Madison Macheske Honors Thesis LINKING THE UNDERLYING ...· 2 Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities trans

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MadisonMacheske

HonorsThesis

LINKINGTHEUNDERLYINGTHEORETICALQUESTIONSTOPRACTICALDESIGNSOLUTIONS:

ASYNTHESISOFTHEORY2ANDDESIGNSTUDIO7WITHEXPERIENCESABROAD

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CONTENTS

3 DISCOVERTHEINVISIBLECITYVISIBLE,INVISIBLE,TEMPORAL

7 DISGUISEASAFLANEUR

10 DISCOVERMONTAGE

13 DEVISEAMANIFESTOHABITATINARCHITECTURE

15 DESIGNANINTENTION

17 DRAWONESOWNIMAGE

19 DIFFERTHEAPPROACH

21 DWELLINTHOUGHT

23 RETROSPECT

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DISCOVERTHEINVISIBLECITYVISIBLE,INVISIBLE,TEMPORAL

Aninvisiblecity,thetruemeaningofwhichIdiscoveredabroadduringtheVicenzaStudio,canhavevastdefinitions.Simply,aninvisiblecitycanbeanunknown,newcitythatoneisabletoexperienceforthefirsttime.Ontheotherextreme,itmayevenbeacityinwhichonehaslivedtheirentirelifewithregularroutines; however, if they take the road less travelled, they themselves candiscovernewfollieswithintheirownsurroundings.Architectshavetheadvantageofbeingabletolinkthesetwobystudyingthelayoutsofmajorcitiesandtheirrespectivepublicareasofaccess.Oneisabletomaketheinvisiblebecomevisiblebydrawingconnectionsfromthelargescaleorganizationalnetworksofcitiesandthe resulting penetrations necessitated by a systematic urban layout enablingaccessoftrafficandpeople.Forexample,theTerminiStation,amajortrainhub,makesitswayintothecityofRome;thearchitectureofthetrainstationmanifeststheactofreceivingandfilteringpeople.Itwasanideaoftelescopingthepast,utilizinghistoricaldesignelementsandwaysofworking,andpushingthosetothepresent.Thistrainstationelicitsavisibleeffectonpeople,an impression,overtimethesamewaythatcitiesdo.WhilevisitingRomeandenteringthroughtheRome Termini, the phrase all roads lead to Rome makes a big impressionbeginningwith thenameselectionof the trainstation itself indicating travelterminatesthere.

The image (taken fromRowesCollageCity)totheleftshowsa public square a meeting place;thesepublicareashavetheability tobring together people from all overthe world. 1 In an excerpt fromInvisible Cities by Italo Calvino, hewriteswhensomepeoplehappento

find themselves together, takingshelterorcrowdingbeneathanawningorstopping in thesquare,meetings [happen]amongthem.2Architecturehasthis ability to bring people together, even in themost subtleways; it fostersfriendshipsandconversationsbetweenpeople thatmayotherwiseneverhavemet.

1ColinRowe.CollageCity.(Cambridge,Massachusetts:TheMITPress)129.2ItaloCalvino,InvisibleCitiestrans.WilliamWeaver(Orlando,Florida:HarcourtBrace&Company,1972),51.

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Fromsemesterseven,wherethefocuswasdesigninganurbanideain

theheartofNewYork, these theoretical ideassurfaced ineveryaspectof thedesignandwithinthedesignprocessitself.BroadwayBend,AnIconicGatewayandDestination,welcomespeoplearrivingfromthenewPennStation.Thesitebothreceivesandfilterspeopletoandfromthemajoraccesspointintothecity.It acts as an area where people can congregate and enjoy both nature and

themselvesasacommunity.Itusestheideaofaterminationendpoint,similartotheRomeTerminiStation,wherethecentralthemeisthatafteronearrives,thecomplexitselfbecomesthedestination.ItgrowsintomoreofacommunityratherthanafiltrationsystemthatdefinedtheoriginalPennStation.BoththeTerminiStationinRomeandBroadwayBendinNewYorkraiseaninterconnectedwebofjourneys; similarly, in the same book, Invisible Cities, Calvino suggests that anetworkofroutesfollowsanupanddowncourseofsteps,landings[and]bridges.Combiningsegmentsofthevariousroutes[allows]eachinhabitant[to]enjoyeverydaythepleasureofanewitinerary.3HeaddsthatthemostfixedandcalmlivesarespentwithoutanyrepetitionandIcanseewhyarchitectureaswellasurbandesignneedstofollowthesamerules;itneedstobefreshandexciting,innovativeandoriginal,tokeepthebestlifeforthoseofthecommunity.4

3Calvino,88.4Ibid.

3DPlanDiagramofSystematicParts.BroadwayBendincollaborationwithBarrettWeaver.DesignStudio7.2017.

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Broadway Bend does just that by introducing an interactive experience. Theabilitytoeat,play,work, live,andlearnareallwithintheopenconceptspace.Fantasticfreeformgeometriesguidethepublicalongtheir individualpathwaysandcreatesmomentsofdiscoveryalongeach,uniqueitineraryundertaken.

Onthe imagetotheright(takenfromRossiAldos book, TheArchitecture of the City),the layoutof this cityhasapparent interconnectedroutesandoptionsforoneto make his or hercommute.5Tyingthisbacktothe InvisibleCities,onecan discover new partsand areas of the city byventuringonanewpath,thusmakingwhatwasinvisibletothemvisible.Thecityisilluminatedinanewlightbymerelytakinganalternativerouteandstumblingacrossnewthings.

Iexperiencedthisphenomenonfirsthandwhile inVicenza,wherethenarrow interwovenstreetsallowthe inhabitants todiscovernewcafesaroundeverycorner,orperhapsacourtyardencapsulatedwithin.InAldosbook,theideaofinterpretationofarchitecturepresentsitself;theoverlappingoftheindividualandthecollectivememory,togetherwitharchitecturaldesignwhoseelementsare preexisting and formally defined, [its] truemeaning is unforeseen at the5RossiAldo,TheArchitectureoftheCity(Unknown),14.

AxonometricDiagramofBroadwayBendincollaborationwithBarrettWeaver.DesignStudio7.2017.

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beginning and unfolds [later on]with themeaning of the city.6 This linkingbetweentimeandplace,cityandcontext,witharchitectureandmeaningistheparagonofwhatwe,asdesigners,wishtocreate.Beforetheprocessofdesign,

the process of research comes into play sketching in particular. While studying inVicenza,Iwasabletoexaminestreetscapesandenvironmentsandhowpeoplemovethroughit.Architecture has the ability to make animpressiononpeople, andwith the contextofthecity,oneisabletodeveloptheirownideasto explainwhy a building is a certainway andthusenjoyitfurtherwitharedefinedmeaning.Aldoswordssayitperfectly;thisisthemeaningofarchitectureofthecitythefigureisclearbuteveryonereadsitinadifferentway[openingitupto]acomplexevolution.7AgreatexampleofthisisinRome,fromRenzoPianosAraPacismuseum. With the entire facility being builtaroundanartifactinasimplebutbeautifulway,the vessel that architecture creates becomeslessinterpretationandmorefacilitationofeachindividualsexperienceswiththeAraPacis.

6Aldo,187Aldo,19.

SketchesfromVicenzaStudio.2018.

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DISGUISEASAFLANEUR

Meandering, letting the ambience and world guide oneself on noparticularpath,onecanexperiencetheworldinadifferentlightasflaneurs.Itbroughtintoquestiontheideaofthepsychogeographicalcity.Whenonewalksandexploresacity,whether theyareentirelynewto itorare rediscovering italongadifferentroute,theyinventspace.Theyinventanewwayoflookingatspace and understanding how it ismade.When an urban planner, or voyeur(cartographer), isplanningacity,heorshehasanaerialperspectivethebigpicture.Twocitiesemergefromthisurbanplan:acontextcityandalivedcity.Everyday practitioners or residents read the city unconventionally while theoriginalvoyeurhasanindepthreading,containingnearbycontextandintellectualmeaning.

WhiledesigningBroadwayBend,mypartnerand Iwereable toplan fromabove after analyzing the site and itssurrounding context. Traffic congestion,pedestrian safety, and open space werekeydriversthatallowedtheurbanlayoutto take shape. The introduction ofroundabouts,openplazas,raisedgardens,anddenseforestedparksaretransitionalelementsinthedesignthatincreasesafetyandenableflowofthepublicandrequiredtransportation. Follies in the park createmomentsofpauseandrelaxationwiththeabilitytoplaysports,peoplewatch,haveapicnic,orevenbarbequeoutdoors.

Onameanderingpath,onehasthe ability to stop and notice the subtledetails and exciting wildlife and naturethat one would normally pass by. Thesenormal dayswhere one canmiss out onthesimplebeautiesofurbanplanningandnature are the the everyday [which] has a certain strangeness that doesnotsurface,orwhosesurface isonly itsupper limit,outliningagainstthevisible.8Peoplearesointunewiththeirdailyroutesandritualsthattheydonotenjoythefinerthingsthecityaroundthemhastooffer.IhadtheopportunitytodisguisemyselfasaflaneurandmeanderthroughthestreetsofBarcelonaacitythatwelcomestheideaofbeingoutsidewithitswidewalkablestreetsandstrictcity

8MicheldeCerteau.WalkingintheCity.ThePracticeofEverydayLife.TranslatedbyStevenRendall.Berkley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2002.93.

PlanDiagramofBroadwayBendincollaborationwithBarrettWeaver.DesignStudio7.2017.

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grid. For an afternoon, Iwandered through the city,seeinguniversities just in timefor the students to get out,parks where children wereplaying, and theArcDi Triumfwithitscommandingpresenceandprocessionalapproach.Forthe perfect flaneur, explainedbyBaudelaire,itisadreamtobeawayfromhomeandyettofeel oneself everywhere athome;toseetheworld,tobeatthecentreoftheworld,andyettoremainhiddenfromthe

world.9Theideaofbeingcontent,searching,discovering,andenjoyingthecityaround us is what the lived city represents. No matter what city, eachcircumstancerevolvesaroundrealizingthereismoretothemakeupofthecitythanonesregularroutine.

Similarly, in the CENEInstitute, the idea is that thepeoplewalkingalongthehighlinestopandmeanderoffthepathtodiscoverwhattheCENEInstitutehas in store. In the design, weaimed to seamlessly merge thehighlinewiththedemonstrationgardenoftheCENEInstitute.Weachievedthisbyconstructingtheexterior of the institute aroundthe same level as the high lineandusingnativeplantspecies.Byenticingthepassingwalkers,theCENE Institute successfullyinvitesvisitorsandthuseducatesthemontheenvironment.

9CharlesBaudelaire.ThePainterofModernLifeandOtherEssays.TranslatedandeditedbyJonathonMayne,NewYork:Phaidon,1986.9.

ErinChantry."TheGrid200YearsOn."AttheHelmofthePublicRealm:AnUrbanDesignBlog.January4,2017.AccessedSeptember8,2017.https://helmofthepublicrealm.com/tag/urbangriddesign/.

ViewfromtheHighLine,TheCENEInstituteincollaborationwithBarrettWeaver.DesignStudio7.2017.

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Additionally,on