2. Manifest Destiny Popularized by newspaper editor, John L. Sullivan Expression of Americans unique mission Belief in America as the vessel of the progress of civilization 3. Manifest Destiny a combination of idealism and racism took hold in the U.S. during the mid-19th C. drove Americans to expand their nation across the North American continent 4. James K. Polk 1845-1849 Young Hickory Embodied the concept of Manifest Destiny US grew into a continental nation under JKP 5. Results Territories Gained Texas (annexed 1845) Oregon Country (compromise of 1846) Mexican Territory (annexed 1848) 6. Away, away with all these cobweb tissues of rights of discovery, exploration, settlement, contiguity.Our claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self government entrusted to us. It is a right such as of the tree to space of air and earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and growth.It is in our future more than our past, or in the past history of Spanish exploration or French colonial rights, that our True Title is to be found. Oregon can never be to England anything but a mere hunting ground for furs and peltriesIn our hands it must fast fill in with a population destined to establish a noble young empire 7. 8. Oregon Trail 9. Oregon Trail More than a pathway to Oregon the only practical corridor to entire western US Exceptionally difficult 2,000 miles 1 in 10 died Many walked entirety in bare feet Cholera, poor sanitation & accidental gunshots were top causes of death (NOT Native Americans) 10. The Great Migration 1843 began massive move Westward wagon train Btwn. 1843-1869, over million people migrated west Some to Oregon (farmland) Others to California (1849 Gold Rush) Died down in 1869 when transcontinental railroad was completed 11. 12. US Mexican War May 13, 1846 -Polk signed a declaration of war against Mexico Hoped to: secure the border of Texas gain the commercially valuable territories of California and New Mexico 13. 14. US Mexican War Polks 3-Part Strategy Ordered Navy to blockade Mexicos coastlines Zachary Taylors army was to push into Northeast Mexico A second army would march west to occupy New Mexico & California If Mexico would not sell, then Polk would take by force 15. Kearnys Army of the West U.S. Colonel Stephen Kearny 30 years military experience in the western plains Mission: to conquer the western half of North America 16. Army of the West 1600+ soldiers headed west along Santa Fe Trail Marched 900 miles from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe Once NM was occupied, they were to march another 1,000 miles to San Diego Video clip 17. Antiwar Factions Against territorial expansion fear of expanding slavery Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot (PA) Attached to funding for war Required a no slavery agreement in any new territory Defeated (passed in HOR, defeated in Senate) 18. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Ended US-Mexican War (Mexico surrendered) Negotiated by (US reps only) Nicholas Trist, chief clerk State Dept. Gen. Winfield Scott, representative of Polk Terms Relinquished all claims to Texas Recognized Rio Grande as Southern boundary of US Mexico ceded to the US Upper California & New Mexico (known as the Mexican Cession) Includes present-day AZ, NM, parts of UT, NV & CO 19. 20. Consequences of War 13,000 American lives Long-lasting tensions with Mexico Training ground for Civil War (incl. Robert E. Lee & Ulysses Grant) 21. Simulation Activity Life on the Oregon Trail.