Manifest Destiny

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  • 1. Manifest Destiny
    US Westward Expansion

2. Manifest Destiny
Popularized by newspaper editor, John L. Sullivan
Expression of Americans unique mission
Belief in America as the vessel of the progress of civilization
3. Manifest Destiny
a combination of idealism and racism
took hold in the U.S. during the mid-19th C.
drove Americans to expand their nation across the North American continent
4. James K. Polk
Young Hickory
Embodied the concept of Manifest Destiny
US grew into a continental nation under JKP
5. Results
Territories Gained
Texas (annexed 1845)
Oregon Country (compromise of 1846)
Mexican Territory (annexed 1848)
Away, away with all these cobweb tissues of rights of discovery, exploration, settlement, contiguity.Our claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self government entrusted to us. It is a right such as of the tree to space of air and earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and growth.It is in our future more than our past, or in the past history of Spanish exploration or French colonial rights, that our True Title is to be found. Oregon can never be to England anything but a mere hunting ground for furs and peltriesIn our hands it must fast fill in with a population destined to establish a noble young empire
7. 8. Oregon Trail
9. Oregon Trail
More than a pathway to Oregon the only practical corridor to entire western US
Exceptionally difficult
2,000 miles
1 in 10 died
Many walked entirety in bare feet
Cholera, poor sanitation & accidental gunshots were top causes of death (NOT Native Americans)
10. The Great Migration
1843 began massive move
Westward wagon train
Btwn. 1843-1869, over million people migrated west
Some to Oregon (farmland)
Others to California (1849 Gold Rush)
Died down in 1869 when transcontinental railroad was completed
11. 12. US Mexican War
May 13, 1846 -Polk signed a declaration of war against Mexico
Hoped to:
secure the border of Texas
gain the commercially valuable territories of California and New Mexico
13. 14. US Mexican War
Polks 3-Part Strategy
Ordered Navy to blockade Mexicos coastlines
Zachary Taylors army was to push into Northeast Mexico
A second army would march west to occupy New Mexico & California
If Mexico would not sell, then Polk would take by force
15. Kearnys Army of the West
U.S. Colonel Stephen Kearny
30 years military experience in the western plains
Mission: to conquer the western half of North America
16. Army of the West
1600+ soldiers headed west along Santa Fe Trail
Marched 900 miles from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe
Once NM was occupied, they were to march another 1,000 miles to San Diego
Video clip
17. Antiwar Factions
Against territorial expansion fear of expanding slavery
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmot (PA)
Attached to funding for war
Required a no slavery agreement in any new territory
Defeated (passed in HOR, defeated in Senate)
18. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended US-Mexican War (Mexico surrendered)
Negotiated by (US reps only)
Nicholas Trist, chief clerk State Dept.
Gen. Winfield Scott, representative of Polk
Relinquished all claims to Texas
Recognized Rio Grande as Southern boundary of US
Mexico ceded to the US Upper California & New Mexico (known as the Mexican Cession)
Includes present-day AZ, NM, parts of UT, NV & CO
19. 20. Consequences of War
13,000 American lives
Long-lasting tensions with Mexico
Training ground for Civil War (incl. Robert E. Lee & Ulysses Grant)
21. Simulation Activity
Life on the Oregon Trail.