Literacy in the Information Age

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    Literacy in theInformation AgeFINAL REPORT OF

    THE INTERNATIONAL

    ADULT LITERACY SURVEY

    Statistics

    Canada

    Statistique

    Canada

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    OECD, 2000.

    Software: 1987-1996, Acrobat is a trademark of ADOBE.

    All rights reserved. OECD grants you the right to use one copy of this Program for your personal use only. Unauthorised reproduction,lending, hiring, transmission or distribution of any data or software is prohibited. You must treat the Program and associated materials and anyelements thereof like any other copyrighted material.

    All requests should be made to:

    Head of Publications Service,OECD Publications Service,

    2, rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 ParisCedex 16, France.

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    LiteracyLiteracyLiteracyLiteracyLiteracyin thein thein thein thein theInfInfInfInfInformatormatormatormatormationionionionionAgeAgeAgeAgeAge

    Final Report of the International

    Adult Literacy Survey

    ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    STATISTICS CANADA

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    ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promotepolicies designed:

    to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Membercountries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy;

    to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of economicdevelopment; and

    to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance withinternational obligations.

    The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany,Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequentlythrough accession at the dates indicated thereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia(7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd November 1996) and the Republic of Korea (12th December1996). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of theOECD Convention).

    STATISTICS CANADA

    Statistics Canada, Canadas central statistical agency, has the mandate to collect, compile, analyse, andpublish statistical information relating to the commercial, industrial, financial, social, economic and general activitiesand condition of the people of Canada. The organization, a federal government agency, is headed by the ChiefStatistician of Canada and reports to Parliament through the Minister of Industry Canada.

    Statistics Canada provides information to governments at every level and is the source of statistical informationfor business, labour, academic and social institutions, professional associations, the international statisticalcommunity, and the general public. This information is produced at the national and provincial levels and, in somecases, for major population centres and other sub-provincial or small areas.

    The Agency fosters relations not only within Canada but also throughout the world, by participating in a

    number of international meetings and professional exchanges. Statistics Canada was responsible for managingthe design and implementation of the International Adult Literacy Survey in co-operation with the EducationalTesting Service of Princeton, New Jersey, and national survey teams.

    Publi en franais sous le titre :La littratie lre de linformation

    THEOPINIONSANDINTERPRETATIONSEXPRESSEDINTHISREPORTARETHOSEOFTHEAUTHORS.

    Published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,and the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, and the Minister of Industry, Canada, 2000.

    Applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or part of this material should be made to:

    Head of Publications Service,

    OECD, 2 rue Andr-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.

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    iii

    Foreword

    As we move into the information age, policy makers in all countries areincreasingly concerned about the role knowledge and skills play in enhancingproductivity growth and innovation and in improving social cohesion. The datapresented in this publication, drawn from 20 countries over three cycles of datacollection for the International Adult Literacy Survey, provide the worlds first reliable

    and comparable estimates of the levels and distributions of literacy skills in the adultpopulation.

    The study offers an understanding of the nature and magnitude of literacyissues faced by countries and explores new insights into the factors that influencethe development of adult skills in various settings at home, at work and acrosscountries. The 20 countries represented account for over 50 per cent of the worldsentire gross domestic product. As such, the literacy data can contribute importantlyto an understanding of the demand and supply of skills in the global, knowledge-based economy.

    The results confirm the importance of skills for the effective functioning oflabour markets and for the economic success and social advancement of both

    individuals and societies. They offer policy makers a useful tool for policy analysisand for crafting policies and programmes that can contribute to economic and socialprogress.

    The survey was made possible thanks to a unique collaboration involvinginternational organisations, national governments and their statistical offices,educational assessment and research institutions, and experts drawn from manycountries. Such co-operation is remarkable and serves as a model for future effortsto improve the availability of official and comparable statistics in key policy domains.

    The report is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-Generalof the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Minister ofIndustry of the Government of Canada and Statistics Canada.

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    v

    Table of Contents

    Introduction ix

    Highlights and Note to Readers xiii

    Chapter 1 Skills for the Twenty-first Century 11.1 Introduction 1

    1.2 Structural Changes in the Knowledge Economy 1

    1.3 Impact on the Demand for Skills 81.4 Conclusion 11

    References 12

    Chapter 2 Population Distributions of Adult Literacy 132.1 Introduction 13

    2.2 Patterns of Adult Literacy Skills 13

    2.3 Literacy Skills and Education 22

    2.4 Conclusion 25

    References 25

    Chapter 3 How Literacy is Developed and Sustained 273.1 Introduction 27

    3.2 Home Background and Literacy Outcomes 27

    3.3 Literacy and Education by Age 33

    3.4 Literacy and Work 34

    3.5 Literacy and Formal Adult Education 36

    3.6 Literacy, Culture and Civic Skills 49

    3.7 Self-assessed Literacy Skills 52

    3.8 Factors Explaining Literacy Proficiency 54

    3.9 Conclusion 58

    References 60

    Chapter 4 Outcomes and Benefits of Literacy 614.1 Introduction 61

    4.2 Literacy and the Labour Force 62

    4.3 Education, Literacy and Experience 70

    4.4 Windows into the Socio-economicBenefits of Literacy 77

    4.5 Conclusion 83

    References 85

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    vi

    Literacy in the Information Age

    Chapter 5 Future Developments 875.1 Introduction 87

    5.2 Methodological Advances 87

    5.3 Main Findings 89

    5.4 Issues for Further Analysis 90

    References 91

    Annex A Definitions of Literacy Performance on Three Scales 93

    Annex B Survey Methodology and Data Quality 107

    Annex C Note on International Comparability of IALS Data 123

    Annex D Data Values for the Figures 131

    Annex E Source Database for the International AdultLiteracy Survey 179

    Annex F Principal Participants in the Project 183

    List of Figures and Tables

    Chapter 1Figure 1.1 OECD manufacturing trade by technology intensity 2

    Figure 1.2 Knowledge-based industries and services 4

    Table 1.3 Access to the information society 5

    Figure 1.4 Employment trends by industry, total OECD 6

    Table 1.5 Flexible management practices 7

    Figure 1.6 Upskilling in total employment growth 9

    Figure 1.7 Upskilling in manufacturing and services employment growth 10

    Chapter 2Figure 2.1 Distribution of literacy scores 14

    Figure 2.2 Comparative distribution of literacy levels 17

    Figure 2.3 Multiple comparisons of literacy proficiency 19

    Figure 2.4 Educational attainment and literacy proficiency 22

    Figure 2.5 Document literacy levels among low educated adults 24

    Chapter 3Figure 3.1 Educational attainment and literacy proficiency of young adults 28

    Figure 3.2 Socio-economic gradients for document literacy scores,population aged 16-25 31

    Figure 3.3 Socio-economic gradients for document literacy scores,population aged 26-65 32

    Figure 3.4 Age and literacy proficiency 34

    Figure 3.5 Age and literacy controlling for education 35

    Figure 3.6 Labour force participation and literacy proficiency 37

    Figure 3.7 Unemployment and literacy 38

    Figure 3.8 Employment disadvantage of low-skilled adults 39

    Figure 3.9 Reading at work 40

    Figure 3.10 Writing at work 41

    Figure 3.11 Hours of continuing education and training per adult 42

    Figure 3.12 Literacy and adult education participation 43

    Figure 3.13 Likelihood of participation by occupation 44

    Figure 3.14 Sources of financial support for adult education and training 46

    Figure 3.15 Likelihood of participation by literacy engagement at work 47

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    Table of Contents

    vii

    Figure 3.16 Reading books and watching television 48

    Figure 3.17 Participation in community activities 50

    Figure 3.18 Native-born versus foreign-born (second language) population and literacy 52

    Figure 3.19 Self-assessment of reading skills 53

    Figure 3.20 Handicaps imposed by low reading skills 54

    Figure 3.21 Variance explained in literacy proficiency 55

    Table 3.22 Major determinants of literacy proficiency 57

    Chapter 4Figure 4.1 Literacy levels by socio-occupational categories 62

    Figure 4.2 Labour volume by document literacy 63

    Figure 4.3 Probability of unemployment and literacy proficiency 65

    Figure 4.4 Literacy and short- and long-term unemployment 67

    Figure 4.5 Employment in the knowledge economy and literacy proficiency 67

    Figure 4.6 Literacy and occupational categories 68

    Figure 4.7 Probability of being in occupational category by increasing literacy scores 71

    Figure 4.8 Probability of being white-collar high-skilled by education levels and literacy skills 73

    Figure 4.9 Adult literacy and earnings quintiles 75

    Figure 4.10 Amount of variance explained in earnings 76Figure 4.11 Earnings, education and literacy 78

    Figure 4.12 GDP per capita and literacy 80

    Figure 4.13 Economic inequality and literacy inequality 81

    Figure 4.14 Life expectancy at birth and literacy proficiency 82

    Figure 4.15 Women in parliament and literacy proficiency 83

    Chapter 5Figure 5.1 World map showing the country populations covered by the International

    Adult Literacy Survey 88

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    ix

    This section introduces the participants in the survey. It also provides, insummary form, the definition of literacy used for the assessment and the methodsemployed for the data collection and scaling of the results information necessaryfor an understanding of the literacy levels and performance scales used in the dataanalysis. Finally, an overview of the key findings is presented.

    The Participants

    The International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) was a large-scale co-operativeeffort by governments, national statistical agencies, research institutions and theOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Thedevelopment and management of the survey were co-ordinated by Statistics Canadaand the Educational Testing Service of Princeton, New Jersey. At various surveycycles, and in different ways, substantial input was received from the National Centerfor Education Statistics of the United States Department of Education, input that hasgreatly facilitated the project and ultimately made this publication possible.

    In 1994, nine countries Canada (English and French-speaking populations),France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland (Germanand French-speaking regions) and the United States fielded the worlds first large-scale, comparative assessment of adult literacy. Data for seven of these countrieswere published inLiteracy, Economy and Society: Results of the First InternationalAdult Literacy Survey in December 1995 (OECD and Statistics Canada, 1995).1

    Encouraged by this demonstration of success, five additional countries orterritories Australia, the Flemish Community in Belgium, Great Britain, NewZealand and Northern Ireland decided to administer the IALS instruments to samplesof their adult populations in 1996. Comparative data from this round of collectionwere released in November 1997 inLiteracy Skills for the Knowledge Society: FurtherResults from the International Adult Literacy Survey (OECD and HRDC, 1997).

    Nine other countries or regions Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,Hungary, Italy, 2 Norway, Slovenia and the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland participated in a third, large-scale round of data collection in 1998. Results for mostof these countries are included in this report. Limited literacy data became availablefor Portugal in 1998 and are reported where the sample size is sufficient to support

    1. France decided to withdraw from the study in November 1995, citing concerns over comparability. Dataprocessing for Ireland was unfortunately delayed and so its results were included in a subsequent IALSpublication.

    2. Data for Italy are forthcoming in the publication,La competenza alfabetica in Italia : Una ricerca sulla culturadella populazione, Centro Europeo Dell Educazione, Frascati and F. Angeli, Milan.

    Introduction

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    x

    Literacy in the Information Age

    the analysis.3 Japan, Malaysia, Mexico and the Canary Islands region of Spain hav...

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