Manifest Destiny 1840s. Manifest Destiny  First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.  What does it mean? The belief that it was a God-given

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Text of Manifest Destiny 1840s. Manifest Destiny  First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in...

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  • Manifest Destiny 1840s
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  • Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in 1845. What does it mean? The belief that it was a God-given right to expand west for Americans.
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  • Overland Immigration to the West 1840 - 1860 more than 250,000 people travel west!!
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  • Who and Why go West? * Southerners -->new land for cotton * Mormons -->escape persecution-->Great Salt Lake * Americans--cheap land and gold-- >California (1849) * Oregon Fever = Americans establish farms on fertile land
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  • Trails Westward
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  • But American expansion is not without its problems - Expansion will bring about disputes both within the US & with our foreign neighbors
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  • Conflict with Great Britain Boundary line between Maine & British- controlled Canada was unclear * Dispute w/ GB ends with = The Webster- Ashburton Treaty
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  • The Oregon Dispute Both the US & GB claimed Oregon Treaty of 1818 = US and GB would have control of Oregon until issue could be resolved permanently
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  • American settlement Mexico gains independence from Spain invites American settlers to TEJAS to develop territory 1 st American settlers successfully led by Stephen Austin * By 1830, Americans outnumber Mexicans in Tejas by 3 to 1!
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  • Friction between American settlers & Mexican government: * When . new rules to tighten Mexican control of Tejas: Ban further American immigration 1829 Mexico abolished slavery Americans (plantation owners) reaction--> --refused to follow these new regulations Land hungry American southerners continued to stream into Tejas
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  • Road to Texas Independence General Santa Ana becomes dictator: abolished local self-rule! revolts break out across Mexico * Americans under Sam Houston declare Texas to be independent (1836)
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  • Texas Declaration of Independence
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  • The Republic of Texas
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  • Remember the Alamo!
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  • Texas Independence * Alamo 1836 Americans defeated * Goliad Americans defeated again! Santa Anas soldiers execute any prisoners * San Jacinto Mexican defeat; Santa Ana captured & forced to recognize Texan independence * Grants Texas all land north of the Rio Grande River * BUT: Mexican govt still considers Texas a MEXICAN TERRITORY
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  • Texas requests admission to Union Newly independent Texas faced financial problems Texas president Sam Houston requests admission to Union North = opposed to addition of more slave territory Why? Texas if admitted could be made into as many as 4 or 5 states, particularly SLAVE states This would upset balance between free & slave in Congress
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  • Texas not admitted yet; looks to Britain for help!!! President John Tyler (slaveowner) sees chance to annex this HUGE territory slipping away! * Tyler works for annexation, but doesnt get 2/3 vote for approval
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  • The election of 1844: Texas becomes an issue! * The candidates: Henry Clay = tried to avoid issue of annexation James K Polk = openly in favor of expansion & manifest destiny US should annex Texas & California Demanded total American control of the Oregon Territory: Fifty-four forty or fight! James K. Polk wins!
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  • Texas is annexed Lame-duck means: OUTGOING PRESIDENT; POLICIES ARE NOT REALLY THE FOCUS ANYMORE Lame-duck President Tyler still works to annex Texas Persuades Congress to annex Texas using a joint resolution of Congress required only a simple majority (50%=1) Mexicos reaction--> fury! Anger! War is coming!!!!
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  • In class assignment: What were the causes and results of this conflict?
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  • The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 * Attempt to avoid war John Slidell sent to Mexico offers to purchase Texas Mexico refuses! * Mexico says TEXAS BELONGS TO US! * Attempt to avoid war John Slidell sent to Mexico offers to purchase Texas Mexico refuses! * Mexico says TEXAS BELONGS TO US! John Slidell
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  • President Polk prepares for war * War with Mexico seems unavoidable: Pres. Polk doesnt want war with GB AND MEXICO compromises with GB over US- Canada Boundary now, it will be the 49 th parallel instead of 5440 Orders US troops into disputed area between Texas and Mexico
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  • Why does Polk negotiate with GB but seems ready to fight Mexico? * Mexico is a weaker enemy US more assured of success
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  • MeanwhileCalifornia tries to follow the Texas example revolt in 1845 The Bear Flag Republic, then ask for admission to the Union
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  • President Polk asks for a declaration of war * But North & South deeply divided over war! WHY? Wilmot Proviso Norths plan for NO SLAVERY in territory that U.S. wins from Mexican War does not pass slavery issue not solved
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  • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 * Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. * Mexico gave the U. S. California to New Mexico The Mexican Cession. * Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. * Mexico gave the U. S. California to New Mexico The Mexican Cession. The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
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  • The Mexican Cession
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  • Results of the Mexican War? 1)THINK: WHAT WILL BE A KEY ISSUE FOR THE NEXT DECADE JUST BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR? Would slavery be allowed into these new territories? 2) Mexican-American War marks a turning point in relations between the US and all of Latin America 1)THINK: WHAT WILL BE A KEY ISSUE FOR THE NEXT DECADE JUST BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR? Would slavery be allowed into these new territories? 2) Mexican-American War marks a turning point in relations between the US and all of Latin America