Major Latin American
The Mexican Revolution
The Bolivian Revolution
The Cuban Revolution
The Chilean Revolution
The Nicaraguan Revolution
Noah Rector Eastside High, Lancaster Ca. firstname.lastname@example.org
Assumed control of Mexico in 1876.
Order and Progress - Change Mexicos image and create stability to get
foreign investment/loans for the country.
In the beginning, Diaz was almost ideal and
had great intentions for Mexico.
Less crime/better quality of life
Better army/police force
Foreign investment paid for:
Rejuvenated the mining industry
New industries were also created
Factors leading to the destruction of Diaz:
People in power wealthy, but the rest remained impoverished
No one wanted the dependence on foreign investments
New generation of Mexicans who wanted political involvement
Diaz stated that Mexico could handle free elections, but he became
afraid to do so
Election of 1910:
Francisco I. Madero was a
strong believer in
Thought Diaz should step
down from his monopoly of
Diaz threw Madero in jail just
prior to the elections
Diaz won the election of 1910
Madero was released and fled to Texas
He stated that the elections were illegitimate and that he was the
President Pro-Temp until new elections could be held.
He called for revolution in a written document (Nov. 20, 1910)
marks the start of the Mexican Revolution.
Other Revolutionary groups that contributed to the rise and fall of several
Emiliano Zapata: From the South (Took control of Cuautla and cut
off the road to Mexico City)
Francisco Pancho Villa: From the North (Combined with Orozco to
capture Ciudad Juarez)
Pacual Orozco: From the North (Began taking control of cities in
the northern areas)
These events combined convinced Diaz to resign and forced him to flee to
Even though he fled, Diaz left a large army under the command of General
Victoriano Huerta and a provisional president.
Soon after, Zapata rode into Mexico City where he met up with Madero.
Madero was then declared president.
The Overthrow of Diaz:
Francisco Pancho Villa:
Maderos presidency short lived though
He tried to please everyone (ineffective)
His inaction turned Zapata, Villa, and Orozco against him.
US did not support Madera (Felt he was too closely related to the
revolutionaries.) Met with Huerta.
Huerta overthrew Madero and became president in 1913.
Killed President Madero and Vice President Suarez.
Under Huerta, revolutionary violence exploded.
North: Pancho Villa, Alvaro Obregon, and Venustianio
Carranza continue the fight.
South: Zapata still fighting.
Throughout 1913 and 1914, Huerta suffered one defeat after
another and in the summer of 1914 all four revolutionary forces
came together in Mexico City to defeat Huerta.
Huerta, realizing that he was beat, fled from the city.
In August of 1914 Carranza declared himself president.
The Madero Regime:
Huerta vs. the Constitutitonalists:
Victoriano Huerta: Venustiano Carranza:
Soon after Carranza declared himself president Villa began fighting against him.
Villa built up his forces pushed South to kick Carranza out of Mexico.
Zapata took Mexico City.
Villa, Zapata, and Obregon met put Eulalio Guitierrez as president
and Zapata agreed to move out of Mexico City.
Villa and Zapata stayed loyal to each other and to Guitierrez as
Obregon and Carranza came together and worked to get Carranza
In 1915 Villas and Obregons forces came together in a battle where Obregon
was victorious. Because of Villas forces being badly wounded, Carranza was
able to reclaim the presidency. Fighting continued.
Villa, Zapata, and Obregon met once again named Guitierrez as president
Later, Obregon united with Carranza again and in late 1915 Zapata and
Villa suffered incredible losses at the hands of Obregon and Carranza.
In 1919, Zapata tricked by one of Carranzas generals was shot and killed.
Carranza lost all support. He attempted to flee, but was killed outside of Mexico
Carranza vs. the Conventionists:
Carranza In Charge:
Adolfo de la Huerta was put in as president until elections could be held.
At elections Obregon won and most of the revolutionary violence ceased.
Distributed 3 million acres to peasants.
Expanded educational opportunities.
Plutarco Elias Calles became president in
Obregon re-elected in 1928, but was
assassinated by a religious fanatic before
he could take office.
Calles founded the National Revolutionary
Party (PNR) and continued to dominate
politics. (Reorganized as the PRM and later
the PRI) PNR candidates remained in office
for the next 70 years until the election of
Vincente Fox in 2000.
1934- Lazaro Cardenas elected president.
Results of the Mexican Revolution:
Almost 900,000 Mexican immigrants came to the United States
Cost more than a million lives.
Men, women, and children fought in the revolution.
No major bank or newspaper survived.
It ruined many agrarian, ranching, and mining economies.
Constitution of 1917:
Land reform/restrictions on foreign economic control.
Labor codes: minimum wage, maximum hours, accident
insurance, pensions, right to unionize, etc.
Church: Could not hold office, own property, etc.
New social consciousness:
Pride in their own identity Nationalism
Unique literature, music, dance, art, architecture, etc. (Return
to the past)
Culmination of the Revolution
Handed out 45 million acres
Nationalized railroads and oil industry
First Latin American President to shift the power base to the
Became a national hero
Last strong man to dominate Mexico
Middle class grew in size and importance
STAGES OF THE REVOLUTION:
1910-1913: MADEROs REVOLUTION
May 1911 Daz resigns
Nov 1911- Feb 1913 Madero
1914- THE REAL REVOLUTION
July: Constitucionalistas (Carranza,
Villa, Obregn) and Zapatistas
Oct: Constitutionalists split
Nov: Zapata & Villa occupy Mex. City
1914-1917: CIVIL WAR
Obregn, Carranza vs. Villa
& Zapata / Triumph of Carranza
government, Constitution of 1917
1919 Zapata killed in ambush
1920 Villa surrenders in
1920 OBREGON government
1924 CALLES government
1928 OBREGON assassinated
1934 CARRENZA government
Characteristics of the Bolivian Revolution:
Least influential of the Latin American Revolutions in the second half of the
No active U.S. opposition(Not much investment there)
Population characterized by illiteracy, undernourishment, sickness,
low per capita income, and short life expectancy.
Dependency on tin as an export: only 3 families owned the mines.
Only 7% of the population could vote (literacy requirements)
Served as an example to the rest of Latin America of a revolution that had
Minimal impact little changed.
Events of the Bolivian Revolution:
The National Revolutionary Movement (MNR) was organized by Victor Paz
Nationalize tin mines
Combat international imperialism
Although Estensoro won the presidential election in 1952, the government
and army refused to allow him to take power.
The MNR seized power by force aided by U.S. funds and technical aid.
Able to nationalize the mines. Miners received new poliical power.
Gave universal suffrage (went from 200,000 elibible voters to about