Macedonians were a people who lived in the mountains of northern Greece Most Greeks considered Macedonians backward – Lived in villages, not cities –

  • View
    215

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

Alexander the Great

Alexander the GreatThe Macedonian EmpireMacedonians were a people who lived in the mountains of northern GreeceMost Greeks considered Macedonians backwardLived in villages, not citiesSpoke form of Greek unintelligible to other Greeks (like Pittsburghese)War-like people, much like the people of Sparta

Philip IIPhilip admired Greek culture and set out to unify all of the (now) weak Greek city-states by forceConquered all of the major city-states of GreeceFormed the Corinthian League and began organizing plans to invade the Persian Empirelargest in the worldHis most brilliant accomplishment: reorganizing Macedonian ArmyJust before Philip was ready to attack the Persians, murdered

Phillip IIs ArmyAdopted phalanx system and gave hoplites longer spearsIncluded larger bodies of cavalry and more archers

Macedonian Phalanx, 256 Men

Alexander the (soon to be) GreatAlexander ascends the throne at only 20, but had been trained to rule almost from birthLearned warfare and politics from father, mother, and Aristotle

Alexanders ConquestsAlexander faced almost immediately with revolts in GreeceSet out to reestablish controlUsed harsh measures to show rebellion not toleratedCrushed Theban army and sold people into slavery, burned city

Building an EmpireWith Greece under control, Alexander decided to build empire334 BC, led army into Asia to take on PersiansArmy relatively small, but well trained, fiercely loyalPersian army huge, but disorganized

CampaignsWithin year Alexanders army had won victory against Persians in Asia MinorMoved south to Phoenicia, Egypt; welcomed as liberator, named new pharaohNext destroyed Persian army further west in what is now Iraq; caused Emperor Darius III to flee

Darius III

DudeIm outta here!Advance of Alexanders Army

Expanding the EmpireWith defeat of Darius, Alexander the master of Persian world Troops marched to Persepolis, Persian capital, burned it to ground as sign of victory Alexander not satisfied with size of empireLed army deeper into Asia, winning more victoriesLed army to the Indus, perhaps to conquer IndiaSoldiers had had enough, refused to proceed farther from homeAlexander forced to turn back to west

End of the Empire: DeathAlexanders empire largest world had ever seen, but did not last very long323 BC, Alexander fell ill while in BabylonDied a few days later at age 33 of malariaAlexander died without naming heir

Power StruggleGenerals fought each other for powerIn the end, the empire was divided among three most powerful generalsCalled themselves kingsAntigonus ruled Macedonia and GreeceSeleucus ruled Persian Empire Ptolemy ruled Egypt

The Three Kingdoms

Legacy of Alexander the GreatNever lost a battleBuilt over 70 citiesmostly named after him!Introduced Greek literature, myth, dance, language, money, medicine, art, and theatre to the rest of the worldAllowed conquered people the opportunity to run their own country as long as they were loyal to Alexander