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262 Calcutta, 18 ; Bengal, 2005 ; United Provinces, 6822 ; Punjab, 3940 ; Central Provinces, 359 ; Mysore State. 39 ; Hyderabad, 809; Central India, 132 ; Rajputana, 345 ; and Kashmir, eight. It must be borne in mind that these figures of weekly mortality are only approximate as registration is everywhere very defective. It is possible that the true mortality from plague is 50 per cent. over the published figures. The Septic Tanks on the Rizer Hooghly. The outcry made by the Hindu community some months ago against the drainage of the septic tanks connected with several mills on the river Hooghly above Calcutta led to the appointment of a committee of inquiry. Its report has just been published. It was found that the effluents varied in purity but for the most part contained no perceptible solids and were non-putrescible. Chemical analysis showed, how- ever, that the results compared unfavourably with reports of similar analyses made in England. The nitrates were in insufficient amount while the albuminoid ammonia was in excess. Bacterial analysis also showed a large number of colon bacilli and a general bacterial contamination. The amount of river water with which the effluents became diluted was not capable of any trustworthy estimate. The committee considers that these septic tanks are a vast im- provement on the old system of latrines and that a stoppage of the use of the tanks would probably increase the pollu- tion. It suggests certain methods of improving the effluents. The great danger is in the dry season when the river flow is small and it concludes that the effluents in their present condition should not be emptied into the river above the waterworks or near them. The objections of the Hindu community are on religious grounds by some members and on sentimental grounds by others. As it is impracticable to pass the effluents over land it is suggested that, failing improvement in character, the fluid might be used as feed water for boilers ; but here, again, difficulties may arise from the workmen. There is little doubt that these septic tanks can be improved in construction and use but the objections against them are, I think, fanciful in the circumstances present here. It is forgotten how much the river is polluted by the in- habitants living on the banks and by the thousands who go down to bathe and considering the size of the river the objection against the septic tank effluents from a few mills is simply a vexatious one and probably arises from an ignorance of the process by which the sewage is purified in these tanks. Jan. 7th. BIRMINGHAM. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) University Intelligence. , SINCE my last letter Mr. H. Gilbert Barling has been appointed by the Council of the University dean of the medical faculty. Mr. Barling, who came to Birmingham nearly 25 years ago, is professor of surgery, honorary surgeon to the Birmingham General Hospital, and a member of the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Since the inception of the University he has been vice-dean of the faculty. He has made many valuable contributions to surgical literature. His lectures upon appendicitis delivered at the University under the Ingleby trust were at the time, and have remained since, one of the most authoritative works upon the subject. The University is to be con- .gratulated upon its good fortune in being able to induce Mr. Barling to spare from his other work the time requi- site for the office, the successful tenure of which is felt to be insured by all those who are acquainted with his business ability and tact. The principal’s report for the years T.904-05 contains a reference to the Dental Hospital. For some time past the students in dentistry have suffered from the undoubted inconveniences inseparable from so antiquated a building as the old Dental Hospital. All interested in the school will be glad to hear that such disabilities are to be speedily removed by the opening of a new hospital possessed of all modern requirements. It is estimated that the building will cost .::810,000, of which more than half has already been raised. The principal in his report took the opportunity - of saying how closely allied the medical and the dental faculties were in their fortunes and that he hoped a special effort would be made to open the building free of ..debt. He said that as the only school in the country at present privileged to grant a degree in dentistry it was in- cumbent upon the university authorities to see that the pre- paration for their degrees was of as thorough and scientific a nature as possible. The Health Committee. The question of the milk-supply in Birmingham has occupied of late the attention of the health committee and in this connexion a circular letter has been addressed by the medical officer of health to the farmers of the district point- ing out the ways in which contamination occurs and the rapidity of the multiplication of germs in milk. To prevent these mischievous results the farmers are requested to see that more regard is paid to cleanliness by the milkers and that the milk is stored under such conditions that its tempera- ture will not be higher than 45° F. A long report on the method by which " humanised " milk is distributed in Liver- pool was presented by a deputation of the health committee which had recently visited that city for the purpose. It is believed that some such scheme will be adopted in Bir- mingham. At the same meeting the question of the advisa- bility of framing regulations for hairdressers’ and barbers’ establishments was also considered. The matter was referred to the medical officer of health for his consideration. Birmingham, Tame, and Rea Drainage Board. At the last meeting of the above board the members were strongly advised by their engineer, Mr. J. D. Watson, to substitute as opportunity arose bacteria beds for the inter- mittent filters now in use at their farm. He supported his recommendation by stating that 15 acres of bacteria beds were capable of dealing with the sewage for which at present 1000 acres of intermittent filtration beds are required, that this would set free a great area for growing grass and roots, and that the effluent from bacteria beds is purer than that from filtration beds. The Health of t7te City. The death-rate in Birmingham for the week ending Jan. 14th was 19’8 per 1000, as compared with 21 per 1000 in the previous week ; the zymotic death-rates in the same periods were 1’ 0 and 0’ 7. The number of patients in the scarlet fever hospital and in the typhoid fever wards was in each case reduced, the gratifying report being made that there was now no pressure on the accommodation in the isolation hospitals. The slight rise in the zymotic death- rate was due to deaths from whooping-cough and pulmonary tuberculosis. Influenza has been accountable for a large amount of sickness in the city and in the surrounding Black Country. The Floodgate-street Area, At a meeting of the Birmingham magistrates held on Jan. 19th to consider a report of the licensing committee upon the Licensing Act, 1904, it was possible to obtain some information as to the probable attitude to be adopted by the committee towards the Floodgate-street area. Mr. Chance, the chairman of the committee, said he believed there were some who thought that considering the report of the medical officer of health the magistrates should confine their attention to this area. He did not think so ; he pointed out that of the houses scheduled in this area more than half were fully licensed houses, many of which it would be very expensive to close. He considered that more good would be done to Birmingham if the committee was not restricted to this area and if it was allowed a little latitude to go out- side. A motion, however, that the attention of the com- mittee should be first drawn to the number of superfluous licensed houses in this area was carried. Jan. 24th. ________________ LIVERPOOL. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) The Princess Christian at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine : Major Ronald Ross’s Lecture on the Progress of Tropical Medicine. Her Royal Highness Princess Christian visited Liverpool on Jan. 12th to attend a lecture by Major Ronald Ross, C.B., F.R.S., late I.M.S., on the Progress of Tropical Medicine and on some phases of the work of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Her Royal Highness was accompanied by the Princess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, the Earl and Countess of Derby, and the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., and Mrs. Chamberlain. Sir Alfred Jones, K.C.M.G., who presided, explained to Her Royal Highness that

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Calcutta, 18 ; Bengal, 2005 ; United Provinces, 6822 ; Punjab,3940 ; Central Provinces, 359 ; Mysore State. 39 ; Hyderabad,809; Central India, 132 ; Rajputana, 345 ; and Kashmir,eight. It must be borne in mind that these figures of weeklymortality are only approximate as registration is everywherevery defective. It is possible that the true mortality fromplague is 50 per cent. over the published figures.

The Septic Tanks on the Rizer Hooghly.The outcry made by the Hindu community some months

ago against the drainage of the septic tanks connected withseveral mills on the river Hooghly above Calcutta led to theappointment of a committee of inquiry. Its report has justbeen published. It was found that the effluents varied in

purity but for the most part contained no perceptible solidsand were non-putrescible. Chemical analysis showed, how-ever, that the results compared unfavourably with reportsof similar analyses made in England. The nitrates were ininsufficient amount while the albuminoid ammonia was inexcess. Bacterial analysis also showed a large number ofcolon bacilli and a general bacterial contamination. Theamount of river water with which the effluents becamediluted was not capable of any trustworthy estimate. Thecommittee considers that these septic tanks are a vast im-provement on the old system of latrines and that a stoppageof the use of the tanks would probably increase the pollu-tion. It suggests certain methods of improving the effluents.The great danger is in the dry season when the riverflow is small and it concludes that the effluents intheir present condition should not be emptied intothe river above the waterworks or near them. The

objections of the Hindu community are on religiousgrounds by some members and on sentimental groundsby others. As it is impracticable to pass the effluentsover land it is suggested that, failing improvement in

character, the fluid might be used as feed water for boilers ;but here, again, difficulties may arise from the workmen.There is little doubt that these septic tanks can be improvedin construction and use but the objections against them are,I think, fanciful in the circumstances present here. Itis forgotten how much the river is polluted by the in-habitants living on the banks and by the thousands whogo down to bathe and considering the size of the riverthe objection against the septic tank effluents from a fewmills is simply a vexatious one and probably arises from anignorance of the process by which the sewage is purified inthese tanks.

Jan. 7th. _______________

BIRMINGHAM.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

University Intelligence. ,

SINCE my last letter Mr. H. Gilbert Barling has beenappointed by the Council of the University dean of themedical faculty. Mr. Barling, who came to Birmingham nearly25 years ago, is professor of surgery, honorary surgeon to theBirmingham General Hospital, and a member of the Councilof the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Since the

inception of the University he has been vice-dean of thefaculty. He has made many valuable contributions to

surgical literature. His lectures upon appendicitis deliveredat the University under the Ingleby trust were at the time,and have remained since, one of the most authoritativeworks upon the subject. The University is to be con-

.gratulated upon its good fortune in being able to induceMr. Barling to spare from his other work the time requi-site for the office, the successful tenure of which is feltto be insured by all those who are acquainted with hisbusiness ability and tact. The principal’s report for the yearsT.904-05 contains a reference to the Dental Hospital. For sometime past the students in dentistry have suffered from theundoubted inconveniences inseparable from so antiquated abuilding as the old Dental Hospital. All interested in theschool will be glad to hear that such disabilities are to bespeedily removed by the opening of a new hospital possessedof all modern requirements. It is estimated that the buildingwill cost .::810,000, of which more than half has already beenraised. The principal in his report took the opportunity- of saying how closely allied the medical and the dentalfaculties were in their fortunes and that he hoped a

special effort would be made to open the building free of..debt. He said that as the only school in the country at

present privileged to grant a degree in dentistry it was in-cumbent upon the university authorities to see that the pre-paration for their degrees was of as thorough and scientifica nature as possible.

The Health Committee.The question of the milk-supply in Birmingham has

occupied of late the attention of the health committee andin this connexion a circular letter has been addressed by themedical officer of health to the farmers of the district point-ing out the ways in which contamination occurs and therapidity of the multiplication of germs in milk. To preventthese mischievous results the farmers are requested to see thatmore regard is paid to cleanliness by the milkers and thatthe milk is stored under such conditions that its tempera-ture will not be higher than 45° F. A long report on themethod by which " humanised " milk is distributed in Liver-pool was presented by a deputation of the health committeewhich had recently visited that city for the purpose. It isbelieved that some such scheme will be adopted in Bir-mingham. At the same meeting the question of the advisa-bility of framing regulations for hairdressers’ and barbers’establishments was also considered. The matter was referredto the medical officer of health for his consideration.

Birmingham, Tame, and Rea Drainage Board.At the last meeting of the above board the members were

strongly advised by their engineer, Mr. J. D. Watson, tosubstitute as opportunity arose bacteria beds for the inter-mittent filters now in use at their farm. He supported hisrecommendation by stating that 15 acres of bacteria bedswere capable of dealing with the sewage for which at present1000 acres of intermittent filtration beds are required, thatthis would set free a great area for growing grass and roots,and that the effluent from bacteria beds is purer than thatfrom filtration beds.

The Health of t7te City.The death-rate in Birmingham for the week ending

Jan. 14th was 19’8 per 1000, as compared with 21 per1000 in the previous week ; the zymotic death-rates in thesame periods were 1’ 0 and 0’ 7. The number of patients inthe scarlet fever hospital and in the typhoid fever wardswas in each case reduced, the gratifying report being madethat there was now no pressure on the accommodation in theisolation hospitals. The slight rise in the zymotic death-rate was due to deaths from whooping-cough and pulmonarytuberculosis. Influenza has been accountable for a largeamount of sickness in the city and in the surrounding BlackCountry.

The Floodgate-street Area,At a meeting of the Birmingham magistrates held on

Jan. 19th to consider a report of the licensing committeeupon the Licensing Act, 1904, it was possible to obtainsome information as to the probable attitude to be adoptedby the committee towards the Floodgate-street area. Mr.Chance, the chairman of the committee, said he believed therewere some who thought that considering the report of themedical officer of health the magistrates should confine theirattention to this area. He did not think so ; he pointed outthat of the houses scheduled in this area more than halfwere fully licensed houses, many of which it would be veryexpensive to close. He considered that more good wouldbe done to Birmingham if the committee was not restrictedto this area and if it was allowed a little latitude to go out-side. A motion, however, that the attention of the com-mittee should be first drawn to the number of superfluous -

licensed houses in this area was carried.Jan. 24th.

________________

LIVERPOOL.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

The Princess Christian at the Liverpool School of TropicalMedicine : Major Ronald Ross’s Lecture on the

Progress of Tropical Medicine.Her Royal Highness Princess Christian visited Liverpool

on Jan. 12th to attend a lecture by Major Ronald Ross, C.B.,F.R.S., late I.M.S., on the Progress of Tropical Medicineand on some phases of the work of the Liverpool School ofTropical Medicine. Her Royal Highness was accompaniedby the Princess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, the Earl andCountess of Derby, and the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain,M.P., and Mrs. Chamberlain. Sir Alfred Jones, K.C.M.G.,who presided, explained to Her Royal Highness that

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Liverpool was doing what it could to push forwardthe study of tropical medicine which was for thecommon good. The tropics had already been made morehabitable for the British people. The people of Liverpoolhad enabled them to spend .650.000 on the work but nothingwould have been done but for the example of Mr.Chamberlain and the thanks of the school were due to him.Major Ross in the course of his lecture remarked that diseasewas the principal bar to progress in tropical countries.Particularly in the case of tropical Africa one was struckwith the fact that that great continent still remained un-civilised in spite of its proximity. There was only one wayto grapple with the great enemies of civilisation : they mustsit down patiently with the microscope and the test-tube.Having dealt with the vague medical knowledge of tropicalmaladies up to a recent time he said that perhaps theearliest light came from a study which was despised bymany-namely, that of the parasites of man and of animals.Tracing the progress of the study he referred particularly tothe discovery that the malaria germ was carried from themarshes to human beings by mosquitoes. It was oftenasked whether malarial fever could not be produced in otherways than by the bite of mosquitoes. He could only saythat no satisfactory evidence of this had yet been given and,moreover, that for zoological reasons it was exceedinglyunlikely that the parasite, which already possessed a suffi-

ciently complex life-history, could exist in other localitiesbesides its own proper hosts, man and mosquito. The factthat yellow fever was carried by mosquitoes only was nowdetermined with the utmost certainty. The germ had notyet been found but the manner in which it attackedwas known. During the last quarter of a centurypure science had made discoveries which had resultedin the partial or complete solution of the problemsin connexion with five or six tropical diseases but it did notfollow that life would be benefited. Neither the generalpublic nor scientific men seemed fully to realise this point. ’iIf to-morrow he were to discover a method of checking any disease, so simple that it could be applied without thesmallest difficulty, were they convinced that it would be soapplied the day after to-morrow? ‘! He knew that it would

probably not be applied for years or perhaps even for centuries.That seemed a bitter thing to say and some might doubtwhether it was true but he would give a case where it hadactually happened-he meant the case of vaccination againstsmall-pox. When, therefore, the mode of propagation ofmalaria was discovered it became obvious that a greatpropagandism must be carried out. The public mustbe informed of the new discoveries and the State must be

requested to take action. They owed the initiative in thatmatter to Mr. Chamberlain who, early in 1899, publiclyformulated a scheme for the creation of schools of tropicalmedicine-that was to say, he at once recognised the publicimportance of tropical medicine and at the same time didhis utmost to encourage the further study of it. The

Liverpool School, ably led by Sir Alfred Jones, hadcollected funds for a large amount of pure scientific work,also for direct sanitary labour ; and the London School andthe schools of Hamburg and elsewhere had contributedtheir share. A few months after the Liverpool School wasestablished it sent out an expedition to Sierra Leone whichdiscovered the species of malaria-bearing mosquitoes thereexisting and showed exactly how to deal with the diseasein large towns. It sent other expeditions to the Gambia,to the Gold Coast, to Lagos, and to the Congo. Thesehad mapped out the health conditions of the coast ina -manner which was never attempted before. They hadsent out no less than 14 of such expeditions to variousparts of the world and had published 12 separate works andreports on the subject. He explained what the anti-mosquitocrusade accomplished, resulting in improvement of healthin some districts and in the disappearance, for instance, ofyellow fever from Havana. At Ismailia the cases of malarialfever fell within one year from 2000 to 200. Illustrationsof malarial, yellow fever, elephantiasis, and other germs invarious phases of development were then given on a screenand explained by Major Ross. A vote of thanks to thelecturer was proposed by Mr. Chamberlain which was

cordially carried.Return of Professor Rubert Boyce from TVest Africa : the

Health of West Africa.Professor R. Boyce, who with Dr. Clarke and Dr. Evans went

out recently from Liverpool to the malaria-infected districtson a special expedition despatched by the Liverpool School

of Tropical Medicine, returned to Liverpool on Jan. 22nd.It is understood that valuable knowledge has been acquiredwhich will be embodied in a report. Professor Boyce statesthat although the West Coast of Africa will not become ahealth resort some parts in certain seasons may become quitehealthy. The health of Europeans in many of the coasttowns now shows a marked improvement and will no doubtcontinue to improve. This is attributed to increased sanita-tion, including anti-mosquito measures, new residences inselected quarters, and more careful selection of those who goout and who in consequence realise how to live in a tropicalclimate and to avoid infection from malaria and otherdiseases.

Opening of the Jam’ s Hakes Memorial Hall.At the annual meeting of the Liverpool Medical Mis-

sionary Society held on Jan. 23rd the ceremony of openingthe new dispensary building and James Hakes MemorialHall took place. Miss Hakes declared the buildings openand addresses were delivered by Dr. William Carter, J.P.,and Dr. Bond, the medical officer to the society. The lateMr. James Hakes, who was surgeon to the Liverpool RoyalInfirmary, was one of the founders and most liberal sup-porters of the mission and Miss Hakes made the generousgift of f.1000 to build the new hall in memory of her father.The whole cost amounted to £3900. There are consultingand dispensary rooms and accommodation for nurses andothers in the medical division of the buildings.

Hospital Extension at Ormskirk.A meeting of the Ormskirk and Lathom joint hospital

board was held on Jan. 18th, at which it was resolved thatthe scheme of extension of the hospital and alteration of theadministrative block should be proceeded with in accordancewith plans submitted ; and that application should be madeto the Local Government Board for borrowing powers. It isestimated that the work will involve an expenditure of about£3000. A letter was read from the Earl of Derby’s agentintimating that his lordship was willing to sell to the board’for the purposes mentioned 5254 square yards of land inGreen-lane, Ormskirk, at 2s. per square yard. It was resolvedthat the offer should be accepted and a provisional agreement.entered into.Jan. 24th.

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LEEDS.

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

University of Leeds.Dr. C. M. Chadwick, who has held the professorship of’

materia medica and therapeutics since 1898, has tenderedhis resignation and the Council referred the question of the"teaching and manner of dealing with the chair, whichincludes the subjects of materia medica, practical phar-macy, pharmacology, and therapeutics," to the Board ofthe Faculty of Medicine. The following report of the boardon this subject was approved by the Senate and adopted bythe Council :-In virtue of the increasing importance and extent of the subject the

Board of the Faculty of Medicine recommend the creation of a chair ofpharmacology, the occupant of which shall give his whole time to thesubject. The board is also of opinion that a laboratory shall be attachedto the said chair. Pending the creation of a chair of pharmacology theboard recommend that the present chair of materia medica and thera-peutics be not now filled, but that a lecturer with a seat on the

faculty and the board be appointed for the intervening periodon such terms and conditions as will enable the recommendations inthis report to be carried into effect when practicable. The board is ofopinion that the appointment of a lecturer at the present time is thebetter course for the following reasons : (1) It will facilitate theappointment of a professor of pharmacology when the Council are

able to make the appointment; (2) it affords a means for the continua-tion of the instruction in therapeutics when the chair of pharmacologyis created; and (3) it thereby avoids the compulsory retirement of thelecturer appointed for the interregnum.Jan. 24th.

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WALES AND WESTERN COUNTIES NOTES.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENTS.)

The Employment of Tpamps in Glamorgan.REPRESENTATIVES from each of the eight boards of

guardians in Glamorgan and from several of the sanitaryauthorities in the county met’together in Cardiff on Jan. 21stto consider the practicability of establishing a labour farmfor tramps and other persons out of employment. Mr. Joseph