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Makalah AFK C8

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  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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    HDVGPDJ VPDN]ONUADJDHO\O\ IO\ONGNOAOD

    Vejejtudj Pesomu Nhgrgigra mdhda \er`un @dnu VrgmunsoAejccujdndj Aetgme Nrgadtgcrdio ds !etentgr IO!

    Nehga"gn #$%#&ojt'd D'u Gntd(odjo )*+)*),+

    Djos Aosidhd )*+)*),$Jur&omd'dto )*+)*),-Dmohod ]ro .omd'dto )*+)*)$/

    [email protected]]GPOUA NOAOD IDPAD\OVPG PDA \]U!O IDPAD\O

    IDNUH]D\ AD]6AD]OND !DJ OHAU V6J 6]D.UDJ DHDAUJOYEP\O]D\ O\HDA OJMGJE\OD

    /4)0

    Vejejtudj Pesomu Nhgrgigra mdhda \er`un @dnu Vrgmunso Aejccujdndj Aetgme

    Nrgadtgcrdio ds !etentgr IO!

    O. ]UKUDJ

    4. Adapu aeaprdntonndj djdhosos nudhotdtoi mdj nudjtotdtoi ndjmujcdj resomu nhgrgigra

    mdhda sdapeh ser`un `dnu idradsetos aejccujdndj aetgme stdjmdr ojterjdh.0. Adapu aehdnundj vdhomdso aetgme mejcdj pdrdaeter `erupd `dtds metenso (H !"#

    `dtds nudjtoiondso (H $"# mdj dnurdso.

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    OO. HD]D% &'HD DJ)

    *ehdrut grcdjon `odsd mopdndo mdhda prgses adjuidntur `d+dj `dnu idradsetond

    mejcdj tu,udj djtdrd hdoj ujtun aeaper`dj-dn +dsoh prgmun# aeaper`dono prgses

    nrostdhosdso# aejojcndtndj nehdrutdj# +gagcejosdso# mdj hdoj hdoj. ]etdpo# pehdrut grcdjon

    terse`ut aeapuj-do mdapdn tgnsonghgco se+ojccd moperhundj ngjtrgh -djc netdt ter+dmdp

    resomuj-d. /dh ojo mondrejdndj setehd+ aehdhuo prgses pea`udtdj aej,dmo se`ud+ prgmun#

    resomu pehdrut -djc mocujdndj dndj `erpgtejso aej,dmo 6eadrdj grcdjon aumd+ aejcudp

    (grcdjol vghdtohe oapurotoes/GYO‟s" `dco prgmun terse`ut (4". &dj-dn prgmun idradsetond

    -djc mo`ero `dtds dmdj-d 6eadrdj grcdjon aumd+ aejcudp pdmd setodp td+dp

    adjuidnturj-d# auhdo mdro `d+dj `dnu# prgmun djtdrd sdapdo prgmun ,dmo.

    Dmd ad6da pehdrut -djc uaua mocujdndj mdhda prgses adjuidntur.

    &ermdsdrndj pgtejso ter+dmdp tgnsosotds -djc aujcnoj motoa`uhndj# ad6da pehdrut

    terse`ut mocghgjcndj aej,dmo < nehds# -dotu pehdrut -djc tgnsosotdsj-d tojcco ( jgj

    dlleptd`he tgxoloty " aosdhj-d `ej=ejd (pehdrut nehds O"# pehdrut -djc tgnsosotdsj-d he`o+

    rejmd+ jdauj adso+ sdjcdt `er`d+d-d `dco tu`u+ (pehdrut nehds OO"# mdj pehdrut -djc

    tgnsosotdsj-d he`o+ rejmd+ hdco (pehdrut nehds OOO" (4".

    hgrgigra adsun ne mdhda pehdrut grcdjon nehds OO# se+ojccd ,uahd+ resomuj-dmdhda prgmun idradso perhu mo`dtdso. 5dradngpe Ojmgjesod O9 aea`erondj `dtdsdj ujtun

    nhgrgigra se`esdr 3 ppa# seaejtdrd O2/ aej-dtdndj `dtds ujtun nhgrgigra dmdhd+ ?3

    ppa mejcdj peraottem mdohy expgsure (*!'" 3.? ac;+dro (4". Aejcojcdt dmdj-d `d+d-d

    dpd`ohd resomu nhgrgigra pdmd prgmun idradseton aehe`o+o ndmdr -djc motetdpndj# adnd

    djdhosos ndjmujcdj resomu nhgrgigra mdhda ser̀ un `dnu prgmunso modjccdp perhu

    mohdnundj. &dj-dn aetgme djdhosd -djc serojc mocujdndj ujtun aejcunur ndmdr sudtu

    sej-d>d mdhda semoddj# sdhd+ sdtuj-d mejcdj cds lbrgadtgcrdpby ()2".*ejejtudj ndmdr 6eadrdj grcdjon aumd+ aejcudp sdjcdt 6g6gn mohdnundj

    aejccujdndj )2# se`d` s-drdt sej-d>d -djc mdpdt modjdhosos mejcdj )2 odhd+ vghdtoh

    mdj std`oh ter+dmdp pdjds ( tberagstd`he ". )2 dndj aeaosd+ndj resomu nhgrgigra mejcdj

    ngapgjej hdoj -djc termdpdt mo mdhda ser`un `dnu prgmunso `ermdsdrndj ojterdnsoj-d

    mejcdj idsd cerdn mdj idsd moda. /dsoh peaosd+dj sehdj,utj-d mo`d>d ne metentgr ujtun

    neaumodj morenda ghe+ relgrmer se+ojccd moperghe+ nrgadtgcrda.

    OOO. !D8D% ]' %O

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    hgrgigra (2/2h dj dtdu neaujcnojdj `esdr aej,dmo dcej

    pej-e`d` tgnsosotds orreverso`he hdoj# seperto jeurgtgnsosotds mdj eien terdtgcejon.

    )ghgjcdj pehdrut -djc momucd mdpdt aej-e`d`ndj tgnsosotds -djc socjoiondj jdauj

    reverso`he ,ucd moadsunndj pdmd ndtecgro ojo(u,um pdmdt# seperto ndr`gj#

    =eghot# mdj sohond ceh. *rojsop peaosd+dj `ermdsdrndj dmsgrpso ter+dmdp idsd moda.

    )ds pea`d>d (idsd cerdn" mejcdj tendjdj tertejtu modhorndj se6drd ngjstdj aehdhuo

    nghga -djc `eroso idsd moda. 8dapeh neaumodj mosujtonndj ne mdhda oj,entgr -djc

    su+uj-d mdpdt modtur. gapgjej ngapgjej mdhda sdapeh dndj secerd aej,dmo udp mdj

    mo`d>d ghe+ dhordj cds pea`d>d aeju,u nghga ujtun aej,dhdjo prgses peaosd+dj. *dmd

    uauaj-d# ngapgjej sdapeh dndj terehuso `ermdsdrndj pejojcndtdj toton momo+ sudtu

    sej-d>d monurdjco mejcdj seaud ojterdnso -djc aujcnoj ter,dmo djtdrd ngapgjej

    mejcdj idsd moda# ne6udho ,ond dmd ojterdnso n+usus djtdrd ngapgjej mejcdj idsd moda ( ".

    5dsd cerdn dndj aejcehuso ngapgjej 6dapurdj mdro u,ujc nghga hdhu

    aejc+djtdrndjj-d ne metentgr ujtun mometenso. 8ehdj,utj-d# +dsoh metenso morenda

    mejcdj relgrmer se+ojccd moperghe+ nrgadtgcrda -djc termoro dtds `e`erdpd ped! .

    Kuahd+ ped! -djc auj6uh aej-dtdndj ,uahd+ ngapgjej (sej-d>d" -djc termdpdt mdhdasdapeh. 8emdjcndj huds ped! `ercdjtujc nepdmd nudjtotds ngapgjej otu ( ".

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    Ojstruaejtdso )2 termoro mdro ngapgjej ngapgjej `eronut7

    4. ]d`ujc cds pea`d>d5ujcso cds pea`d>d ( ldrroer " dmdhd+ aejcdjcnut 6uphondj sdapeh mdro

    nghga ne metentgr. 8-drdt cds pea`d>d dmdhd+ tomdn redntoi# aurjo# mdj mdpdtmosoapdj mdhda tdjcno `ertendjdj tojcco. *eaoho+dj cds pea`d>d tercdjtujc

    pdmd pejccujddj spesoion mdj ,ejos metentgr -djc mocujdndj. /ehoua aerupdndj

    tope cds pea`d>d -djc serojc mocujdndj ndrejd aea`erondj eiosoejso

    nrgadtgcrdio -djc he`o+ `don (aejcurdjco pehe`drdj potd". 8eaejtdrd jotrgcej

    6g6gn mocujdndj ujtun sudtu peaosd+dj -djc ngaphens. *dmd setodp peaosd+dj

    mejcdj )2# termdpdt ne6epdtdj gptoaua cds pea`d>d -djc terutdad mopejcdru+o

    ghe+ modaeter nghga(?"

    .0. ]eapdt oj,enso ( bedtem oj"eltogj pgrt "]eapdt oj,enso dtdu rudjc sujton `ercujd ujtun aejc+djtdrndj sdapeh ne

    mdhda dhordj cds pea`d>d. 8e,uahd+ ne6oh sdapeh -djc dndj modjdhosos

    mooj,ensondj pdmd aesoj aejccujdndj seaprot ne6oh. Kdrua seaprot aejea`us

    heapejcdj ndret te`dh (septua" -djc dndj aejcu`d+ `ejtunj-d nea`dho se6drd

    gtgadtos netond seaprot motdron nehudr mdro heapejcdj ndret terse`ut. *ej-ujtondj

    sdapeh mdpdt mohdnundj se6drd adjudh dtdu se6drd gtgadtos (?".Oj,entgr `erdmd mo mdhda gvej mejcdj teaperdtur -djc mdpdt mongjtrgh. vej

    terse`ut 6unup pdjds se+ojccd sdapeh mdpdt aejmomo+ mdj mo`d>d ne nghga ghe+

    cds pea`d>d ( ".

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    Lgdtem Gpej $u`e "# 82 ] ( uppgrt Lgdtem Gpej $u`e "# *H ] ( %grgus Hdyer

    Gpej $ù e "# mdj 58 ] ( &usem ohold Gpej $ù e ". eujtujcdj pejccujddj

    nghga ndpoher djtdrd hdoj >dntu djdhosos -djc mo`utu+ndj he`o+ pejmen mdropdmd

    nghga neads ndrejd idsd cerdn tomdn aejcdhdao +da`dtdj netond aehe>dto

    nghga mdj resghuso -djc mo+dsohndj he`o+ tojcco (?".

    :. !etentgr

    !etentgr aerupdndj perdjcndt -djc mohetdnndj pdmd u,ujc nghga teapdt

    nehudr idsd cerdn -djc aea`d>d ngapgjej +dsoh peaosd+dj. !etentgr pdmd )2

    dmdhd+ sudtu sejsgr -djc `eriujcso aejcu`d+ soj-dh cds pea`d>d mdj

    ngapgjej ngapgjej mo mdhdaj-d aej,dmo soj-dh ehentrgjon. 8oj-dh ehentrgjon

    metentgr dndj sdjcdt `ercujd ujtun djdhosos nudhotdtoi adupuj nudjtotdtoi ter+dmdp

    ngapgjej ngapgjej -djc sumd+ terposd+. !etentgr -djc serojc mocujdndj mdhda

    )2# -dotu ( "7

    • !etentgr /djtdr *djds ( $beradh Lgjmultovoty 'eteltgr ;]2!".• !etentgr Ogjosdso J-dhd ( &hdae Ogjo(dtogj 'eteltgr ;5O!".• !etentgr ]djcndp 'hentrgj ( )heltrgj Ldpture 'eteltgr ;'2!".• !etentgr Jotrgcej 5gsigr ( *otrgcej-%bgspbgrus 'eteltgr ;J*!".• !etentgr 5gtgaetro J-dhd ( &hdae %bgtgaetry ".•

    !etentgr gjmuntovotds 'hentrghoton.• !etentgr 5gtg Ogjosdso ( %bgtg Ogjo(dtogj 'eteltgr ;*O!".• !etentgr 8pentrgaeter Adssd ( +dss peltrgaetry ;A8".

    . *erenda ( relgrmer "

    %e6grmer -djc mocujdndj -dotu ngaputer -djc mohejcndpo mejcdj perdjcndt

    hujdn ( sg,t dre " ujtun mocotdhosdso soj-dh metentgr.

    )2 odhd+ tenjon djdhosos -djc tehd+ hd=oa mocujdndj mdhda `omdjc ojmustro#

    hojcnujcdj# idradso# aoj-dn# noaod# nhojon# igrejson# adndjdj# mdj se`dcdoj-d. )2

    aumd+ mogtgadtosdso ujtun aehdnundj peaosd+dj mojdaos mdj omejtoiondso seaud ,ejos

    sej-d>d grcdjon -djc aumd+ aejcudp (mdj std`oh mdhda teaperdtur pejcu,odj"# ,ucd

    ujtun aehdnundj djdhosos nudjtotdtoi sej-d>d mdhda sudtu 6dapurdj (?".

    O9. A'] !' *'%2 &DDJ

    • Dhdt7

    d. &dtdjc pejcdmun `. )ehds `edner 6. Hd`u tdndr 43 aH

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    m. Aonrgpopete. Aonrg syrojcei. *opet tetesc. *opet unur 4 aH# aH

    +. *rgpopeto. 8ejmgn tdjmun

    ,. Uhtrdsgjo6dtgr n. [email protected]

    • &d+dj7d. DLudmestohhdtd

    `. .hue top mdj yehhg top6. !onhgrgaetdjm. 'tdjghe. ertds toa`djci. 8er`un ̀ dnu prgmunsoc. 8tdjmdr nhgrgigra

    • gjmoso dhdt7d. 5dsd cerdn 7 Jotrgcej

    `. Hd,u dhor idsd cerdn 7 03 aH;aejot6. ghga 7 AM] E 0 (2rgss`gjm E 433I moaet+-h pgh-sohg

    @dje"1ldpohhdry lghuaj 1 jgj pghdr pbdse 1 p C 43 a# m

    C 3# < aa# nete`dhdj C 0.? Bam. 9ghuae oj,en 7 3#4 H

    e. 8u+u oj,entgr 7 033g

    2i. 8u+u gvej 7 ?3 3 g2c. 8u+u metentgr 7 0?3 g2+. !etentgr 7 5O!

    • 2drd er,dd. *ea`udtdj stdjmdr tujccdh nhgrgigra 4I mdj monhgrgaetdj 4I

    !opopet 3#4 aH hdrutdj nhgrgigra pendt ne mdhda hd`u unur 43 aH# motda`d+ndj

    etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds. !opopet 3#4 aH hdrutdj monhgrgaetdj ne mdhda hd`u unur

    43 aH -djc hdoj# motda`d+ndj etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds. `. *ea`udtdj nurvd `dnu nhgrgigra

    !osodpndj hdrutdj stdjmdr nhgrgigra mejcdj `er`dcdo ngjsejtrdso# -dotu 3I1 3#0I1

    3#:I1 3#?I1 3# I1 4I aejccujdndj hd`u tdndr 43 aH. e mdhda adsojc adsojc

    hd`u tdndr motda`d+ndj 3#4 aH stdjmdr ojterjdh monhgrgaetdj# hdhu motda`d+ndj

    etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds. 8ehdj,utj-d se`dj-dn 3#4 H hdrutdj stdjmdr mooj,ensondj

    ne mdhda dhdt )2. !o6dtdt >dntu retejso mdj huds puj6dn resomu nhgrgigra -djc

    modjdhosos. !dro nrgadtgcrda -djc mo+dsohndj# mo`udt nurvd stdjmdr djtdrd jos`d+

    huds dred nhgrgigra mejcdj huds monhgrgaetdj ter+dmdp I ndmdr stdjmdr nhgrgigra.6. *repdrdso mdj pejetdpdj ndmdr sdapeh

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    !otoa`djc ser`un `dnu prgmunso se`dj-dn 0 3 ac# neaumodj moadsunndj mdhda

    hd`u unur 43 aH# motda`d+ndj etdjgh dm tdjmd `dtds# mo+gagcejndj. !opopet 4#3

    aH sdapeh ne mdhda hd`u unur 43 aH# motda`d+ndj 3#4 aH stdjmdr ojterjdh

    monhgrgaetdj# hdhu motda`d+ndj etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds.8ehdj,utj-d se`dj-dn 3#4 H hdrutdj sdapeh mooj,ensondj ne mdhda dhdt )2. 2dtdt

    >dntu retejso mdj huds puj6dn resomu nhgrgigra -djc modjdhosos. ]ejtundj jos`d+

    huds nhgrgigra mejcdj huds monhgrgaetdj. !o+otujc ngjsejtrdso nhgrgigra mejcdj

    aejccujdndj nurvd stdjmdr. *ejetdpdj ndmdr sdapeh mohdnundj se`dj-dn [email protected]

    rephondso.m. !o+otujc pdrdaeter eiosoejso nghga mdj resghuso peaosd+dj sej-d>d -djc mo u,o.e. Dpd`ohd aejccujdndj adjudh oj,entgr# se`ehua aejcda`oh sej-d>d mejcdj

    aejccujdndj aonrg syrojce # pdstondj aonrg syrojce terse`ut mo6u6o terhe`o+ md+uhu

    mejcdj sej-d>d -djc dndj mocujdndj ujtun aejc+ojmdro dmdj-d ojtervejso

    sej-d>d hdoj dno`dt peadndodj ,drua sujton terse`ut se`ehuaj-d.i. *ejetdpdj dnurdso aetgme

    !osodpndj : td`ujc rednso (%4 N 3#0I# %0 N 3#0I# %4 N 4I# mdj %0 N 4I". *dmd

    adsojc adsojc td`ujc moadsunndj 4#3 aH hdrutdj sdapeh mdj 4#3 aH nurvd `dnu

    nhgrgigra.

    9. !D]D !DJ *'%/O]UJ)DJ

    d. *er+otujcdj urvd &dnu

    • 3IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0433I . 9 4 C 3I . 43 aH9 4 C 3 aH

    • 3#0IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

    433I . 9 4 C 3#0I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#30 aH• 3#:I

    A 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0433I . 9 4 C 3#:I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#3: aH

    • 3#?IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0433I . 9 4 C 3#?I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#3? aH

    • 3# IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

    433I . 9 4 C 3# I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#3 aH• 4I

    A 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0433I . 9 4 C 4I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#4 aH

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    `. *er+otujcdj urvd &dnu

    ]d`eh ) Omejtoiondso gapgjej mdhda Hdrutdj 8tdjmdr hgrgigra

    Hdrutdj Fdntu %etejsohgrgigra Aurjo

    !onhgrgaetdj Aurjo

    3# ?<

    8tdjmdr hgrgigra 3#0I

    hgrgigra

    !onhgrgaetdj

    3# ?3

    8tdjmdr hgrgigra 3#: I

    hgrgigra

    !onhgrgaetdj

    3# ?<

    8tdjmdr hgrgigra 3#?I

    hgrgigra

    !onhgrgaetdj

    3# ?<

    8tdjmdr hgrgigra 3# I

    hgrgigra

    !onhgrgaetdj

    3# ?<

    ]d`eh / Johdo 'iosoejso ghga

    Hdrutdj dmdr

    Fdntu

    %etejso

    (t%"

    He`dr *edn

    (>"

    'iosoejso

    ghga (J"

    *dj,djc

    nghga

    (H" 6a

    /']*

    8tm. hgrgigra 3#0I 3# ?3 :: 43# 3 0#: [email protected]

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    • 8tm. hgrgigra 3#?I

    J C 4? (3# ?

  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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    ]d`eh * Johdo %esghuso rgadtgcrda

    Hdrutdj

    ( dmdr I"

    Fdn

    tu

    resgh

    uso 4

    (t%4

    "

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    <

  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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    8tm.

    hgrgigra

    3# I

    8dapeh 4

    8dapeh 0%dtd rdtd (

    ½ x "

    8!

    %8!

    4 #43?

    4? 0#<

    # :

    %dtd rdtd ( ½ x " C_ 6,0 +_ 6,= +_ 6,9 +_ 6,2

    =

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    j

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    ·∛(45603,6?26 ∐42222,46932 )0 +(4?62?,45

  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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    d C 4

  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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    • y'

    (3#0I" C 43 ?3# :: (3#0" N 4

  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

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    motda`d+ndj mdhda ,uahd+ ngjstdj ujtun sdapeh# stdjmdr ngsgjc# mdj ndho`rdso mdhda

    djdhosos noaod. 8-drdt s-drdt sudtu sej-d>d mdpdt mocujdndj se`dcdo stdjmdr ojterjdh

    dmdhd+7

    4. ]erposd+ mejcdj `don mdro sej-d>d -djc motu,u.0. Aeapuj-do >dntu retejso -djc +dapor sdad mejcdj djdhot.o mejcdj djdhot.

    . 8td`oh mdj tomdn redntoi mejcdj sdapeh dtdu mejcdj idsd cerdn.?. Aeapuj-do respgj metentgr -djc +dapor sdad mejcdj djdhot pdmd ngjsejtrdso

    -djc mocujdndj.

    'iosoej (J" aerupdndj ,uahd+ peaosd+dj -djc ter,dmo mdhda nghga. J -djc

    `don dmdhd+ 0333# seadnoj `esdr johdo J adndj seadnoj `don peaosd+dj -djc ter,dmo

    mdhda nghga. *dmd per6g`ddj ojo moperghe+ johdo J rdtd rdtd -dotu dntu resghuso pedn 0 mdjhe`dr pedn 0 tomdn termetenso (tomdn ter`d6d".

    *dmd per6g`ddj ojo johdo 8! -djc moperghe+ dmdhd+ 4? 0#< mdj johdo %8!

    -djc momdpdt dmdhd+ # : I# moadjd +dsoh ojo `erdrto tomdn `dcus ndrejd johdo 8! -djc

    `don dmdhd+ aejmendto 3 (jgh" mdj %8! -djc `don -dotu aejmendto 0I. /dh ojo aujcnoj

    mose`d`ndj ndrejd ter,dmo nesdhd+dj sddt aehdnundj prepdrdso sdapeh.&ermdsdrndj recreso hojedr (djtdrd hdrutdj I vs huds dred nhgrgigra"#

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  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

    16/18

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  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

    17/18

  • 8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8

    18/18

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