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Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

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Page 1: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview

Wayne LeeLunar Lander Industry Day13 December 2007

Page 2: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

2

Vehicle Architecture

DescentModule

AscentModule

Airlock Three Primary Elements

– Descent module

• Provides propulsion for LOI and powered descent

• Provides power during lunar transit, descent, and surface operations

• Serves as platform for lunar landing and liftoff of ascent module

– Ascent module

• Provides propulsion for ascent from lunar surface after surface mission

• Provides habitable volume for four during descent, surface, and ascent operations

• Contains cockpit and majority of avionics

– Airlock

• Accommodates two astronauts per ingress/egress cycle

• Connected to ascent module via short tunnel

• Remains with descent module on lunar surface after ascent module liftoff

Page 3: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

3

Key Preliminary Specifications

Number of Crew up to 4

Sortie Mission Duration 14 days LEO (unoccupied)

4 days trans-lunar coast

1 day LLO

7 days surface

7 hours ascent (including disposal)

Total Mass at Lift-off 45,000 to 53,600 kg

Total Propellant Mass 26,652 kg (sortie)

Height of Vehicle Stack 10.52 m, legs uncrushed

Height of DM Deck Above Surface 6.97 m, legs uncrushed

Maximum Diameter of Vehicle 7.5 m, legs stowed

Diameter of Landed Footprint 14.53 m, legs deployed

Descent Propulsion LOX/LH2 Main, MMH/NTO RCS

Ascent Propulsion MMH/NTO Main and RCS

Total V Capability ~2960 m/s

Page 4: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

4

Configuration Variants

Vehicle will be configurable as three different variants

– Sortie variant

• Utilized for surface missions up to seven days where crew will use ascent module as living quarters and a base of operations for EVAs

• Employs all major elements -- descent module, ascent module, airlock

– Outpost variant

• Utilized for surface missions up to 210 days where crew will work out of a lunar base

• Configured similar to sortie variant, but without airlock; crew will depressurize ascent module upon landing and head directly for outpost

• Keep-alive power assumed to be provided by outpost

– Cargo variant

• Utilized to deliver large, presumably outpost modules to the surface

• No ascent module or crew; cargo will sit on upper deck of descent module

• Vehicle components normally resident in ascent module will be attached to upper deck of descent module

Page 5: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

5

Configuration Variants

Outpost Variant45,000 kg

Descent ModuleAscent Module

Sortie Variant45,000 kg

Descent ModuleAscent Module

Airlock

Cargo Variant53,600 kg

Descent ModuleCargo on Upper Deck

Page 6: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

6

Configuration Commonality

Design paradigm is to maximize commonality across variants

– Descent module structure optimized to deliver maximum amount of payload mounted to the deck in cargo mode, but use same structure for all three

– Descent propulsion is identical for all three with exception of propellant load

• Launch mass allocation of 45,000 kg for sortie and outpost variants increased to 53,600 kg for cargo mission due to benefit of Ares V not needing to accelerate Orion vehicle through TLI burn

• Tanks sized for propellant volume needed for 53,600 kg cargo mission, but only filled to level needed to support sortie and outpost variant mass

– Ascent module structure and propulsion is identical for sortie and outpost variants

– Other subsystems are identical in concept for all three variants

• Choice of components and sizing are the same for all three variants

• Minor variations in schematics and physical layout to account for mission-specific details

Page 7: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

7

Mass Distribution Comparison of Variants

Dry Mass 9,522.1 kg

Non-Propellants and Other 2,568.7 kg

Propellant 26,651.7 kg

Manager's Reserve 2,856.6 kg

Mass Available for Payload 3,400.9 kg

Total Vehicle 45,000 kg

Thermal Control

Life Support

Other

Propellant

Structures and Mechanisms

Propulsion

Non-Propellant Fluids

Manager's Reserve

Power

Avionics

Mass Available for Payload

Propellant

Propulsion

Structures and Mechanisms

Power

Avionics

Thermal Control

Other

Life Support

Non-Propellant Fluids

Manager's Reserve

Mass Available for Payload

Structures and Mechanisms

Propulsion

Thermal Control

Life Support

Other

Propellant

Non-Propellant Fluids

Manager's Reserve

Mass Available for Payload

Avionics Power

Dry Mass 8,971.9 kg

Non-Propellants and Other 2,287.5 kg

Propellant 26,780.0 kg

Manager's Reserve 2,691.6 kg

Mass Available for Payload 4,269.0 kg

Total Vehicle 45,000 kg

Dry Mass 6,901.2 kg

Non-Propellants and Other 1,351.0 kg

Propellant 26,319.3 kg

Manager's Reserve 2,070.4 kg

Mass Available for Payload 16,958.1 kg

Total Vehicle 53,600 kg

Sortie Mission Lander Outpost Mission Lander Uncrewed Cargo Mission Lander

Page 8: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

8

Structures Summary

Descent Module Structure

– Cruciform truss configuration, four landing legs (stowed at launch)

– Aluminum construction

– Current mass w/o growth 2110 kg

Ascent Module Structure

– Cylindrical-shaped pressure vessel

– Composite construction

– Current mass w/o growth 625 kg

Airlock Structure

– Cylindrical-shaped pressure vessel

– Aluminum construction

– Current mass w/o growth 312 kg

Launch Vehicle

Adaptor (EDS)

Airlock

AscentModule

Landing Leg

Page 9: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

9

Descent Module Configuration

Upper LH2

Support Struts (32)(tension rods)

Lower LH2

Support Struts (16)(stabilizers)

Cruciform Primary Structure

LH2 Tanks (4)

LOX Tanks (4)

Lower LOX Tank Support Cones (4)

Page 10: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

10

Ascent Module Configuration

MMH Tank (2)

AM/DM Adapter

Lower Interface Beam

Front WindowFrame (2)

LIDS Docking Adaptor (previous version shown)

NTO Tank (2)

Top Flange (4)

Docking WindowFrame (2)

Tank Structure (24 struts)

Separation System (Marmon Band)

Engine

Page 11: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

11

Airlock Configuration

Pressure Shell Skin

Bottom Flange (4)

Truss Structure Strut (8)

EVA Hatch Window

AM / Airlock Tunnel

AM / Airlock Tunnel Frame

EVA Hatch

EVA Hatch Frame

Page 12: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

12

Propulsion Summary

Ascent Module Propulsion

– Single MMH/NTO main engine, 24,465 N (5,500 lbf) thrust

– 16 MMH/NTO RCS thrusters

– 2 MMH, 2 NTO tanks shared between main and thrusters

– Current dry mass w/o growth 666 kg

Descent Module Propulsion

– Single LOX/LH2 main, 82787 N (18,627 lbf) thrust, restart capability, 3.3:1 throttle ratio

– 4 LOX, 4 LH2 tanks

– 16 MMH/NTO RCS thrusters

– Current dry mass w/o growth 2510 kg

Ascent Main Engine

Descent Main Engine

LH2 Tank

LOX Tank

MMH Tank

NTO Tank

Helium Tank

Thrusters(position TBD)

Page 13: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

13

DM Main Propulsion SchematicL

H2-1

LH

2-2

LH

2-3

LH

2-4

P P P Ps

TVS TVS TVS TVS

VRVRVRVR

sss

TIVF1 TIVF2 TIVF3 TIVF4

TIVF1-P TIVF2-P TIVF3-P TIVF4-P

TIVOx1

TVS

TIVOx3-P TIVOx4-P

Engine #1

LO

X-1

LO

X-2

LO

X-3

LO

X-4

P P P P

GHe

s

TVS TVS TVS

VRVRVRVR

sss

s

s

LOX Vent

LOX Fill/Drain

LH2 Fill/Drain

ss

GH

e F

ill/V

ent

Pneumatics/Purge

Pre

ss/P

re-p

ress

TVS

s

VR

PPneumatic Valve

Pneumatic Vent/Relief Valve

Relief Valve

Solenoid Valve

Check Valve

Pressure Regulator

Filter

Thermodynamic Vent System

Diffuser

TIVOx2 TIVOx3 TIVOx4TIVOx1-P TIVOx2-P

GHe

s

GHeGHe

Power SystemInterface

P

PLH2Vent

TVCA-1a

TVCA-1b

Page 14: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

14

Ascent Propulsion Schematic

S

t1

MMH

tp2

pp1

RCS Thruster Quads

GHe

p5

GHetHe2

pHe1

S S

S S

S S

S

p1

p2

Function:Service Hand Valve, HVHigh Pressure Latching Valve, HPRegulator, RgCheck Valve, CVFilter, FLow Pressure Latching Valve, LVSolenoid Valve SBurst Disk/ Relief Valve RVHeater HtPressure Sensor PTemperature Sensor T

HVHe01

HPHe1

FHe1

RgHe1

CVHe1

FHe5

LVFu1

RVFu1

HVFu01

HVFu2

HVFu3

CVHe2

FHe6

LVOx1

LVFu2

RVOx2

HVOx1

HVOx2

HVOx3FFu1 FOx1

LVOx2

t2

t4t3

Fluids:Helium HeNitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) OxMonomeythhydrazine (MMH) Fu

Thruster 1,2,3,4 Thruster 5,6,7,8

Thruster 9,10,11,12 Thruster 13, 14, 15, 16

p4

HVFu4

HVOx4t6

t5

S S S S

t12t11t10t9

S S S S

t7

t8

S S S S S S S St24t23t22t21

p6

p3

HVFu5

HVOx5

MMH NTO NTO

Ascent Engine

t16t15t14t13

t20t19t18t17

tp1

tp4

tp3

tp6

tp5

tp8

tp7

pp2

tHe1

GHe GHetHe2tHe1

Page 15: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

15

Power Summary

Descent Module

– PEM fuel cell, 5.5 kW peak production

– Provides AM and DM power for LLO, surface operations

• Orion provides 1.5 kW when docked

– Propulsion residuals provide reactants for surface operations

– Current inert mass w/o growth 148 kg (sortie)

Ascent Module and Airlock

– Single primary battery, LiSO2

chemistry, 14.2 kW-hr capacity

– Current mass w/o growth 139 kg

Bus

– 28 V unregulated bus

Page 16: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

16

Thermal Summary

Ascent Module and Airlock

– Inner loop with coldplates and sublimator

– Heat transferred to outer loop for rejection during cruise, LLO, surface

– MLI and black Kapton insulation on structure

– Current inert mass w/o growth 208 kg

Descent Module

– Outer loop utilizes radiators for heat rejection

– SOFI insulation on propellant tanks, silverized teflon and MLI on structure

– Current inert mass w/o growth 974 kg (sortie), 990 kg (cargo)

Ascent Module

Airlock

External Volume

subl

imat

or

T

pumpFM

Acc

um.

FW

tank

reg

p

pyro

fuel cellFC

gas feedHX

coldplate(1 ext.)

dedicatedradiator (2)

p

coldplate(9 int.)

Inte

r-Lo

opH

/X

pump

p

Acc

um.

coldplate(8 ext.)

FM

T

T

Reg

en.

H/X

T

20% PG80% water

HFC-245fa

radiator

radiator

T

T

T

p

heaters

T

coldplate(1 int.)

LCGH/X

CabinH/X

SuitloopH/X

Radiator(another on other side)

Sublimator(attached to AM)

Page 17: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

17

Life Support Summary

Atmosphere

– Between 57 and 83 kPa

– Cabin loop provides for heat removal

– Suit loop provides for CO2, moisture, heat removal from suit umbilicals

– Suit loop also removes CO2 from cabin air via amine swing beds

Water

– Internal tank holds one day of potable water with silver ion biocide

– External tank accumulates water from fuel cells for internal tank, EVA recharge, and thermal

Waste

– Collection and disposal provided

Current mass w/o growth 212 kg (sortie)

Ascent ModuleComponents

AirlockComponents

Page 18: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

18

C&DH Design Status

Project strategy regarding C&DH has been not to instantiate a baseline design using available components

– Over 10+ years to go until first flight

– Relatively rapid progress in evolution of electronics may render today’s design obsolete

Baseline C&DH architecture is currently under study by a multi-NASA-center team with the following objectives

– Determine functional properties of architectures that have favorable characteristics relative to Lander performance requirements

– Develop candidate architectural concepts that satisfy the desired characteristics, but are expandable and extensible

– Identify technology and/or component families suitable for use in populating the architecture

– Develop a functional/mass equivalent design placeholder using existing parts, if available

Page 19: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

19

GN&C Summary

Sensor Suite

– Star tracker and MIMU data for propagation of attitude and position for all phases of flight

– Pulsed Doppler radar provides altitude and velocity during landing

– Lidar provides range and bearing to Orion during rendezvous

– Rendezvous camera used during terminal approach prior to docking

Control Suite

– 16 thrusters on DM allows for attitude control during cruise, LLO, descent

– DM main engine gimbals by 6° to keep thrust aligned with c.g.

– 16 thrusters on AM allows for attitude control and main engine thrust vector pointing during ascent

MIMU(inside AM)

Lidar and Camera(top front of AM)

Star Tracker

DM RCS Thruster Pod

Radar Electronics(inside DM)

Radar Antennas(not shown, mountedon lower edge of DM)

Page 20: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

20

Telecom Summary

Primary Radio

– S-band transponder for link with Orion and Earth

– SSPA with 40 W output power

– 2 ISS-heritage low-gain antennas with 120° field of view

Link Performance

– 80 kbps to 18-m Earth network, 190 kbps to 34-m network

– 2.3 Mbps to Orion at 100 km range

– Significant fraction of data volume in minimal functional design occupied by overhead (headers, IP, etc.)

EVA Radio

– 802.16 transceiver currently in development

Low-Gain Primary

Antennas

SSPA(top face of AM)

Page 21: Lunar Lander Vehicle Design Overview Wayne Lee Lunar Lander Industry Day 13 December 2007

21

Summary

Vehicle design shown today is from the first design cycle (LDAC-1)

– Minimum functional design; not intended for flight

– Design basis was the design reference mission as opposed to a detailed requirements set

Implementation choices should not be considered frozen with the exception of a few key architectural features

– 4 crew, descent propellant, inclusion of an airlock, use of LIDS docking adaptor for Orion

Forward work for FY08

– Evaluate upgrades for safety and reliability

– Evaluate upgrades for lunar global access and enhanced functionality

– Mature preliminary design and develop requirement sets and specifications

– Evaluate technologies for mass reduction