M 2008 CEET 28 ZIRIMWABAGABO Leodomir

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    PROJECT ID: CEET/ 07/48

    KIGALI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

    INSTITUT DES SCIENCES ET DE TECHNOLOGIE DE KIGALI 

    Avenue de l’ Armée, B.P. 3900 Kigali, Rwanda

    FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

    DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    A PPROJECT

    ON

    submitted by

    ZIRIMWABAGABO LEODOMIR

    Under the Guidance of

    Mr. KAYINAMURA FRANCIS

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

    BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN

    CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    FEBRUARY 2008

    “ Comparison between concrete

    blocks and bricks from Ruliba” 

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      1

    CHAPTER I : 1.0 : INTRODUCTION. 

    1.1: Statement of problem. 

    At the beginning as history tell it, people lived in a primitive way. They lived in caves

    and later small communities were developed and shelters were put up. At that time,

    natural building materials was easily available and have been used as the technology in

    construction of buildings were developed.

    Although, clay bricks and concrete blocks are improved in order to obtain safe and

    esthetic locations, their price are not affordable for every one. Since, raw materials for

    manufacturing building materials are cheap and rise day to day. For instance, one bag of

    Portland cement (50kg) was being bought at 5,000rwf ten years ago, but now costs

    13,000rwf . It means that, this increases 10% every year.

    Similarly, labor cost increases for a considerable rate. In addition, cutting trees for firing

    ceramic materials damages our forest which leads to environmental problems, and as a

    result, the sustainable development is not ensured.

    1.2 : Objectives of study.

    Due to cheapness of building materials and the environmental problems due to

    deforestation , this project intends to achieve the following objectives :

    •  To facilitate the community to select required structural materials in terms of

    stability, economy and esthetic;

    •  To learn which type of structural materials can be used to improve engineering

    structure at reasonable price;

    •  To decide what kind of structure to make;

    •  To minimize the deforestation rate due to cutting trees for firing the bricks;

    •  To make sure the safety of the building and to give a good appearance to a

     building;

    •  To enable individual to be familiar with before hand the outlay of the work.

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      2

     

    1.3: Justification.

    The Engineering sector is in position to discover which bricks or blocks available in  plenty, which can be utilized to put up the building structure of acceptable qualities, with

    low cost, thus necessitate the making comparison between concrete blocks and bricks

    from Ruliba, which are current building materials mostly used in Rwanda.

    It is not easy to decide which kind of structural materials to use in construction because

    of different building material made by diverse organizations which appear on market.

    Generally, some people prefer to use little cost structural material without consideration

    of other necessary properties. In fact, diverse factors should be considered such as

    economics, structural and environmental factors.

    Moreover, rural and urban communities have no required knowledge about building

    structure. For that matter it is important to inform them on structural blocks and bricks

    commonly available on market like concrete blocks and Ruliba bricks. 

    One of the government policy is to protect the environment by reducing the deforestation

    velocity due to use of timber in various purposes. Then, the production of ordinary bricks

    was reduced.

    As a solution, it is time to give the information on modern structural bricks and blocks

    which complete engineering requirements. The building development requires the

    construction of apparent building. For achieving this purpose it necessary to be familiar

    on face bricks most used in construction of houses like Ruliba bricks compared to

    concrete blocks.

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      3

     

    1.4 : Scope of study.

    This study was conducted on manufacturing place as well as site of construction where

     bricks and blocks are considered as basic building materials. It includes the cost, some

     properties and technical specifications necessary to achieve the project.

    As the basic of this topic is Ruliba bricks and concrete blocks, that is reason why some

    experiments like laboratory test was conducted as well as considerable readings in

    relation to the topic was proceeded to compare the cost and the strength of both.

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      4

    CHAPTER II. 2.0 : LITERATURE REVIEW.

    2.1 : Varieties of bricks and blocks.

    Bricks may be defined as small a cored building unit of rectangular shape that is

    composed of organic non-metallic substances of mineral origin hardened by heat or

    chemical action. Blocks are similar defined but have larger dimensions than that of

     bricks. Blocks are larger than bricks.

    2.1.1 : Clay bricks.

    Clay bricks like other ceramic products are based on clay, to which various amount of

    quartz and feldspar have been added. Selected proportions are mixed with water, shaped,

    dried and fired to produce the structural clay products of brick, roof and structural tiles

    etc.

    Types of bricks.

    Bricks of masonry units may be solid, hollow, or architectural terra cotta. All types can

    serve a structural function, a decorative function, or a combination of both. The various

    types differ in their formation and composition.

    Building bricks.

    Also called common or hard bricks, are made from ordinary clay and are fired in kilns.

    These bricks have no particular shoring, markings, surface texture, or color. Because

     building bricks are generally used as the burning courses in either solid or cavity brick

    walls, the harder and more durable type are preferred.

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    Face bricks.

    Face bricks are of better quality and has better durability and appearance than structural

     brick. Because of this, face bricks are used in exposed wall faces. The most common face

     brick colors are various shades of brown, red, gray, yellow, or white.

    Clinker brick.

    Clinker brick is over burned in the kiln. Clinker bricks are usually rough, hard, durable,

    and sometimes irregular in shape.

    Pressed brick.

    Pressed brick is made by a dry-press, rather than by kiln firing. Pressed brick have

    regular, smooth faces, sharp edges, and perfectly square corner. Normally, they are used

    like face brick.

    Glazed Brick.

    Glazed brick has one surface coated with a white or colored ceramic glazing. The glazing

    forms when mineral ingredients fuse together in glasslike coating during burning. Glazed

     bricks are particularly suited for walls or partitions in hospitals, dairies, laboratories. And

    other structures requiring sanitary conditions and ease of cleaning.

    Fire brick.

    Fire brick is made from a special type of clay. This clay is very pure and uniform and is

    able to withstand the high temperatures of fireplaces, boilers, and similar constructions.

    Fire bricks are generally larger than other structural bricks and are often hand-molded.

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    2.1.2 : Calcium silicate bricks.

    Raw materials: Siliceous aggregate, a high calcium lime and water; very fine aggregate

    :1.15 mm sieve.

    Size: 215 x 102.5 x 65 mm

    Density:1700 kg/ m3

    Strength:14-27.5 N/mm2

    2.2 : Bricks forming process.

    2.2.1 : Manufacture process.

    After raw clay has been screened and crashed, machine-made bricks are formed either by

    extrusion and cutting, or by pressing. Plastic clays may be extruded as continuous column

    of rectangular section (with or without perforations) which is cut into individual bricks by

    wire, acting like a chisel cutter, as it emerges from the die.

    2.2.2 : Firing.

    Firing transforms the raw clay brick into a rigid continuous (although usually porous

    ceramic by way of a complicated succession of physical and chemical changes. Water is

    lost rapidly as the kiln temperature rise above 100 0 C.

    The clay minerals decompose between 400 and 700 0  c. At about 900

    0 C crystalline silica,

    alumina and spinel compounds appear and the mineral mullite 3Al2O32SiO2 forms above

    about 1000 0

    C.

    The minor oxide constituents include Na2O, K 2O, MgO, CaO, and FeO produce relatively

    low melting eutectic mixtures with principal components of SiO2 and Al2O3, so that some

    melting may occur be