Manifest Destiny and the Mexican War.ppt Manifest Destiny and the U.S.-Mexican War Manifest Destiny

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  • 2/27/2014


    Manifest Destiny and

    the U.S.-Mexican War

    Manifest Destiny � Term originated by

    newspaper editor John O’Sullivan in 1845

    � Merging of political and economic goals

    � Many people supported expansion through any means necessary

    Election of 1844 � James K. Polk - Democrat

    � “Dark horse” candidate

    � Congressman from Tennessee

    � Supported manifest destiny

    � Occupy Oregon to the 54° 40’ parallel

    � Annex Texas as a slave state

    One of Polk’s campaign slogans – “Fifty-four

    forty or fight!”

    Oregon Territory

    � Territory split at the 49th parallel to avoid war with Great Britain

    � Used the existing border and drew it to the Pacific Ocean

    Texas Annexation � Northerners opposed

    annexation of Texas

    � Annexation by a joint- resolution passed in the U.S. Congress in Dec. 1845

    � Border dispute ensues

    � U.S. – Rio Grande River

    � Mexico – Nueces River

  • 2/27/2014


    Relations with Mexico � Polk sent diplomat John

    Slidell to Mexico to negotiate � Offered $25 million for

    California, the New Mexico territory, & Rio Grande as the Texas border

    � President of Mexico refused and broke off diplomatic relations

    � General Zachary Taylor order to march beyond the Nueces River � Camped at the Rio Grande

    � In April 1846, Mexican soldiers crossed the Rio Grande River & attacked

    Polk’s Appeal to Congress � Polk and his cabinet saw the

    attack as an act of war � “…invaded our country and shed

    American blood on American soil.”

    � Congress declared war on May 11, 1846

    � Northerners called it American aggression against a weaker neighbor to extend slavery

    � Illinois congressman Lincoln claimed the spot was clearly in Mexico

    � Gen. Taylor invaded northern Mexico

    � General Winfield Scott invaded Mexico City from the Gulf of Mexico

    War in the West � Gen. Stephen

    Kearny marched west and captured Santa Fe, and supported revolt in California

    � John C. Fremont leads the Bear Flag Revolt by Americans in California

    Treaty of Guadalupe


    � End of the war � Signed at Basilica of

    Guadalupe at Villa Hidalgo

    � Rio Grande is the southern border of the U.S. � Mexico recognized Texas as

    part of the U.S.

    � Paid $15 million for California and New Mexico territory

  • 2/27/2014


    Because of Polk’s failing health and because he had accomplished

    all he wanted in one term, he did not seek reelection

    Anti-slavery Democrats

    formed this party

    Completion of Manifest Destiny

    � Southerners desired a flat land for a southern transcontinental railroad � Wanted to link

    southern land to the Pacific

    � Gadsden Purchase � In 1853, purchased

    from Mexico for $10 million dollars