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8/17/2019 Makalah AFK C8 http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/makalah-afk-c8 1/18 HDVGPDJ VPDN]ONUA DJDHO\O\ IO\ONGNOAOD Vejejtudj Pesomu Nhgrgigra mdhda \er`un @dnu Vrgmunso Aejccujdndj Aetgme Nrgadtgcrdio ds !etentgr IO! Nehga"gn #$% #&ojt'd D'u Gntd(odjo )*+)*),+ Djos Aosidhd )*+)*),$ Jur&omd'dto )*+)*),- Dmohod ]ro .omd'dto )*+)*)$/ HD@GPD]GPOUA NOAOD IDPAD\O VPGPDA \]U!O IDPAD\O IDNUH]D\ AD]6AD]OND !DJ OHAU V6J6]D.UDJ DHDA UJOYEP\O]D\ O\HDA OJMGJE\OD /4)0 Vejejtudj Pesomu Nhgrgigra mdhda \er`un @dnu Vrgmunso Aejccujdndj Aetgme Nrgadtgcrdio ds !etentgr IO! O. ]UKUDJ 4. Adapu aeaprdntonndj djdhosos nudhotdtoi mdj nudjtotdtoi ndjmujcdj resomu nhgrgigra mdhda sdapeh ser`un `dnu idradsetos aejccujdndj aetgme stdjmdr ojterjdh. 0. Adapu aehdnundj vdhomdso aetgme mejcdj pdrdaeter `erupd `dtds metenso (H!"# `dtds nudjtoiondso (H$"# mdj dnurdso.

Makalah AFK C8

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HDVGPDJ VPDN]ONUADJDHO\O\ IO\ONGNOAOD

Vejejtudj Pesomu Nhgrgigra mdhda \er`un @dnu VrgmunsoAejccujdndj Aetgme Nrgadtgcrdio ds !etentgr IO!

Nehga"gn #$%#&ojt'd D'u Gntd(odjo )*+)*),+

Djos Aosidhd )*+)*),$Jur&omd'dto )*+)*),-Dmohod ]ro .omd'dto )*+)*)$/

HD@GPD]GPOUA NOAOD IDPAD\OVPG PDA \]U!O IDPAD\O

IDNUH]D\ AD]6AD]OND !DJ OHAU V6J 6]D.UDJ DHDAUJOYEP\O]D\ O\HDA OJMGJE\OD

/4)0

Vejejtudj Pesomu Nhgrgigra mdhda \er`un @dnu Vrgmunso Aejccujdndj Aetgme

Nrgadtgcrdio ds !etentgr IO!

O. ]UKUDJ

4. Adapu aeaprdntonndj djdhosos nudhotdtoi mdj nudjtotdtoi ndjmujcdj resomu nhgrgigra

mdhda sdapeh ser`un `dnu idradsetos aejccujdndj aetgme stdjmdr ojterjdh.0. Adapu aehdnundj vdhomdso aetgme mejcdj pdrdaeter `erupd `dtds metenso (H !"#

`dtds nudjtoiondso (H $"# mdj dnurdso.

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OO. HD]D% &'HD DJ)

*ehdrut grcdjon `odsd mopdndo mdhda prgses adjuidntur `d+dj `dnu idradsetond

mejcdj tu,udj djtdrd hdoj ujtun aeaper`dj-dn +dsoh prgmun# aeaper`dono prgses

nrostdhosdso# aejojcndtndj nehdrutdj# +gagcejosdso# mdj hdoj hdoj. ]etdpo# pehdrut grcdjon

terse`ut aeapuj-do mdapdn tgnsonghgco se+ojccd moperhundj ngjtrgh -djc netdt ter+dmdp

resomuj-d. /dh ojo mondrejdndj setehd+ aehdhuo prgses pea`udtdj aej,dmo se`ud+ prgmun#

resomu pehdrut -djc mocujdndj dndj `erpgtejso aej,dmo 6eadrdj grcdjon aumd+ aejcudp

(grcdjol vghdtohe oapurotoes/GYO‟s" `dco prgmun terse`ut (4". &dj-dn prgmun idradsetond

-djc mo`ero `dtds dmdj-d 6eadrdj grcdjon aumd+ aejcudp pdmd setodp td+dp

adjuidnturj-d# auhdo mdro `d+dj `dnu# prgmun djtdrd sdapdo prgmun ,dmo.

Dmd ad6da pehdrut -djc uaua mocujdndj mdhda prgses adjuidntur.

&ermdsdrndj pgtejso ter+dmdp tgnsosotds -djc aujcnoj motoa`uhndj# ad6da pehdrut

terse`ut mocghgjcndj aej,dmo < nehds# -dotu pehdrut -djc tgnsosotdsj-d tojcco ( jgj

dlleptd`he tgxoloty " aosdhj-d `ej=ejd (pehdrut nehds O"# pehdrut -djc tgnsosotdsj-d he`o+

rejmd+ jdauj adso+ sdjcdt `er`d+d-d `dco tu`u+ (pehdrut nehds OO"# mdj pehdrut -djc

tgnsosotdsj-d he`o+ rejmd+ hdco (pehdrut nehds OOO" (4".

hgrgigra adsun ne mdhda pehdrut grcdjon nehds OO# se+ojccd ,uahd+ resomuj-dmdhda prgmun idradso perhu mo`dtdso. 5dradngpe Ojmgjesod O9 aea`erondj `dtdsdj ujtun

nhgrgigra se`esdr 3 ppa# seaejtdrd O2/ aej-dtdndj `dtds ujtun nhgrgigra dmdhd+ ?3

ppa mejcdj peraottem mdohy expgsure (*!'" 3.? ac;+dro (4". Aejcojcdt dmdj-d `d+d-d

dpd`ohd resomu nhgrgigra pdmd prgmun idradseton aehe`o+o ndmdr -djc motetdpndj# adnd

djdhosos ndjmujcdj resomu nhgrgigra mdhda ser un `dnu prgmunso modjccdp perhu

mohdnundj. &dj-dn aetgme djdhosd -djc serojc mocujdndj ujtun aejcunur ndmdr sudtu

sej-d>d mdhda semoddj# sdhd+ sdtuj-d mejcdj cds lbrgadtgcrdpby ()2".*ejejtudj ndmdr 6eadrdj grcdjon aumd+ aejcudp sdjcdt 6g6gn mohdnundj

aejccujdndj )2# se`d` s-drdt sej-d>d -djc mdpdt modjdhosos mejcdj )2 odhd+ vghdtoh

mdj std`oh ter+dmdp pdjds ( tberagstd`he ". )2 dndj aeaosd+ndj resomu nhgrgigra mejcdj

ngapgjej hdoj -djc termdpdt mo mdhda ser`un `dnu prgmunso `ermdsdrndj ojterdnsoj-d

mejcdj idsd cerdn mdj idsd moda. /dsoh peaosd+dj sehdj,utj-d mo`d>d ne metentgr ujtun

neaumodj morenda ghe+ relgrmer se+ojccd moperghe+ nrgadtgcrda.

OOO. !D8D% ]' %O

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hgrgigra (2/2h <" dmdhd+ sej-d>d cghgjcdj +dhgdhndjd -djc mocujdndj se6drd huds

se`dcdo pehdrut grcdjon. *eaerodjj-d `erupd 6dordj ,erjo+ tomdn `er>drjd -djc aumd+

aejcdhor# aeaohono `du eter sertd rdsd adjos -djc aea`dndr mejcdj ndrdnteroston aumd+

aejcudp. 8ej-d>d mejcdj jdad OU*D2 tronhgrgaetdjd ojo sundr hdrut mdhda dor1 mdpdt

`er6dapur mejcdj etdjgh# eter# +ensdj# mdj headn dtdu aoj-dn aejcudp (0".O2/ aejetdpndj nhgrgigra ne mdhda pehdrut grcdjon nehds OO dno`dt tgnsosotds -djc

motoa uhndjj-d. *ehdrut sosd nehds OO momeiojosondj se`dcdo pehdrut -djc `ersoidt

ndrsojgcejon jgj cejgtgnson ter+dmdp +e>dj dtdu neaujcnojdj `esdr aej,dmo dcej

pej-e`d` tgnsosotds orreverso`he hdoj# seperto jeurgtgnsosotds mdj eien terdtgcejon.

)ghgjcdj pehdrut -djc momucd mdpdt aej-e`d`ndj tgnsosotds -djc socjoiondj jdauj

reverso`he ,ucd moadsunndj pdmd ndtecgro ojo(<"

.Cds lbrgadtgcrdpby ()2" dtdu nrgadtgcrdio cds aerupdndj sudtu aetgme

peaosd+dj mdj pejcunurdj -djc momdsdrndj pdmd per`emddj mostro`uso ngapgjej

ngapgjej mdhda sdapeh djtdrd mud idsd mejcdj aejccujdndj cds se`dcdo idsd cerdn

mdj =dt pdmdt dtdu =dt 6dor se`dcdo idsd moda(:" .

&ermdsdrndj idsd modaj-d# )2 mo`dco aej,dmo (:" 7

4. Cds-Hoquom Lbrgadtgcrdpby ()H2"# idsd modaj-d `er>u,um 6dor. 2dordj terse`ut

aerupdndj 6dordj tomdn aumd+ aejcudp -djc aehendt pdmd pdmdtdj pejmunujc

ojert `erupd `utordj +dhus. *rojsop peaosd+djj-d momdsdrndj dtds per`emddj pdrtoso

ngapgjej ngapgjej mdro sudtu sdapeh mo djtdrd idsd moda mdj idsd cerdn.

0. Cds- ghom Lbrgadtgcrdpby ()82"# idsd modaj-d `er>u,um pdmdt# seperto ndr`gj#

=eghot# mdj sohond ceh. *rojsop peaosd+dj `ermdsdrndj dmsgrpso ter+dmdp idsd moda.

)ds pea`d>d (idsd cerdn" mejcdj tendjdj tertejtu modhorndj se6drd ngjstdj aehdhuo

nghga -djc `eroso idsd moda. 8dapeh neaumodj mosujtonndj ne mdhda oj,entgr -djc

su+uj-d mdpdt modtur. gapgjej ngapgjej mdhda sdapeh dndj secerd aej,dmo udp mdj

mo`d>d ghe+ dhordj cds pea`d>d aeju,u nghga ujtun aej,dhdjo prgses peaosd+dj. *dmd

uauaj-d# ngapgjej sdapeh dndj terehuso `ermdsdrndj pejojcndtdj toton momo+ sudtu

sej-d>d monurdjco mejcdj seaud ojterdnso -djc aujcnoj ter,dmo djtdrd ngapgjej

mejcdj idsd moda# ne6udho ,ond dmd ojterdnso n+usus djtdrd ngapgjej mejcdj idsd moda ( ".

5dsd cerdn dndj aejcehuso ngapgjej 6dapurdj mdro u,ujc nghga hdhu

aejc+djtdrndjj-d ne metentgr ujtun mometenso. 8ehdj,utj-d# +dsoh metenso morenda

mejcdj relgrmer se+ojccd moperghe+ nrgadtgcrda -djc termoro dtds `e`erdpd ped! .

Kuahd+ ped! -djc auj6uh aej-dtdndj ,uahd+ ngapgjej (sej-d>d" -djc termdpdt mdhdasdapeh. 8emdjcndj huds ped! `ercdjtujc nepdmd nudjtotds ngapgjej otu ( ".

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Ojstruaejtdso )2 termoro mdro ngapgjej ngapgjej `eronut7

4. ]d`ujc cds pea`d>d5ujcso cds pea`d>d ( ldrroer " dmdhd+ aejcdjcnut 6uphondj sdapeh mdro

nghga ne metentgr. 8-drdt cds pea`d>d dmdhd+ tomdn redntoi# aurjo# mdj mdpdtmosoapdj mdhda tdjcno `ertendjdj tojcco. *eaoho+dj cds pea`d>d tercdjtujc

pdmd pejccujddj spesoion mdj ,ejos metentgr -djc mocujdndj. /ehoua aerupdndj

tope cds pea`d>d -djc serojc mocujdndj ndrejd aea`erondj eiosoejso

nrgadtgcrdio -djc he`o+ `don (aejcurdjco pehe`drdj potd". 8eaejtdrd jotrgcej

6g6gn mocujdndj ujtun sudtu peaosd+dj -djc ngaphens. *dmd setodp peaosd+dj

mejcdj )2# termdpdt ne6epdtdj gptoaua cds pea`d>d -djc terutdad mopejcdru+o

ghe+ modaeter nghga(?"

.0. ]eapdt oj,enso ( bedtem oj"eltogj pgrt "]eapdt oj,enso dtdu rudjc sujton `ercujd ujtun aejc+djtdrndj sdapeh ne

mdhda dhordj cds pea`d>d. 8e,uahd+ ne6oh sdapeh -djc dndj modjdhosos

mooj,ensondj pdmd aesoj aejccujdndj seaprot ne6oh. Kdrua seaprot aejea`us

heapejcdj ndret te`dh (septua" -djc dndj aejcu`d+ `ejtunj-d nea`dho se6drd

gtgadtos netond seaprot motdron nehudr mdro heapejcdj ndret terse`ut. *ej-ujtondj

sdapeh mdpdt mohdnundj se6drd adjudh dtdu se6drd gtgadtos (?".Oj,entgr `erdmd mo mdhda gvej mejcdj teaperdtur -djc mdpdt mongjtrgh. vej

terse`ut 6unup pdjds se+ojccd sdapeh mdpdt aejmomo+ mdj mo`d>d ne nghga ghe+

cds pea`d>d ( ".<. ghga

ghga aerupdndj teapdt ter,dmoj-d prgses peaosd+dj se`d` mo mdhdaj-d

termdpdt idsd moda. Dmd 0 ,ejos nghga pdmd )2# -dotu nghga neads ( pdl!em

lghuaj " mdj nghga ndpoher ( ldpohhdry lghuaj " (?".ghga neads termoro dtds idsd 6dor (senurdjc nurdjcj-d pdmd su+u nrgadtgcrdio"

-djc terse`dr pdmd peraunddj pej-djccd -djc hea`da (ojert" -djc termdpdt

mdhda td`ujc rehdtoi `esdr mejcdj modaeter mdhda 4 < aa. 5dsd moda +dj-d mdpdt

mohdposndj sd,d mo pej-djccd dtdu terondt se6drd ngvdhej mo pej-djccd -djc

aejc+dsohndj idsd terondt. Kejos nghga pdn ojo he`o+ mosundo ujtun tu,udj

prepdrdtoi ndrejd mdpdt aejdapujc ,uahd+ 6uphondj -djc `dj-dn (?".

ghga ndpoher ,du+ he`o+ ne6oh (3#30 3#0 aa" mdj mojmojc ndpoher `ertojmdn

se`dcdo pej-djccd hea`da ujtun idsd 6dor. ghga ojo aeapuj-do rgjccd pdmd

`dcodj mdhda nghga -djc aej-erupdo popd ( tu`e ". he+ ndrejdj-d# nghga ndpoher

serojc ,ucd mose`ut gpej tu`uhdr lghuaj . 5dsd moda aehendt aejcehohojco mojmojc

mdhda nghga. Dmd : ad6da ,ejos hdposdj pdmd nghga ndpoher# -dnjo F2 ] ( #dhh

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Lgdtem Gpej $u`e "# 82 ] ( uppgrt Lgdtem Gpej $u`e "# *H ] ( %grgus Hdyer

Gpej $u e "# mdj 58 ] ( &usem ohold Gpej $u e ". eujtujcdj pejccujddj

nghga ndpoher djtdrd hdoj >dntu djdhosos -djc mo`utu+ndj he`o+ pejmen mdropdmd

nghga neads ndrejd idsd cerdn tomdn aejcdhdao +da`dtdj netond aehe>dto

nghga mdj resghuso -djc mo+dsohndj he`o+ tojcco (?".

:. !etentgr

!etentgr aerupdndj perdjcndt -djc mohetdnndj pdmd u,ujc nghga teapdt

nehudr idsd cerdn -djc aea`d>d ngapgjej +dsoh peaosd+dj. !etentgr pdmd )2

dmdhd+ sudtu sejsgr -djc `eriujcso aejcu`d+ soj-dh cds pea`d>d mdj

ngapgjej ngapgjej mo mdhdaj-d aej,dmo soj-dh ehentrgjon. 8oj-dh ehentrgjon

metentgr dndj sdjcdt `ercujd ujtun djdhosos nudhotdtoi adupuj nudjtotdtoi ter+dmdp

ngapgjej ngapgjej -djc sumd+ terposd+. !etentgr -djc serojc mocujdndj mdhda

)2# -dotu ( "7

• !etentgr /djtdr *djds ( $beradh Lgjmultovoty 'eteltgr ;]2!".• !etentgr Ogjosdso J-dhd ( &hdae Ogjo(dtogj 'eteltgr ;5O!".• !etentgr ]djcndp 'hentrgj ( )heltrgj Ldpture 'eteltgr ;'2!".• !etentgr Jotrgcej 5gsigr ( *otrgcej-%bgspbgrus 'eteltgr ;J*!".• !etentgr 5gtgaetro J-dhd ( &hdae %bgtgaetry ".•

!etentgr gjmuntovotds 'hentrghoton.• !etentgr 5gtg Ogjosdso ( %bgtg Ogjo(dtogj 'eteltgr ;*O!".• !etentgr 8pentrgaeter Adssd ( +dss peltrgaetry ;A8".

. *erenda ( relgrmer "

%e6grmer -djc mocujdndj -dotu ngaputer -djc mohejcndpo mejcdj perdjcndt

hujdn ( sg,t dre " ujtun mocotdhosdso soj-dh metentgr.

)2 odhd+ tenjon djdhosos -djc tehd+ hd=oa mocujdndj mdhda `omdjc ojmustro#

hojcnujcdj# idradso# aoj-dn# noaod# nhojon# igrejson# adndjdj# mdj se`dcdoj-d. )2

aumd+ mogtgadtosdso ujtun aehdnundj peaosd+dj mojdaos mdj omejtoiondso seaud ,ejos

sej-d>d grcdjon -djc aumd+ aejcudp (mdj std`oh mdhda teaperdtur pejcu,odj"# ,ucd

ujtun aehdnundj djdhosos nudjtotdtoi sej-d>d mdhda sudtu 6dapurdj (?".

O9. A'] !' *'%2 &DDJ

• Dhdt7

d. &dtdjc pejcdmun `. )ehds `edner 6. Hd`u tdndr 43 aH

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m. Aonrgpopete. Aonrg syrojcei. *opet tetesc. *opet unur 4 aH# aH

+. *rgpopeto. 8ejmgn tdjmun

,. Uhtrdsgjo6dtgr n. 9grte@

• &d+dj7d. DLudmestohhdtd

`. .hue top mdj yehhg top6. !onhgrgaetdjm. 'tdjghe. ertds toa`djci. 8er`un dnu prgmunsoc. 8tdjmdr nhgrgigra

• gjmoso dhdt7d. 5dsd cerdn 7 Jotrgcej

`. Hd,u dhor idsd cerdn 7 03 aH;aejot6. ghga 7 AM] E 0 (2rgss`gjm E 433I moaet+-h pgh-sohg

@dje"1ldpohhdry lghuaj 1 jgj pghdr pbdse 1 p C 43 a# m

C 3# < aa# nete`dhdj C 0.? Bam. 9ghuae oj,en 7 3#4 H

e. 8u+u oj,entgr 7 033g

2i. 8u+u gvej 7 ?3 3 g2c. 8u+u metentgr 7 0?3 g2+. !etentgr 7 5O!

• 2drd er,dd. *ea`udtdj stdjmdr tujccdh nhgrgigra 4I mdj monhgrgaetdj 4I

!opopet 3#4 aH hdrutdj nhgrgigra pendt ne mdhda hd`u unur 43 aH# motda`d+ndj

etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds. !opopet 3#4 aH hdrutdj monhgrgaetdj ne mdhda hd`u unur

43 aH -djc hdoj# motda`d+ndj etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds. `. *ea`udtdj nurvd `dnu nhgrgigra

!osodpndj hdrutdj stdjmdr nhgrgigra mejcdj `er`dcdo ngjsejtrdso# -dotu 3I1 3#0I1

3#:I1 3#?I1 3# I1 4I aejccujdndj hd`u tdndr 43 aH. e mdhda adsojc adsojc

hd`u tdndr motda`d+ndj 3#4 aH stdjmdr ojterjdh monhgrgaetdj# hdhu motda`d+ndj

etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds. 8ehdj,utj-d se`dj-dn 3#4 H hdrutdj stdjmdr mooj,ensondj

ne mdhda dhdt )2. !o6dtdt >dntu retejso mdj huds puj6dn resomu nhgrgigra -djc

modjdhosos. !dro nrgadtgcrda -djc mo+dsohndj# mo`udt nurvd stdjmdr djtdrd jos`d+

huds dred nhgrgigra mejcdj huds monhgrgaetdj ter+dmdp I ndmdr stdjmdr nhgrgigra.6. *repdrdso mdj pejetdpdj ndmdr sdapeh

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!otoa`djc ser`un `dnu prgmunso se`dj-dn 0 3 ac# neaumodj moadsunndj mdhda

hd`u unur 43 aH# motda`d+ndj etdjgh dm tdjmd `dtds# mo+gagcejndj. !opopet 4#3

aH sdapeh ne mdhda hd`u unur 43 aH# motda`d+ndj 3#4 aH stdjmdr ojterjdh

monhgrgaetdj# hdhu motda`d+ndj etdjgh +ojccd tdjmd `dtds.8ehdj,utj-d se`dj-dn 3#4 H hdrutdj sdapeh mooj,ensondj ne mdhda dhdt )2. 2dtdt

>dntu retejso mdj huds puj6dn resomu nhgrgigra -djc modjdhosos. ]ejtundj jos`d+

huds nhgrgigra mejcdj huds monhgrgaetdj. !o+otujc ngjsejtrdso nhgrgigra mejcdj

aejccujdndj nurvd stdjmdr. *ejetdpdj ndmdr sdapeh mohdnundj se`dj-dn 0@

rephondso.m. !o+otujc pdrdaeter eiosoejso nghga mdj resghuso peaosd+dj sej-d>d -djc mo u,o.e. Dpd`ohd aejccujdndj adjudh oj,entgr# se`ehua aejcda`oh sej-d>d mejcdj

aejccujdndj aonrg syrojce # pdstondj aonrg syrojce terse`ut mo6u6o terhe`o+ md+uhu

mejcdj sej-d>d -djc dndj mocujdndj ujtun aejc+ojmdro dmdj-d ojtervejso

sej-d>d hdoj dno`dt peadndodj ,drua sujton terse`ut se`ehuaj-d.i. *ejetdpdj dnurdso aetgme

!osodpndj : td`ujc rednso (%4 N 3#0I# %0 N 3#0I# %4 N 4I# mdj %0 N 4I". *dmd

adsojc adsojc td`ujc moadsunndj 4#3 aH hdrutdj sdapeh mdj 4#3 aH nurvd `dnu

nhgrgigra.

9. !D]D !DJ *'%/O]UJ)DJ

d. *er+otujcdj urvd &dnu

• 3IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

433I . 9 4 C 3I . 43 aH9 4 C 3 aH

• 3#0IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

433I . 9 4 C 3#0I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#30 aH• 3#:I

A 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

433I . 9 4 C 3#:I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#3: aH

• 3#?IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

433I . 9 4 C 3#?I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#3? aH

• 3# IA 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

433I . 9 4 C 3# I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#3 aH• 4I

A 4.9 4 C A 0.9 0

433I . 9 4 C 4I . 43 aH9 4 C 3#4 aH

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johdo H $ -djc momdpdt dmdhd+ 4#:< <. /dsoh ojo nurdjc `don# ndrejd johdo H ! mdj H $

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