Manifest DestinyChapter 1515.1 IntroManifest Destiny:obvious fate
John OSullivan wrote in a newspaper in 1845:manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent.
15.2: Louisiana PurchaseAmericas first opportunity to expand was past the Mississippi RiverBy 1800: thousands of farmers were settling new landTo get their crops to markets, they would float them down the Mississippi River to New Orleans
Once the crops got to New Orleans: ships to Europe or the East Coast
15.2: LouisianaAcross the Mississippi River was an area that was unexplored and huge!Louisiana Territory: N-S: Canada down to Texas!E-W: Mississippi River-Rocky Mtns
1st claimed by: France2nd: Spain after the French and Indian War3rd: Napoleon convinced Spain to return it to France(1800)
15.2: Louisiana Purchase
15.2: LouisianaNapoleon: FrenchPlans for the land: settle it with thousands of French farmersFarmers would raise food for the slaves who were French, working in the Caribbean.This alarmed American farmers!New Orleans, a port city, was part of Louisiana(French rule)2nd largest in the worldhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UjmqXkramMIf Napoleon closes the port to American goods, farmers would have no way to get their crops to the market!
15.2: A Noble BargainPresident: Jefferson1803: sent James Monroe to France Offer to buy New Orleans for $7.5 million!Napoleon had changed his mind
A few years earlier: slave revolt in modern day HaitiFrench Caribbean colonyFormer slaves defeated the French French were trying to take the colony backResult: Napoleon no longer needed LouisianaHaitian Revolution: (12 min)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5A_o-nU5s2U
15.2: A Noble BargainFrance and Britain were on the brink of warNapoleon knew he might lose Louisiana to the BritishRather than lose it, he decided to sell it
Napoleon's offer to sell Louisiana stunned JeffersonInstead of just getting a city, he would be getting an area of land the size of what the United States was at that time.April 30, 1803: Monroe signed a treaty for $15 million!https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMh8RCqJf9U15.2: Purchase DebateTo most Americans: Louisiana Purchase looked like the greatest deal in historyDoubled the countrys size2-3 cents per acre!Not all approved:Worried that such a large country would be impossible to governPoliticians in the East thought they would lose powerConvinced Louisiana would be carved into new states and would out vote the eastern states in Congress15.2: Purchase DebateSome said that the Constitution did not state anything about purchasing foreign territorySome said it was unconstitutional!
Late 1803: Senate voted to ratify the Louisiana Purchase treaty.Frontier farmers said:You have secured to us the free navigation of the Mississippi. You have procured an immense and fertile country; all this done without war and bloodshed.15.3: FloridaAfter getting Louisiana, Jefferson wanted more land!!!Florida: colonized by Spain in the late 1500s
1800s: diverse population:Seminole IndiansSpanish ColonistsEnglish TradersRun Away Slaves15.3: Florida1804: Jefferson sent two diplomats to Spain to buy FloridaSpains answer: no deal!Many wanted the US to take over FloridaSlave owners in Georgia were upsetTheir slaves would run over the border to FloridaSeminole Indians would welcome the run away slavesSeminole Indians raid their landSpanish government could do nothing to stop the raids on farms in Georgia
15.3: Andrew Jackson Invades Florida1818: President Monroe sent Andrew Jackson to GeorgiaHe had orders to end the raids by the Seminole Indians and ex slaves
Jackson was told he could chase them back into FloridaHe did not have permission to invade the Spanish ColonyJackson marched into Florida with 1,700 troops.
15.3: Andrew Jackson Invades FloridaJackson, over a few weeks:had captured nearly every military post in the colonyarrested, tried and executed 2 British subjects for stirring up Indian attacksReplaced the Spanish governor with an AmericanLater Jackson said:Sorry I didnt execute the Spanish governor.***Spain demanded that Jackson be called back to Washington and be punished for his illegal invasion.Jackson video: 45 minhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KaxY0iksrtQ
15.3:Govern or Get Out!Fearing war, President Monroe asked his cabinet for adviceMost agreed that he should apologize to Spain and remove Jackson
Secretary of State: John Quincy AdamsConvinced Monroe to send a blunt message to Spain, instead of apologizing.Either govern Florida properly or get out!15.3:Govern or Get Out!Spain feared war, so they got out!1819: Spanish government agreed to give Florida to the USIn exchange, US agreed to pay off $5 million in settlers claims against SpainUS also agreed to honor Spains longtime claim to TexasNot a lot of Americans were happy that Spain would now get to own TexasTexas was worth 10 Florida's!Senate ratified the Florida treaty 2 days after it was signed15.4: Americans Comes to TexasMoses Austin: banker and businessmanDreamed of starting an American colony in Spanish Texas1821: Spanish officials granted Austin a lot of landMoses died that year, so his son Stephen took over his fathers dream!Stephen arrived in Texas, just as Mexico declared its independence from SpainTexas is now part of Mexico!!!15.4: Americans Comes to TexasMexican officials agreed to let Austin to start his colonyUnder some conditions:had to choose only moral and hardworking settlersHad to promise to become Mexican citizens and to join the Catholic church.
Austin agreed to the terms1827: he had attracted 297 familiesSoon known as the Old Three Hundred15.4: Rising TensionsAustins colony was becoming a huge successMany people were flocking to Texas1830: 25,000 Americans in TexasOnly 4,000 TejanosTexans of Mexican decentTensions began to rise between these two groupsAmericans had some complaints:Many were slaveholdersMX outlawed it in 1829Used to governing themselvesResented taking orders from Mexican officialsUnhappy that all official documents had to be in SpanishMost of them were unwilling to learn Spanish15.4: Rising TensionsTejano complaints:Unhappy American settlers had come to Texas illegallyMany of the new immigrants showed little respect for Mexican cultureHad no intention on becoming citizensMexican government:Closed Texas to further American immigrationSent troops to Texas to assert their authority and enforce immigration laws15.4: Texans RebelSome called for a revolutionStephen Austin:Others asked the Mexican government to reopen Texas immigrations and make it a separate Mexican stateThen, Texans could run their own affairs!1833: Austin traveled to MexicoPresented the Texans demand to the new head of the Mexican governmentGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa AnnaDictator in charge of Mexico15.4: Texans RebelSanta Anna didnt want to bargain with AustinThrew him in jail for promoting a rebellion
1835: Austin was released from jailTexans rose up on revoltSanta Anna was determined to crush the rebelsHe marched north with about 6,000 troops
The AlamoLate Feb 1836: most of Santa Annas army reached San Antonio, TXTown was defended by about 180 Texan volunteers and Tejanos
The AlamoAlamo: old missionTexans took it overTexans watched as Santa Anna raised a black flagExpect no mercySanta Anna wanted the Texans to surrenderTexans answer: cannon shot!Santa Annas troops began surrounding the Alamo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dxGZhv4u8Y2:47The AlamoSanta Annas troops began surrounding the AlamoTexans were outnumbered 10 to 1!William Travis and James Bowie were co commanders for the TexansTravis sent messengers to towns in TexasPleaded for reinforcementsVowed to NOT abandon the AlamoReinforcements never came The Alamo12 days: Mexicans pounded the Alamo with cannonballsMarch 6: Santa Anna gave orders to storm the fortTexans tried to get Santa Anna and his troops to retreat with constant rifle fire90 minute battle!By the end of the day, every one of the Alamos defenders was deadSanta Annas orders: execute everyone on the spot who is still alive!Texas Wins Its IndependenceSam Houston: commander of the Texan Revolutionary ArmySanta Anna and his army were pushing on thru TexasHouston decided to lure Santa Anna and his army deeper into TexasHe was hoping to make it harder for him to get supplies
Texas Wins Its IndependenceApril: Santa Anna caught up with Houston near the San Jacinto RiverSanta Anna expected the Texans to attack at dawn, so he kept his troops up all night longAn attack didnt happen!The weary troops relaxedSanta Anna even went to his tent to take a nap!
Texas Wins Its IndependenceLater on in the afternoon: Houston and his troops staged a surprise attackYelling: Remember the AlamoSanta Anna fled, but he was captured the next dayIn exchange for his(Santa Anna) freedom, he ordered all remaining troops out of TexasTexans had won their independence!To Annex Texas or Not?Texas is now an independent country: Lone Star RepublicSingle star on its flagMost Texans were Americans and they wanted to become part of the United States
To Annex Texas or Not?Texas remained independent for 10 yearsPeople in the US were divided over whether to annex Texas or notAnnex: to add territory to a country
Southerners: eager to add another slave stateNortherners: opposed slavery and wanted to keep Texas out!Others: feared that it would lead to a war with Mexico
To Annex Texas or Not?James Polk is now presidentStrong believer in Manifest DestinyCongress voted to annex Texas1845: Texas became the 28th state
15.5: Oregon CountryOregon Country: Rocky Mountains to the Pacific OceanNorth: Russian AlaskaSouth: Spanish California and New Mexico1819: Oregon was claimed by 4 nations:Rus