Text of Manifest Destiny 1840s. Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in...
Manifest Destiny 1840s
Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in 1845. What does it mean? The belief that it was a God-given right to expand west for Americans.
Overland Immigration to the West 1840 - 1860 more than 250,000 people travel west!!
Who and Why go West? * Southerners -->new land for cotton * Mormons -->escape persecution-->Great Salt Lake * Americans--cheap land and gold-- >California (1849) * Oregon Fever = Americans establish farms on fertile land
But American expansion is not without its problems - Expansion will bring about disputes both within the US & with our foreign neighbors
Conflict with Great Britain Boundary line between Maine & British- controlled Canada was unclear * Dispute w/ GB ends with = The Webster- Ashburton Treaty
The Oregon Dispute Both the US & GB claimed Oregon Treaty of 1818 = US and GB would have control of Oregon until issue could be resolved permanently
American settlement Mexico gains independence from Spain invites American settlers to TEJAS to develop territory 1 st American settlers successfully led by Stephen Austin * By 1830, Americans outnumber Mexicans in Tejas by 3 to 1!
Friction between American settlers & Mexican government: * When . new rules to tighten Mexican control of Tejas: Ban further American immigration 1829 Mexico abolished slavery Americans (plantation owners) reaction--> --refused to follow these new regulations Land hungry American southerners continued to stream into Tejas
Road to Texas Independence General Santa Ana becomes dictator: abolished local self-rule! revolts break out across Mexico * Americans under Sam Houston declare Texas to be independent (1836)
Texas Declaration of Independence
The Republic of Texas
Remember the Alamo!
Texas Independence * Alamo 1836 Americans defeated * Goliad Americans defeated again! Santa Anas soldiers execute any prisoners * San Jacinto Mexican defeat; Santa Ana captured & forced to recognize Texan independence * Grants Texas all land north of the Rio Grande River * BUT: Mexican govt still considers Texas a MEXICAN TERRITORY
Texas requests admission to Union Newly independent Texas faced financial problems Texas president Sam Houston requests admission to Union North = opposed to addition of more slave territory Why? Texas if admitted could be made into as many as 4 or 5 states, particularly SLAVE states This would upset balance between free & slave in Congress
Texas not admitted yet; looks to Britain for help!!! President John Tyler (slaveowner) sees chance to annex this HUGE territory slipping away! * Tyler works for annexation, but doesnt get 2/3 vote for approval
The election of 1844: Texas becomes an issue! * The candidates: Henry Clay = tried to avoid issue of annexation James K Polk = openly in favor of expansion & manifest destiny US should annex Texas & California Demanded total American control of the Oregon Territory: Fifty-four forty or fight! James K. Polk wins!
Texas is annexed Lame-duck means: OUTGOING PRESIDENT; POLICIES ARE NOT REALLY THE FOCUS ANYMORE Lame-duck President Tyler still works to annex Texas Persuades Congress to annex Texas using a joint resolution of Congress required only a simple majority (50%=1) Mexicos reaction--> fury! Anger! War is coming!!!!
In class assignment: What were the causes and results of this conflict?
The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 * Attempt to avoid war John Slidell sent to Mexico offers to purchase Texas Mexico refuses! * Mexico says TEXAS BELONGS TO US! * Attempt to avoid war John Slidell sent to Mexico offers to purchase Texas Mexico refuses! * Mexico says TEXAS BELONGS TO US! John Slidell
President Polk prepares for war * War with Mexico seems unavoidable: Pres. Polk doesnt want war with GB AND MEXICO compromises with GB over US- Canada Boundary now, it will be the 49 th parallel instead of 5440 Orders US troops into disputed area between Texas and Mexico
Why does Polk negotiate with GB but seems ready to fight Mexico? * Mexico is a weaker enemy US more assured of success
MeanwhileCalifornia tries to follow the Texas example revolt in 1845 The Bear Flag Republic, then ask for admission to the Union
President Polk asks for a declaration of war * But North & South deeply divided over war! WHY? Wilmot Proviso Norths plan for NO SLAVERY in territory that U.S. wins from Mexican War does not pass slavery issue not solved
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 * Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. * Mexico gave the U. S. California to New Mexico The Mexican Cession. * Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. * Mexico gave the U. S. California to New Mexico The Mexican Cession. The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
The Mexican Cession
Results of the Mexican War? 1)THINK: WHAT WILL BE A KEY ISSUE FOR THE NEXT DECADE JUST BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR? Would slavery be allowed into these new territories? 2) Mexican-American War marks a turning point in relations between the US and all of Latin America 1)THINK: WHAT WILL BE A KEY ISSUE FOR THE NEXT DECADE JUST BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR? Would slavery be allowed into these new territories? 2) Mexican-American War marks a turning point in relations between the US and all of Latin America