Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860New intellectual and religious movements.Social reforms.Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization.Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions.Increase in American nationalism.Further westward expansion.
Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
3 Themes of Manifest Destinythe virtue of the American people and their institutions; the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; and the destiny under God to accomplish this work.
Implications of Manifest DestinyAnd that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us. John L. OSullivan
Advice on the Prairie" by William T. Ranney 1853
John Gasts American Progress
American Progress by John Gast, 1872
The Promised Land--The Grayson Family, 1850. William S. JewettThe Grayson family presents us with a scene of domestic bliss, the wide open and above all, empty space away to the West. The light calling to the family to seek out new lands.
Manifest Destiny by W. M. Cary
The Pony Express Between April, 1860 and Nov., 1861. Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA. Took 10 days. Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line.
Aroostook War, 1839 The only war ever declared by a state. Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the war. General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842
Movement to the Far WestAmerican settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840sSettlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England
Borderlands of the 1830s1842--Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary Americans begin settling inOregon territory (joint U.S., English claim)New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico) California (owned by Mexico)
Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century
The Texas Revolution1820s--Americans move into Texas"Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule1829--Mexico tries abolishing slavery1835--armed rebellion breaks out
Texas Declaration of Independence
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836Sam Houston (1793-1863)Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
Remember the Alamo!
Davey Crocketts Last Stand
The Battle of the AlamoGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
The Goliad Affair: Mexican forces executed 365 Texan prisoners who had surrendered. Several weeks after the surrender of the Alamo, General Jos Urrea engaged a force of Texans under the command of Colonel James W. Fannin at the small town of Goliad. Surrounded and outnumbered, Fannin surrendered in the belief that he and his men would be afforded the recognized rights of prisoners of war. Santa Anna, however, ordered Nicols de la Portilla to execute the prisoners, which he promptly did despite some moral misgiving. All 365 prisoners were executed.
Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna
San Jacinto: Santa Annas Surrender
The Republic of Texas
The Republic of TexasMarch, 1836--Texans declare independenceApril, 1836--Santa Anna defeated at San JacintoMay, 1836--Santa Annas treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates)Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlersAnnexation to U.S. refused by Jackson
Trails of Trade and SettlementSanta Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexicos war with TexasOregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon countryOregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation
The Mormon Trek: Westward FlightChurch of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity Mormons persecuted for unorthodoxyFlee New York for Nauvoo, IllinoisMurder of Joseph Smith prompts resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah
The Mormons Trek: Mormons in Utah1847--State of Deseret establishedDesert transformed into farmlandMormons at first resist U.S. governance1857--Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah
Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.
The Oregon Trail Albert Bierstadt, 1869
The Doomed Donner PartyApril, 1846 April, 1847
The Doomed Donner PartyJames Reed & Wife Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California!CANNIBALISM ! !
Tyler and Texas1841--John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrisons deathTyler breaks with Whigs1844--Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issueSenate refuses to ratifyTyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay
The Triumph of Polk and AnnexationDemocrats nominate James K. PolkPolk runs on expansionist platformannexation of Texas for Southern voteU.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern votePolk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansionTexas annexed before Polk inaugurated
James Knox Polk: Young Hickory?
James G. Birney and The Liberty Party: Decisive?
Election of 1844
The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny"Manifest destiny" first used in 1845God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become strongerAmericans make new territories free and democraticgrowing American population needs landLimits to American expansion undefined
Polk and the Oregon Question1846--Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation England prepares for war, proposes division of the area Senate approves division of Oregon along 49o north latitude, Treaty of 1846U.S. gains ownership of Puget SoundNorth condemned Polk for division
Northwest Boundary Dispute
The Oregon Dispute: 54 40 or Fight! By the mid-1840s, Oregon Fever was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 1846.
The Bear Flag RepublicJohn C. FrmontThe Revolt June 14, 1845
Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American WarWidespread call for annexation of newly-settled landsManifest Destiny a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada
The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would buy California at any price.John Slidell
Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
War, Expansion, and Slavery,1846-1850War with Mexico, 1846-18481. Polks Expansionist Program2. American Military Successes
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
War with MexicoMay 13, 1846--War on Mexico declared General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern MexicoColonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frmont in taking California by early 1847September, 1847--General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City
Settlement of the Mexican-American WarFebruary, 1848--Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Rio Grande becomes southern borderNew Mexico, California ceded to U.S.Mexican War politically contentiousWhigs opposeNortherners see as Slave Power expansion
The Mexican-American War
General Zachary Taylor at Palo AltoOld Rough and Ready
The Bombardment of Vera Cruz
General Scott Enters Mexico CityOld Fuss and Feathers
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000