelon,if possible.
(b) Select routes affording the most rapiddisplacement, in order
to supply con-tinuous fire support.
(3) Ammunition supply points and protectedroutes.
(a) Estimate the amount of ammunitionneeded at the initial
position, and dumpthat amount on the ground and replenishsupplies
so that weapons may displacewith full basic loads.
(b) Select covered ammunition supply routesand instruct
ammunition truck drivers onammunition resupply procedure.
39. Selection and Occupation of Positionsa. The principal factor
affecting the selection of
positions in a surface role is complete integrationwith the
supported unit's Fire Support Plan. Posi-tions selected for a
surface role should-
(1) Assist in the protection of vital terrainfeatures.
(2) Retain essential observation to front andflanks.
(3) Deny the enemy close observation into thebattle
388163 0-56 3 33
(4) I/ocate positions so as not to interfere withfields of fire
of weapons located in the rear.
(5) Take maximum advantage of natural coverand concealment.
(6) Site caliber .50 weapons within 1,000 yardsof possible
target and 40-mm weapons within1,500 yards of possible target.
(7) Provide mutual support with infantryweapons and have safety
zones to protectagainst firing into friendly positions.
(8) For naval targets, be as close to water levelas possible to
take advantage of the flattrajectory.
b. When reconnaissance and selection of positionshas been
accomplished and the plan of action ap-proved by the infantry or
armor commander, theautomatic weapons are moved to the selected
posi-tions. This move must be coordinated with sup-ported units so
that motor columns will not interferewith foot troop or tank
movements. The moveshould be made at night, if possible, but in any
case,with maximum cover and concealment.
40. GeneralAntiaircraft artillery automatic weapons com-
munications include all means employed to transmitinformation,
intelligence, commands, orders of anoperational control nature, and
the means to estab-lish liaison with other units. Due to the
importanceof communication to effective operation, every
personinvolved must be thoroughly grounded in com-munication
operation and maintenance. This isespecially true in the case of
the AAA (AW) unitswhich are sometimes widely dispersed or
isolated.Primary and alternate means of communicationmust be
provided and available for immediate useby all elements of the
command. The basic meansof communication available to the automatic
weap-ons units include radio, wire, and messenger. Wireis
considered to be the more desirable means ofcommunication due to
its greater degree of depend-ability. Maximum use should be made of
thismeans during static situations. Frequent movementand wide
dispersion will often dictate the use ofradio as the means of
communication to be employed.The use of radio in the initial stages
of an operation,in rapidly moving situations, and in
amphibiousoperations will be essential. In many situations,wire and
radio will be integrated.
41. Radioa. The capabilities and limitations of radio equip-
ment must be thoroughly understood by all antiair-craft
artillery officers and considered by a commanderwhen plans for
radio communications are made.
(1) Capabilities.(a) Radio sets are readily portable, may be
placed in operation quickly, and may beoperated from moving
(b) No physical circuit is required betweenstations.
(c) Radio is a readily available means of longrange
(2) Limitations.(a) Radio equipment is complex and fragile.
It requires constant maintenance andintelligent care.
(b) Operating and maintenance personnelrequires specialized
(c) Radio messages are easily intercepted bythe enemy. Necessary
cryptography de-lays transmission.
(d) Radio is subject to enemy jamming andaffords the enemy means
of locatingtransmitters, and thereby, commandposts and other
b. In radio nets which supplement wire nets,operators listen on
assigned frequencies and do nottransmit unless instructed to do so.
In other radionets, operation is normally continuous unless
42. WireWire communication equipment provided by TOE
is sufficient to install essential command linesbetween command
posts. Additional wire to installother wire nets must be drawn from
the appropriatesignal supply agency when required. The extent
towhich wire communication is installed is governedby the tactical
mission of the unit. The wire com-munication net of a unit employed
in a static situa-tion should be as complete and extensive as
timeand material permit. The wire communication netof a unit
employed in a moving situation, wherefrequent changes of position
are involved, will belimited.
a. Capabilities.(1) Wire is flexible, reliable, and less subject
mechanical and electronic failure thanradio.
(2) Wire requires a somewhat lesser degree oftechnical skill to
install and maintainthan radio.
(3) Wire communications are less easily inter-cepted than
b. Limitations.(1) Wire requires considerable time, labor,
material, and equipment to install, operate,and maintain.
(2) Wire is subject to failure due to vulnerabilityof long wire
lines to bombing, artillery fire,enemy patrols, and damage by
43. Radiotelephone Procedurea. Radiotelephone procedure is
covered in ACP
125. All officers and enlisted men should be thor-
oughly familiar with proper radiotelephone procedureand comply
strictly with instructions contained inthat publication.
b. Unnecessary and improper transmissions mustbe avoided in
order to prevent the enemy from ob-.taining information which may
reveal the tacticaldisposition, strength, or movement of friendly
forces.Effective transmission security requires constantsupervision
by the commander and a high state oftraining on the part of
personnel using communica-tion nets.
44. Communication Nets, GeneralCommunication nets required for
an AAA (AW)
defense include the following:a. Early Warning Net. This is a
one-way wire or
radio net (or both) between the AA teller (a memberof the AA
liaison party) in the Air Force Agency andthe early warning plotter
at the AAOC. In the fieldarmy, the primary AAOC in the area usually
estab-lishes this net.
b. Air Force Liaison Net. This is a two-way wireor radio net (or
both) which connects the AA liaisonofficer in the Air Force Agency
with the AA defensecommander's representative in the AAOC.
c. Observation Post Net. This is the net establishedfor the
transmission of information from the AAAvisual observation posts to
the elements of the AAdefense. Due to the complexity of this net,
it israrely practical to use wire. This is a two-way netbetween the
observation posts and the NCS (netcontrol station) at the AAOC and
a one-way net be-tween the observation posts and all other
elementsof the defense.
OPERATES FROM TO FROM COIRMAnOWITH AAOC AOC AAOC OPS IF DEFENSE
OPERATIONAL CONTROL RADAR rI INTELLIGENCE REPORTING
(44TRYS PER N T P
(2 PLATS PER BTRY)
(4 PER PLAT) P
OP'S ORGANIC TO AW(4 PER PLAT)
Figure 6. AAA bn (AW) (Mbl), radio nets under seniorAAOC.
d. Radar Reporting Net. This is a two-way wireor radio net (or
both) over which radars operating ina surveillance role within the
AA defense transmitdata to the AAOC.
e. Intelligence Net. This is a one-way wire orradio net (or
both) over which the AAOC dissemi-nates intelligence to the
elements of the defense andother interested agencies.
f. Operational Control Net. This is a two-waywire or radio net
(or both) over which the AA de-fense commander, or his
representative from theAAOC, exercises operational control over the
ele-ments of the AA defense.
g. Command Net. This is a two-way wire or radionet (or both)
over which all elements of command forwhich other nets are not
established, including ad-ministration, are transmitted. This net
is normallyestablished from the administrative headquarters ofthe
AA commander and not from the AAOC.
45. Radio Netsa. Mobile Battalion, Under Senior AAOC (fig.
(1) Higher headquarters command net (AM).The battalion operates
a radio set in theAM (amplitude modulated) command netof the next
higher headquarters. This netmay be a voice or CW (continuous
wave)net and is used for command and adminis-trative purposes. This
station operates ona frequency assigned by the higher head-quarters
(2) Battalion command net (AM). The battal-ion command net
includes a station at thebattalion headquarters and one at each
ofthe firing batteries. The radio at the bat-talion headquarters is
the NCS for this net.
(3) Intelligence net (AM). The battalion oper-ations center,
each firing battery, and eachautomatic weapons platoon operate a
radioreceiver, AN/GRR-5, in this net.
(4) Radar reporting net (AM). The battalionsurveillance radar
is-connected to the seniorAAOC by a two-way radio over which
in-formation concerning radar pick-ups istransmitted to the AAOC
and over whichthe AAOC passes special instructions to
(5) Observation post net (AM). The battalionoperations center,
each of the firing bat-teries, and each fire unit operate a
radioreceiver, AN/GRR-5, in this net to receiveOP information
direct from the OP.
(6) Operational control net (AM). The bat-talion operations
center, each firing battery,and each of the automatic weapons
pla-toons operate a two-way radio in this netproviding direct
communications betweenthese elements and the AAOC.
b. Self-propelled Battalion, Under Senior AAOC(fig. 7).
(1) Higher headquarters command net (AM).
A (ASPB--4 TEAMS) no C IA
A PN/SS BN CD NE10 T(W)
(2 PLATS PER TRT)
(4-PER PLAT) P . T(
Figure 7. Self-propelled battalion antiaircraft mission,
The battalion operates a radio set in thecommand net of the next
higher headquar-ters. This net may be a voice or CW netand is used
for command and administra-tive purposes. This station operates on
afrequency assigned by the higher head-quarters concerned.
(2) Battalion command net (FM). The FM(frequency modulated)
battalion commandnet includes at least one station at the
bat-talion headquarters and one at each of thefiring batteries.
This net may includevarious staff officers of the battalion.
(3) Battery command net (FM). The batterycommand net consists of
at least one sta-tion at the battery headquarters and oneat each
automatic weapons platoon head-quarters.
(4) Platoon command net (FM). The platooncommand net consists of
a radio set at theplatoon headquarters and one at each fireunit.
(When available frequencies do notpermit operation of separate
platoon com-mand nets, these nets may be combinedwith the battery
command net and alloperate on the same frequency.)
(5) Intelligence net (AM). The battalion opera-tions center and
each firing battery operatea radio receiver in this net.
(6) Radar reporting net (AM). The battalionsurveillance radar is
connected to the seniorAAOC by a two-way radio over
whichinformation concerning pick-ups is trans-mitted to the AAOC
and over which the
AAOC passes special instructions, as neces-sary to the
(7) Observation post net (AM). The battalionoperations center
and each fire unit operatea radio receiver in this net to receive
OPinformation direct from the OP
(8) Operational control net (AM). The battalionoperations
center, each firing battery, andeach automatic weapons platoon
head-quarters operate a two-way radio in thisnet providing direct
communication be-tween these elements and the AAOC.
c. Divisional-Antiaircraft Artillery AutomaticWeapons Battalion.
The FM radio equipment of theAA (AW) battalion organic to the
division will be
ARTT 4 04* INTEL
C AD t . NOS L A H
aircraft mission radio nets.
I (4 PER PLA TO.o ) (4 pER WPL& N) O
~~~~I ~ PLAWTOON CO .ANDp fII FIRE DIRECTION NOT
P INF BN K"
P 8AS IO O IICOMp TCO
s- c .o GRE i i(W"IEN SMN OP'S ARE ED} 40' K A. SRI ErR! co
MA I__TELLISESCE N, T- - AS LAO TO RECA CO
Fi/ture 9. Self-propelled battalion (Infantry Division)
surfacemission radio nets.
of the same general type as that used within thedivision. When
establishing an AA defense, thedivisional unit will establish
essentially the samefacilities for communication as those required
forAAOC operation at higher echelons (fig. 8). Whenassigned close
support missions, divisional units willgenerally establish
communication nets as indicatedin figure 9.
d. Communication with Other Combat Arms. WhenAAA (AW) units are
assigned missions which requireclose liaison with other combat
arms, such as closesupport missions, radio communication becomes
avital problem. If available radio sets are of thesame general
type, with overlapping channels, as-signment of operating
frequencies in the overlap
band will permit communications between the AAA(AW) unit and the
supported unit. If radio sets ofthe units concerned are not of the
same general type,it will be necessary to effect a temporary trade
ofradio sets between units so that each unit has therequired number
of radio sets.
46. Wire NetsFigure 10 shows a type wire net for an AAA bat-
talion (AW), nondivisional, in an AA role. Figure11 shows a type
wire net for a divisional type AAAbattalion (AW) in a ground
support role. Becauseof the limited amount of wire and wire
equipmentavailable, every effort must be made by all com-manders to
conserve wire. The need for wire com-munication to each
installation must be carefully
,:O~. AND rCo ST RRIP
ST, T ...
IE R CLIC TO C I N
I(4 PR PLTOON) (4 KIER PLTOON)
Figure 10. AAA Bn. (AW) wire nets, AA mission, underSenior
considered. Command posts are located as near aspossible to
subordinate units in order to reduce thelength of wire circuits.
When no provision is madefor wire communication personnel within
the battery,personnel from the fire units must- be trained
toestablish, operate, and maintain wire communicationas well as
Ex R THER BTRYS IDENT
AS RE IRED
(4 PER PLATOON) (4 PER PLATOON) (4 PER PLATOON) (4 PER
Figure t1. AAA Bn (AW) wire nets, surface mission (Div).
OBSERVATION AND EARLY WARNING
47. Warning SystemAdequate early warning information of the
proach of aircraft is a prime requirement for theeffective
employment of AAA (AW). Adequateearly warning will provide enough
time for thepersonnel and equipment of the unit to be in
therequired condition of readiness to engage a hostileaircraft at
the maximum effective range of theweapon.
a. Conditions of Air Defense Warning. The con-dition of air
defense warning is announced to thesenior AAOC by the air defense
commander. Theconditions of warning are:
(1) Warning Red. Hostile air attack imminent.(2) Warning Yellow.
Hostile air attack prob-
able.(3) Warning White. Attack by hostile aircraft
b. Conditions of Readiness. The condition ofreadiness will be
directed by the AAOC, but anyfire unit may assume a higher
condition of readinessif conditions warrant. All units in forward
areasnormally maintain one of the following conditions
(1) Battle stations. With a Warning Red, all
equipment is fully manned ready for im-mediate effective
delivery of fire.
(2) Standby. With a Warning Yellow, weaponsare partially manned,
communication netsand command posts fully manned. Fireunits are
prepared to assume battle stationswithin a time limit prescribed by
(3) Secure. With a Warning White, commandposts and
communications are partiallymanned, surveillance and guard
personnelare on duty. with all other personnel readyto assume
battle stations within a timelimit prescribed by the AAOC.
c. Action Status. Action status is the degree of en-gagement
control imposed by the air defense com-mander through the AAOC on
fire units in air de-fense. The terms are:
(1) Guns Free. Fire at any aircraft not identi-fied as
(2) Guns Tight. Fire only at aircraft identifiedas hostile.
(3) Hold Fire. Do not open fire. Cease fire.
48. Functions of AAOC and AAAISAntiaircraft artillery
information service properly
employed, will furnish information on the activityof aircraft
within a limited zone of surveillance.The AAAIS is not capable of
providing warningearly enough to eliminate the necessity for
maintain-ing a constant condition of alert on the weapons.For
detailed coverage of the AAOC and AAAIS inthe zone of interior,
communications zone, and com-bat zone, see FM 44-1 and FM 44-8.
49. Aircraft IdentificationA comprehensive means of positive
and identification of aircraft is essential. Decisionsas to
conditions of readiness (secure, standby, andbattle stations) must
be based upon timely and ac-curate information as to the friendly
or hostile natureof aircraft which have been detected. For
detailedcoverage of recognition and identification, see
388163 0--56 4 49
SECURITY AND PROTECTION
50. GeneralAll AAA (AW) commanders must consider local
defense capabilities while selecting fire unit positionsand
command posts. Automatic weapons positionsare often widely
separated and isolated, making itvitally important to establish
effective local securityfor each position.
51. Passive DefenseA passive defense is designed without the
tion of taking the initiative or utilizing actionweapons. It is
based on concealment, dispersion,deception, and protection.
a. Cover and Concealment. The mission and timelimitation with
automatic weapons may restrict theamount of cover and concealment
used. Time per-mitting, slit trenches, fortifications, shelters,
and dug-outs should be constructed (FM 5-15).
b. Dispersion. With automatic weapons dispersedin an
antiaircraft defense, the problem of localsecurity is increased.
However, if the mission isprimarily ground defense, the fire units
should beconcentrated in one locality to provide for moreeffective
local security. Local security must be co-ordinated with adjacent
or defended units.
c. Alternate and Dummy Positions. When aprimary unit position
becomes untenable or unsuit-
able for further occupation, the unit should be movedto an
alternate position. Subject to the direction ofhigher headquarters,
dummy positions may be pre-pared to deceive the enemy. Dummy
positions arelaid out a safe distance from all friendly troops
andinstallations, and partially concealed to make themmore
d. Blackout and Night Movement. Blackout dis-cipline should be
strictly enforced with all units incombat. An installation may be
concealed duringthe day, but revealed at night because of the
slightestlight showing. Entrances to command post tents orshelters
must have light locks and be checked fre-quently for light leaks.
When a unit moves, it shouldbe done at night with blackout
e. Radio Silence. Radio silence is imposed to denythe enemy the
opportunity of traffic analysis. Move-ments of units can be traced
by listening to trans-missions, even though the messages may be
valueless.Communication during radio silence may be carriedon by
wire, messenger, or visual means.
f. Warning Signals. In combat, observation teamswarn of enemy
attack. Warning signals should bestandardized so they may be
understood by allfriendly units. Different signals should be
devisedto indicate each type of attack.
g. Defilade. To hinder enemy observation, andprovide protection
of materiel and personnel, posi-tions of AAA (AW) in a ground role
should be placedso as to be shielded from direct fire of enemy
52. Local Securitya. General. Local security is provided by
effective use of personnel and materiel available to a
unit. It includes all the measures necessary for pro-tection
against local attack. Local security plansand procedures must be
closely coordinated withsupported and adjacent units and conform
with thearea defense plan and area damage control plan.
b. Type of Attack. Antiaircraft units may expectany of the
following types of attack:
(1) Infiltration.(2) General breakthrough.(3) Reconnaissance in
force.(4) Mechanized thrust.(5) Parachutist.(6) Glider.(7)
c. Selection of Position. In selecting the AAposition, the
following factors are considered inattaining local security:
(1) Fields of fire for ground targets.(2) Routes of approach to
and from the position.(3) Observation.(4) Tactical advantage of
d. Organization of Position. The defended areashould be kept as
small as possible, with the primaryarmament and available equipment
within the per-imeter defense. Machineguns and rifles are sited
toform bands of interlocking fire around the perimeterto prevent
e. Materiel. Weapons and equipment normallycontained within an
automatic weapons unit willbe used for local security as
(1) Machineguns. Machineguns are the pri-mary ground defense
weapons. They are
sited for interlocking, grazing fire throughunobstructed fire
lanes which are preparedon the far side of the wire or other
obstacles.Multiple machine guns should be firedtwo barrels at a
time only, and in shortbursts, to prevent overheating.
Alternatemachinegun positions should be prepared.
(2) 40-mm guns. The 40-mm gun, utilizinghigh explosive
ammunition, is particularlyvaluable against enemy personnel in
woodedor underbrush areas where air bursts canbe obtained.
(3) Hand grenades. The added value of handgrenades is that they
do not reveal thefriendly position to the enemy.
(4) Mines and booby traps. Mines and boobytraps, in addition to
being effective inafflicting casualties on the enemy, alsoserve as
warning devices. Mines must belaid in bands far enough outside the
de-fended area to minimize the danger ofinjuring friendly
personnel. Before minesare laid, clearance must be obtained fromthe
engineer of the headquarters to whichthe automatic weapons unit is
attachedand also from adjacent units. See FM20-32 for mine laying
(5) Barbed wire. Wire delays the enemy andprovides a warning to
the defended area.Wire should be strung from 50 to 100yards from
equipment. Noise-making de-vices may be attached to the wire.
Detailson wire obstacle construction are containedin FM 5-15.
(6) Individual arms. Wire and other obstaclesshould be covered
by rifle, carbine, andmachine gun fire from foxhole
positions..Small arms positions should provide flank-ing and
crossfire. Riflemen should beplaced where they can provide
(7) Rocket launchers. Rocket launchers arelocated to cover
probable avenues of ap-proach in forward areas to provide for
anti-mechanized defense. Launchers with super-sensitive detonating
ammunition areeffective against enemy personnel.
(8) Rifle grenades. Rifle grenades provide alonger range effect
against enemy person-nel and lightly armored vehicles than
doordinary hand grenades.
f.'Standing Operating Procedure. An SOP forlocal security is
necessary for every unit. It mustbe coordinated with adjacent
higher, and lower units,and be thoroughly understood by every
individual.It will include:
(1) A plan for establishing and executing imme-diate local
security upon occupation ofposition.
(2) A system of marking restricted areas, in-cluding mines and
(3) The procedure for submitting mine andbooby trap reports.
(4) Alert signals.(5) The organization of a mobile reserve
support units needing aid.(6) A system of challenges, passwords,
(7) An alert plan for manning primary equip-ment for ground
(8) The establishment of ground observationand listening
(9) Priorities for opening fire on ground targets.(10) A plan
for individual weapon ammunition
supply and reserve.(11) A plan for defense against CBR
g. The Local Security Plan. The local securityplan must be
simple and flexible. It makes provisionfor establishing:
(1) An all-around perimeter defense.(2) Sites for weapons.(3)
Sectors of fire for all weapons.(4) Guards and listening posts.(5)
Guard details and orders.(6) Booby trap and mine locations.(7)
Alert stations of personnel.(8) Procedure in the event of perimeter
tration.(9) Location of obstacles.(10) Location of sleeping
stations.(11) Location and type of foxholes.(12) Restricted
areas.(13) Night movement regulations.(14) Firing lane
preparation.(15) Methods of communication.(16) CBR defense.(17)
Chronological order of work to be done.
h. Conduct of Defense. In most cases AAA (AW)fire units are
isolated and therefore must defendthemselves. This presents a
special problem be-cause manpower is limited. At least one man
mustbe on the alert at all times. When an infiltration
[email protected] , \\\\ I
Figure 12. Perimeter defense in daytime.
becomes likely, men located on the perimeter remainalert and
must conduct the defense with handgrenades until the enemy is
definitely located orpenetrates the perimeter. Ordinarily primary
weap-ons do not fire until grenades and small arms failto halt the
penetration. If units are close enoughtogether, supporting and
flanking fire should beplanned (fig. 12). At night when there is a
threatof ground attack, weapons on the outer gun ring ofthe defense
should be moved in and placed on the500-yard ring. Positions should
then be organizedas strong points for local security (fig. 13).
x~\ \ ,~ ,~x x..
, \,\.A \\ ' A"
~0 \ \
Secion 1. SUPPLY AND EVACUATION53. General-Classes of Supply
a. General. General supply procedures and defi-nitions are
contained in FM 100-10 and FM 101-10.
b. Class I (Rations). Class I supplies consist ofthose articles
which are consumed by personnel oranimals at an approximately
uniform rate, regardlessof local changes in combat or terrain
conditions.Rations are picked up daily by the battalion
supplysection. Issue is based on the daily battalion con-solidated
report of actual strength.
c. Class II (Supplies and Equipment Prescribedby TOE or TA).
Battalion supply consolidatesclass II supply requisitions and
forwards themthrough appropriate supply channels.
d. Class III (Petroleum Products). These suppliesconsist of
fuels and lubricants used for all purposesexcept the operation of
aircraft and flame throwers.Class III supplies are characterized by
reasonablyuniform demands, as in the case of class I supplies.They
are, however, subject to sudden peak loadsbased on the tactical
situation; they present atonnage, transportation, and control
problem. Solidfuels are the responsibility of the engineers.
Quarter-master handles all other class III items.
e. Class IV (Miscellaneous Unclassified Articles).Class IV
supplies are those for which allowances are
not prescribed or are not otherwise classified. Thesesupplies
are issued by item; automatic supply israre except in the case of
certain medical items.
f. Class V (Ammunition). Class V supply in-cludes both ordnance
and chemical ammunitionitems. Flamethrower fuel and those
demolitionsand explosives which are closely allied with
engineeractivities are included in class V supply.
54. Supply Agenciesa. Antiaircraft artillery automatic weapons
talions have the necessary personnel and trans-portation to draw
and deliver all classes of supply.Antiaircraft artillery groups do
not function as asupply agency except for allocating critical
b. Requisitions for supplies are submitted bybatteries to the
battalion supply officer, who con-solidates and forwards them
through appropriatesupply channels.
c. When requisitioned supplies become available,the battalion is
notified. Instructions concerningdrawing and distributing supplies
are normallypublished by higher headquarters. The battalionsupply
section issues and the batteries pick up theavailable supplies.
d. When AAA (AW) batteries are attached toother units, they will
be supplied by the unit towhich they are attached.
55. Airborne Suppliesa. The organic tactical loads of airborne
include an initial supply, or basic load, of ammuni-tion. All
other supplies carried by the airborne unit
are limited and will last for a short time only. Per-sonnel must
be trained to conserve all supplies,particularly during the earlier
stages of a missionwhen resupply is very difficult.
b. Supply of airborne units follows normal pro-cedures, except
that supplies for the airborne aretransported by air until ground
units have effected ajunction with airborne troops.
56. Medical Agencies and Evacuationa. For complete information
on evacuation and
medical agencies, see FM 100-10, FM 8-5, and FM8-10.
b. The AAA (AW) battalion may or may not haveattached medical
personnel depending on the assign-ment, mission, and tactical
situation. The medical de-tachment is an integral part of the
battalion, at-tached for command, administration, and
supply.Personnel of the detachment establish an aid stationat
battalion headquarters, with an aid man attachedto each battery or
platoon for first aid. Casualtiesare evacuated through the
battalion or nearest aidstation and from there as directed by
Section II. TRANSPORTATION
57. Organic TransportationThe current TOE shows the
able to each type of unit. Mobile units normallyhave adequate
transportation to move all equipmentand personnel at the same time.
Because of thelimited number of cargo trucks in the
self-propelledbattalion, their allocation for use requires
planning. The airborne battalion has the greatestproblem because
of limited organic transportation.
58. Mobility and Securitya. The mobility of an AAA (AW) unit
largely on carefully prepared loading plans. In self-propelled
and airborne units, each weapons mountmust carry its own personnel
and allied equipment.Platoon, battery, and battalion headquarters
musthave stringent loading plans because of the limitednumber of
b. During all motor movements, convoys should beprotected
against enemy air and guerilla attacks.By interspersing
self-propelled weapons and manningother organizational weapons
along the march col-umn, a convoy will be assured of maximum
protec-tion against surprise attack.
c. Detailed information applicable to maintenance,operation, and
security of motor transportation isfound in FM 25-10.
Section III. MESSING
59. ResponsibilityDue to the widely scattered positions of
weapons in a normal antiaircraft mission, the prob-lem of
messing becomes an acute one. The solutionof the problem rests with
the commanding officer.
60. Combat MessingWhen a fire unit is located near another
tion, arrangements should be made to have the anti-aircraft
troops mess with that installation. If noinstallation is nearby,
food must be prepared by thebattery or battalion mess and
transported in insu-
lated containers to the gun positions or prepared atthe fire
unit; there are so many disadvantages to thelast arrangement,
however, that every effort shouldbe made to have personnel mess
with an adjacentinstallation.
PART TWOGUNNERY AND FIRE CONTROL DEVICES
- CHAPTER 9ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY (AUTOMATIC
WEAPONS) GUNNERY PROBLEM
Section I. INTRODUCTION
61. Generala. A knowledge of the basic AAA (AW) gunnery
problem is essential for a study of the sighting devicesused
with AAA (AW). Since these sighting devicesare utilized on highly
mobile weapons, and sincethese weapons are used in the defense of
low-flying,bard hitting enemy aircraft, they are not expectedto
have round-for-round accuracy. Rather, theaccuracy depends on the
skill, speed, and knowledgeof personnel operating them. It is
therefore neces-sary, in training these personnel, to have a
thoroughunderstanding of the working parts of these devices,and the
role those parts have in the overall solutionof the gunnery
b. Basically, the LAAA (AW) gunnery problem isto locate a point
in space ahead of a target and tohit it. LAA (AW) sighting devices
attempt to solvethe problem with fixed assumptions. It is
assumed,first, that the target is flying a straight course
duringengagement. Second, the target is assumed to beflying at a
constant speed. These assumptions arelogical due to the short
engagement ranges of under2,000 yards and the inability of modern
high-speedtargets to maneuver within a very short period of
time. The third assumption is that the closest thetarget will
come to the gun during its flight is afixed distance or a fixed
midpoint slant range. Asexplained in appendix III, variations in
range effectthe problem of correct lead very slightly short of1,500
yards slant range.
62. Slant Plane ConceptTo facilitate the understanding of the
problem and the sighting devices used in the solution,a
geometric approach has been developed. This isknown as the slant
plane concept. The future posi-tion of the target is located by
reducing the probleminto one imaginary tilted surface, or slant
plane,containing the firing weapon, the present positionof the
target, and future position of the target. Inthis mathematical
solution, the weapon and targetpositions are reduced to points. (In
the practicalsolution and analysis of the problem, the
pointrepresenting the target reverts to its original shape,allowing
for a small margin for error.) The slantplane concept is a
simplified approach to the gun-nery problem which places the single
lead angle inan imaginary plane surface. With this accomplished,it
remains only to apply superelevation. In anti-aircraft automatic
weapons this is a very smallfactor because of the high muzzle
velocity and shorteffective range of the weapon.
Section II. ELEMENTS OF DATA
63. GeneralTo present this gunnery problem, it is necessary
to name and define certain geometric plane surfaces,points,
lines, and angles used in the problem.
64. Planesa. General. By definition, a geometric plane is an
imaginary flat surface of infinite dimensions, and isestablished
among other conditions, by a straightline and a point not on that
line, or by three pointsnot in a straight line.
b. Slant Plane. The slant plane is that geometricplane
established by the target course line and thepintle center of the
gun. The target course line forpractical purposes is a straight
line established byextending the longitudinal axis of the target
fuselageto infinity. The pintle center of the gun is thatpoint
around which the gun bore moves laterallyand vertically. As long as
the target course linedoes not pass through the pintle center of
the gun,a geometric plane surface exists and is called theslant
plane (fig. 14).
c. Horizontal Plane. The horizontal plane is thatplane
established by the pintle center of the gun andall imaginary points
at that same elevation, dis-regarding the curvature of the earth
65. Points (fig. 15)a. G. Point G is the gun and is defined as
pintle center of the gun.b. To (T sub o). Point To is the
(observed position) of the target and is defined asthe location
of center of mass of the target themoment a round is assumed to be
c. T, (T sub p). Point T, is the future position(predicted
position) and is defined as the point onthe course line where the
assumed round, if correctlyaimed, will intersect the center of mass
of the target.
d. Tm (T sub m). Point Tm is midpoint and is
388163 0-56 5 65
66 - 0
U) CL ix-
i Z(cno, z.
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defined as that point on the course line at minimumslant range
from the gun.
66. Lines (fig. 15)a. Do (D sub o). The line Do is present
range and is defined as the straight line distance inyards
between the gun and the present position.
b. D, (D sub p). The line D, is future slant rangeand is defined
as the straight line distance in yardsbetween the gun and the
c. Dm (D sub m). The line Dm is midpoint slantrange and is
defined as the straight line distance inyards between the gun and
d. Target Course Lines (fig. 16). In any discussionof AA (AW)
gunnery, the attitude of the targetcourse line in space is of prime
importance. Todescribe these different attitudes, target courses
arenamed according to the altitude from the horizontalplane and the
direction of flight in respect to the gun.Every target course will
be described by two words;one describing altitude and the other
(1) Level. A level course is formed by a targetflying at a
(2) Climbing. A climbing course is formed by atarget flying at
(3) Diving. A diving course is formed by a tar-get flying at
(4) Incoming. An incoming course is formed bythe target flying
toward a vertical lineerected through the pintle center of the
gun,perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
(5) Outgoing. An outgoing course is formed by atarget flying
directly away from a vertical
line erected through the pintle center of thegun, perpendicular
to the hori7ontal plane.
(6) Crossing. A crossing course is formed whenthe target course
line does not pass directlyover the gun.
(7) Directly-at-the-gun. A directly-at-the-guncourse is formed
when the target is flyingdirectly toward the pintle center of the
e. By combining the above names, any course canbe described; for
example, "Incoming Diving","Crossing Level", "Climbing Outgoing" or
f. Every target course line can be divided, for gun-nery
purposes, into two portions called legs. Theapproaching leg is that
portion of the target courseline along which the target is flying
toward midpoint.The receding leg is that portion of the target
courseline along which the target is flying away from
g. Vt, (V small t sub p). The line Vt, is targettravel distance
and is defined as the straight line dis-tance in yards from the
present position to the futureposition of the target. The letter V
is the targetspeed (velocity) in yards per second along the
courseline. The letter t is the time of flight in seconds of
theprojectile assumed to be fired. The subscript pdesignates future
position. Vt,, then, has the valuein yards of the speed of the
target (in yards persecond) multiplied by the time of flight of
theprojectile (in seconds) from the gun to the futureposition.
67. Angles (fig. 15)a. Eo (E sub o). The angle E, is present
height and is defined as the vertical angle between
the line of present slant range and the horizontalplane.
b. E, (E sub p). The angle E, is future angularheight and is
defined as the vertical angle betweenthe line of future slant range
and the horizontal plane.
c. Em (E sub m). The angle Em is midpoint angu-lar height and is
defined as the vertical angle betweenthe line of midpoint slant
range and the horizontalplane.
d. E, (E sub s). The angle E, is slant plane angu-lar height and
is defined as the vertical angle betweenthe slant plane and
horizontal plane measured per-pendicular to their line of
e. Angular Height Variations.(1) ES, the slant plane angular
vary with any single target course line,because the position of
one course line isfixed in space, just as the gun is at a
(2) Eo and EP, present angular height and futureangular height,
will both change in value assuccessive rounds are assumed to be
firedalong a target course line, provided thattarget course line
does not lie in the-hori-zontal plane. On level courses, Eo and
E,increase to midpoint and decrease there-after. On climbing and
diving courses theyincrease to a point other than midpointwhere
angular height to that point is equalto slant plane angular height
and decreasethereafter. This point is located on theapproaching leg
of a diving course and onthe receding leg of a climbing course.
f. d, (Phi sub s). The angle b, is superelevationand is defined
as the vertical angle required to elevatethe gun bore above the
line of future slant range, inorder to overcome the effect of
curvature of trajectorycaused by gravity. This angle varies
inversely withthe elevation of the gun bore and directly with
rangeto the target (future slant range).
g. 0 (Phi). The angle 0 is quadrant elevation andis defined as
the vertical angle between the axis ofthe gun bore and the
h. a (Alpha). The angle a is the angle of approachand is defined
as the angle formed by To, T,, and Gwith the apex at T,. This angle
increases along agiven course line as successive rounds are
assumedto be fired and it varies, theoretically, from 0° to1800. It
always lies in the slant plane.
i. LR (L sub R). The angle LR is the required leadangle and is
defined as the mathematically correctlead angle between the lines
of present slant rangeand future slant range. This is a slant plane
j. La (L sub G). The angle La is the generatedlead angle and is
defined as the angle between thetracker's line of sight and the
axis of the gun bore(disregarding superelevation). The tracker's
line ofsight is a line projected from the tracker's eyethrough, or
along, a sighting device. The axis ofthe gun bore (disregarding
superelevation) is animaginary line along which the axis of the gun
borewould lie if the angle of superelevation were not setin. The
generated lead angle and required leadangle are two distinctly
separate angles. Therequired lead is a mathematically correct lead.
Thegenerated lead is the lead which actually exists on
the gun. The problem, therefore, is to make thegenerated lead
coincide with the required lead.
Section III. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM
68. GeneralWith certain mathematically fixed points, lines,
and angles established in and between the slant andhorizontal
planes, the AAA (AW) gunnery problemcan now be solved. In
conjunction with the mathe-matical solution to the problem, the
practical andmechanical solution must also be explained. Theproblem
of obtaining a hit is reduced to two basicrequirements, line and
lead. A set of four conditionsor steps called links of the gunnery
chain exist which,if collectively satisfied, will accomplish the
69. Gunnery Chaina. Link I. To establish and maintain the
line of sight on center of mass of the target. Thetracker's line
of sight has been defined as a line fromthe tracker's eye through,
or along, a sighting device.Link I, then, is to make the tracker's
line of sight liealong the line of Do, present slant range.
b. Link II. To establish the axis of the gun bore(disregarding
superelevation) in the slant plane.With antiaircraft artillery
automatic weapons, super-elevation is mechanically applied. It is
thereforenecessary to stipulate, in academic definitions, thatthe
angular height of the axis of the gun bore doesnot contain
additional angle of superelevation.
c. Link III. To establish the correct amount oflead. This is to
make the generated lead angle,LG, equal to the required lead angle,
LR, or, having
established links I and II, to make the axis of thegun bore
(disregarding superelevation), lie along theline of future slant
d. Link IV. To establish the correct amount ofsuperelevation.
With the axis of the gun bore (dis-regarding superelevation) lying
along D,, the laststep to obtain a hit is to elevate the gun bore a
smallamount necessary to overcome curvature of trajec-tory caused
70. Requirements for a Hita. General. It can be seen that the
men who aim
and fire the gun would have little time to establisheach link of
the gunnery chain separately. Theirimmediate problem, while firing,
is therefore reducedto two requirements for a hit. These are line
b. Line. This requirement is satisfied if the pro-jectile is
made to intersect the target course linewithin tolerance. In the
line tolerance, a margin forerror is introduced by the fact that
the projectileneed not intersect the narrow line of the
projectedlongitudinal axis of the target fuselage in order tobe
effective. Intersecting the bottom or top of thefuselage is a hit.
By definition, the line tolerance isone-half the angle subtended at
the gun by thediameter of the fuselage of the target. The amountof
this line tolerance increases with the diameter ofthe target
fuselage and decreases with increasingrange (D,) to the target
c. Lead. This requirement is satisfied, after lineis obtained,
when the projectile is made to intersectthe target.
(1) Lead tolerance. Again, a margin for error is
0. SLANT-PLANE VIEW, CROSSING COURSE.
DI AMETER OF FUSELAGE
G b. CROSS- SECTIONAL VIEW.Figure 17. Line tolerance.
introduced. The projectile need not hit thecenter of mass of the
target to be effective.An intersection with the nose or tail is
classified as a hit. By definition, the leadtolerance is
one-half the angle subtended atthe gun by the length of the target
fuselage.The amount of this lead tolerance increaseswith the length
of the target fuselage, de-
creases with greater range (Dp) to the tar-get, and increases
with the sine of the angleof approach to minimum slant range
anddecreases thereafter (fig. 18 and app. III).
(2) Mathematical solution ql lead angles. Tofully understand the
lead problem, it is
Figure 18. Lead tolerance.
necessary to have a working knowledge oftrigonometry. In figure
15, the trianglesin the slant plane are formed by the gun(G), the
target's present position (To),future position (T,), and midpoint
(Tm).These points are mathematically locatedwhen a target is flying
a certain courseand a particular round is assumed to befired. The
mathematical problem is todetermine the magnitude of the angle
LR,the lead angle required to hit the target.By applying the law of
sines to the triangle
GToT,, the following proportion is found:sin LR sin a
Vt, DVSolving the proportion for sin LR, the result
i VtpXsin ais: sin L= sin a Since antiaircraft
automatic weapons have a high muzzlevelocity, and are effective
at short ranges,t, may be considered a function of Dr, per-mitting
the combination of values for t,
and D, into the factor tp or the rangeDp
factor. Thus, the required lead equation
emerges in its final form: sin LR=(V) (P )(sin a). It can be
seen by a completemathematical analysis of this equation(app. III)
that the amount of the requiredlead angle will increase with the
speed ofthe target and the angle of approach tominimum range, but
will change veryslightly with range variations within effec-tive
ranges of antiaircraft automaticweapons.
Section IV. GENERAL APPLICATION ANDANALYSIS OF PROBLEM
71. GeneralWith a knowledge of the mathematical solution to
the gunnery problem, the officer supervising firingpractice can
analyze errors, and apply corrections infiring, by utilizing the
links of the gunnery chain.In the critique of a particular firing
round must be sensed for line and lead. It is pos-sible to do
this through tracer observation, which isexplained in chapter 10.
The officer conductingthe critique will then have line information;
whethereach round is High, Low, or On line within the toler-ance,
and lead information; whether each round isAstern, Ahead, or On in
lead within tolerance. Withthis information recorded, the officer
conducting thecritique can analyze the problem with the tools
athand, the links of the gunnery chain, applying themfirst to line,
then to lead.
72. LineThe supervising officer must realize that line shots
must be obtained before corrections for lead (by theman on the
gun) can be made. This is emphasizedin Tracer Observation (ch. 10).
He must alsorealize that obtaining line shots is as difficult,
ifnot more so, than establishing correct lead, becauseof the
smaller line tolerance provided by the shape ofthe target. The
average AAA (AW) target fuselageis approximately 2 yards wide, or
about 1 yardeither way from the center. This 1 yard producesthe
line tolerance and, at a range of 1,000 yards fromthe gun, would
subtend 1 mil, a very small margin forerror. In addition, the line
requirement must besatisfied, on crossing courses, by manipulating
threelinks of the gunnery chain.
a. Link I. The tracker's line of sight must bekept on the
target, and if possible the center of mass,at all times. The
sighting device uses this line asthe basic reference for its
solution to the problem.Since automatic tracking devices are not
available toAAA (AW), the physical and mental skills of the gun
crew must be highly developed. Constant trackingpractice is just
as important to AAA (AW) accuracyas physical training is to the
athlete. Techniques oftracking must be thoroughly covered in AA
(NW)training, and even a highly trained tracker mustcontinue
practicing daily to maintain tracking skill.
b. Link II. Point the axis of the gun bore (dis-regarding
superelevation) ahead of the target alongthe target course line.
With the tracker's line ofsight established, the axis of the gun
bore (disre-garding superelevation) is moved separately fromthe
tracker's line of sight until it lies ahead of thetarget, pointing
at the target course line, or lying inthe slant plane. This
operation is accomplished bymanipulating the sighting device, or by
the trackercarrying the target at a certain attitude in his
sight-ing device. It again requires physical skill andtechnique. If
link II is in error only a mil or twothe round fired will be off
line. The combinederrors in link I and link II must be no greater
than aaverage of 1 mil in one direction in order to obtain aline
c. Link III. Since this link considers only theangular
displacement between the tracker's line ofsight and the axis of the
gun bore (disregarding super-elevation),