Manifest Destiny

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Manifest Destiny. America Claims a Continent. Pre-European Native People of Texas. Spanish Texas. Of all Spanish provinces New Spain was the largest stretching from Mexico to Oregon, the southern coast of North American including parts of South Carolina and Georgia, and the Caribbean Islands. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Manifest Destiny

  • Manifest DestinyAmericaClaims a Continent

  • Pre-EuropeanNative People of Texas

  • Spanish TexasOf all Spanish provinces New Spain was the largest stretching from Mexico to Oregon, the southern coast of North American including parts of South Carolina and Georgia, and the Caribbean Islands.Characteristics of Spanish Colonization:Rabid Exploitation____________________ __________Native PopulationHarsh treatmentSwept aside, enslaved or eradicatedImposed a new religion Roman CatholicismTaught native population of oppression by Egyptians, Romans, etc.Lauded attempts by rebels to cast of the chains of oppressionIsrael against PharaohHebrews against Herod

  • Spanish Texas1680 Pueblo RevoltSpanish forced to retreat from __________Establish a more compact line along the Rio Grande including __________French trading and exploration1670's La Salle and the French1716 St. Denis in East Texas1772 New Regulations for the Presidios1800 Settlements two roadsSettlementsSan Antonio de BexarLa Bahia del Espiritu Santo (Goliad)NacogdochesRoadsEl Camino Real (Old Spanish Trail [OST])Atascosito Road

  • Spanish Texas

  • Spanish TexasColonizing TexasSafety in numbers but no numbers without guarantee of safety1749 Apaches and Spanish agree to dtente first attempt to settle Texas by colonists rather than by soldiers and priests. Ranches and irrigated farms along the San Antonio River expand in the 1750s.Failure:AllegedlyInhospitable nature of the Great Plains and piney woods of East TexasReasons:____________________Government PoliciesAdvantages to foreign rivalsMissions retarded civilian __________ growth

  • Spanish TexasDecline of the Spanish in New SpainClass ConflictPenisulares (from Iberia) and Criollos (Spanish blood born in North America.MestizoIndianSpain made one last attempt to populate Texas in 1803 but it came to naught because of __________ PoliticsPlanned to import several thousand settlers in 1804When that plan failed, local officials turned to Indians from the United StatesEuropean PoliticsNapoleon in Europe, 1808-1814French control of SpainConfusion in New Spain: peninsulares remain loyal to Spain; criollos form new colonial governmentCriollos outnumber peninsulares 10-1; peninsulares depose criollos governor which angers criollos

  • Spanish TexasRebellion and Revolution, 1810-1820Hidalgos rebellion of 1810Juan Bautista de las Casas: 1811 led revolt in Texas (Bexar)Subdeacon Juan Manuel Sambrano: 1811 counter-revolt agains de las CasasGutirrez de Lara & Augustus Magee: 1811-1814 support from Orleans Territory: capture Nacogdoches and move to San Antonio where they are defeated at the battle of the Medina River 18 August 1814Conservative rebellion on 1820

  • Spanish & Mexican TexasConstitution of 1812 restored by Ferdinand VII hoping to bring __________ and calmRevolutionaries remain active - Vicente GuerreroPlan de Iguala - 24 February 1821Called for an independent Mexico with __________ ___________________ of the Catholic faith without toleration for other and rights and properties of the clergyEquality of Peninsulares and American CriollosWith Spain itself turning to a constitutional monarchy, Agustn de Inturbide and Vincente Suerrero sign the Plan de IgualaPlan de Iguala receives widespread support and the viceroy signs the Treaty of CrdobaTreaty of Cordova - 24 August 1821Older and inactive revolutionariesNew criollo chieftains formed since the death of MorelosOfficers of the royal governmentCatholic church and supportersWith Mexican independence, Spanish Texas becomes Mexican Texas

  • Mexican TexasImmediately broke into two factions by late 1823:__________ (states rights Jeffersonians of the early US)__________ (strong central government Federalists of the early US)7 May 1824 the states of Coahuila and Texas combined to form Coahuila y TexasJos Erasmo Segun speaking for most Tejanos __________Segun is out voted by the more populous Coahuilans18 August 1824 National Colonization LawFederal Law left most details of colonization to the __________Two restrictions:Foreigners must settle more than 30 miles from the coastForeigners must settle more than 30 miles from an international border03 October 1824 Constitution of 1824Very much like but in many respects much more _______ than the United States ConstitutionEmphasis on state rather than central power results in strong appeal to ______ in Texas

  • Colonizing TexasEmpresarios:Austin FamilyMosesStephen F.The Old Three Hundred2nd, 3rd and 4th GrantsOthersDewittDeLeonZavalaMilamExeter & Williams

    Population increase:1820 total population about 2,0001834 approximately 20,000 Anglos

  • Colonizing TexasSlaveryEast Texas becomes an extension of the old south Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, GeorgiaNorth Texas attracts immigrants from the upper south Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, VirginiaCentral Texas becomes a mixture of both including many Tejanos

  • Many slaveowners moved to Texas bringing slaves with them.Mexican tradition dating from 1813 stated slavery is forbidden forever but Mexico lacked the means to enforce it in TexasAs Mexico formed national and state constitution from 1821 to 1827 the official stance was frequently __________ and __________Colonization Law of 1823 for Austins first colonyPermitted SlaveryCalled for emancipation of slaves born in Texas at age 14National Congress of 1824Prohibited importation of slaves as merchandiseDid not address slaves as propertyColonization Law of 1824 and Constitution of 1824 remain neutral concerning slaveryColonizing TexasSlavery

  • Colonizing TexasSlaveryState Constitution of Coahuila y TexasArticle 13 From and after the promulgation of the Constitution in the capital of each district, no one shall be born a slave in the state, and after six months the introduction of slave under any pretext shall not be permitted.Arguments in favor of slavery contended that settlers could not be attracted unless slavery was protectedJos Antonio Navarro introduced a bill in the state legislature allowing settlers to free their slaves and sign them to ___ ___ indentured service contracts noting a lack of agricultural workers the bill is passed in 1828

  • Colonizing TexasSlavery16 September 1829 President Vicente Guerrero emancipates all slaves in the Republic of Mexico in honor of Mexicos __________ __________Ramn Mzquiz the political chief at San Antonio appeals for Texas __________Governor of Coahuila y Texas approves the __________ an forwards it to President Guerrero exempts Texas from emancipation on 2 December

  • Early Symptoms of RebellionMier y TernInspection tour of Texas 1828-1829Evidence of Mexicos increasingly precarious hold on TexasIf the colonization contracts of Texas by North Americans are not suspended, and if the conditions of the establishments are not watched, it is necessary to say that the province is already definitely delivered to the foreigners.Attempted Spanish at Tampico temporarily disrupts Mexican response to Terns report

  • Law of 6 April 1830Prohibited _____________ from the United StatesEnded all ______________ contracts not fulfilledOutlawed bringing slaves into Mexico under any guiseCalled for the collection of customs duties on imports and exports (from which Texas settlers had been exempt since an act of 29 September 1823.Mexican official see these steps as necessary to ensure continued control of their province__________ in Texas considered it an insult with potentially disastrous consequences__________ disagreed with the government intent on developing their own province the Tejanos did not approve of ending immigration from the United StatesWhile it turned the Anglos (Texians) against the national government of Mexico it did not cause serious problems between the __________ and the __________Early Symptoms of Rebellion

  • Early Symptoms of RebellionThe Representacion dirijida por el ilustre ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de Bexar.This document written between 6 and 19 December 1832 by the ayuntamiento of San Antonio was the only public statement of major issues affecting Texas and the Tejanos misgivings about the centralist government.Issues:neglect by the national and state __________prohibition against __________ by North Americansphysical __________ between the citizens of Texas and Saltillolack of a local __________lack of ____________________ military presence__________ rule within TexasAfter being prepared by forty-nine Bejarenos seven members signed the document and it was sent to Goliad, Gonzales, Nacogdoches and San Felipe for endorsement. These Tejanos were seeking their rights and privileges as Mexican citizens: something very akin to what the citizens of the thirteen English North American colonies had done prior to 1775.

  • General Antonio Lopez de Santa AnnaPresident of Mexico eleven times never more than 2 yearsOpportunistOriginally a Federalist many colonists supported Santa Anna Texians and Tejanos supported his move during and after the Anahuac/Velasco incident of 18323 January 1833 took over national government from Bustamente: elected president 3 months later by Mexican statesAllowed his vice president Gmez Faras to introduce liberal reforms for two yearsOnce Santa Anna determines that the military and religious leaders are against liberal reforms of Faras, Santa Anna becomes a centralist, wins the support of the military and clergy and acquires absolute power in April 1835Discharged the existing congress, refilling it with centralists subject to himAbolished the Constitution of 1824 which he formerly supported and championedEradicated the states replacing them with departments run by officials whom he appointedBy October 1835, Santa Anna is seen as all-powerful

  • Rebellion in MexicoOn April 12, 1834, the J