MANIFEST DESTINYChapter 15
Manifest DestinyObvious FateJohn OSullivan, a newspaper editor first used the expression and argued that Americans had the divine right to settle this area and make it their own.The idea caught on and Americans believed that it was Gods plan to expand the idea of liberty.Louisiana TerritoryNapoleon wanted to colonize the America through the Louisiana Territory but changed his mind, so he decides to sell the territory to the United States. Since the Constitution does not specifically give the President the power to acquire land, Jefferson, an Anti-Federalist, was philosophically torn. Jefferson would end up using the Elastic Clause that he despised. The US purchased the territory for $15 million dollars. The U.S. doubled its size and acquired 800,000 square miles for three cents per acreThe U.S. received the western half of the richest river valley in the worldWe were guaranteed the Mississippi waterway to the Gulf of Mexico included New Orleans
FloridaWhite landowners in Georgia wanted the US to acquire Florida from Spain.Slave owners were tired of their slaves running away to Florida.Landowners were tired of Seminole raids on their property.In 1804, Jefferson sent diplomats to Spain to purchase Florida. They said, NO.
FloridaSpain loses its control of Florida and the raids get worse.In 1818, President Monroe sends Andrew Jackson to Georgia to end the raids.Jackson was supposed to chase the Seminoles back into Florida but not invade the Spanish colony.But this is Old Hickory, after all
FloridaAnd he not only chases them to Florida, but invades Florida.Captures military postsArrests, tries, and executes two British subjects that were stirring up Indian attacks. Replaces the Spanish governor with an American.FloridaMost want Jackson punished for disobeying orders, but John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State offers an alternative.Govern or Get OutSpain agrees to give up the land if the US pays off $5 million in settlers claims against Spain.TexasMuch of Texas was well suited for growing cotton, which made it valuable land for many Americans.Once Texas gained its independence, it became the Lone Star Republic, but most Texans wanted to become part of the United States.Texas remained independent for 10 years.
TexasElection of 1844The hot topic of the election was whether or not to annex Texas.Annex to add territory to a countryCandidatesHenry Clay (yes, again!)Annexation and war with Mexico are identicalJames PolkStrong believer in manifest destiny and eager to annex Texas.TexasJames Polk wins the election and shortly after, in 1845, Texas is admitted as the 28th state.
Mexican American WarPolks next plan was to expand to California and New Mexico.Mexico saw the annexation of Texas as an act of war and refuses to meet with the US, plus they disagreed on where the borders should be.Mexican American WarApril 25, 1846, Mexican soldiers fire on US troops along the Rio Grande.Two days later, Congress declares war on Mexico.US takes control of New Mexico and then California, and then move on to Mexico.They finally take Mexico City in September, 1847.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Early 1848
Mexico agrees to give up Texas Mexican CessionCaliforniaNevadaUtahArizonaNew MexicoParts of Colorado and Wyoming
Gadsden Purchase1853US acquires more land from MexicoJames Gadsden arranges purchase of land south of Mexican Cession for $10 million.Creates present day borderFlat land that serves as good railroad route
Oregon Country1819, Oregon is claimed by four different nations:RussiaSpainGreat BritainUSBy 1825, only Great Britain and the US claimed Oregon and agree to a peaceful joint occupation.
Oregon CountryThe US believed that they had a right to Oregon because of Lewis and Clarks expedition.The route they took was far too rugged and dangerous for the average traveler.In 1824, Jedediah Smith found the South Pass. A low flat and much safer way to get through the Rockies.
Oregon CountryOregon Fever hits!Pioneer ParadiseIn 1843, 1000 pioneers headed for Oregon.A year later, twice that many headed to Oregon.
Oregon CountryOregon Fever also plays a role in the 1844 Presidential election. Polk promised to annex all of Oregon Country.Fifty-four forty or FightHes elected, but in the end, no one wants to go to war over the territory.The US negotiates a treaty with Great Britain splitting the territory in half.
Mormon TerritoryReligious persecution forced Mormons to move many timesThey were expelled from the state of Missouri by an "extermination order" from the governor in 1838. Mormons relocated in a swampy area of Illinois that they revamped and named Nauvoo.People in Illinois distrusted the Mormons and their peculiar way of life, and mounting tensions led to the destruction of an anti-Mormon printing press and the mob-incited murder of Joseph Smith.Mormon Pioneers Leave for UtahAfter Smith's murder in 1844 and the revoking of the Nauvoo city's charter allowing citizens to maintain a militia for self-defense in 1845, it became clear to Mormons that they would have to relocate again for their own safety.Between February and September of 1846, virtually all of the Mormons in Nauvoo left for the West.
Mormon TerritorySettling in Salt Lake CityThe Mormon Trail, which overlaps portions of the Oregon Trail and the Reed-Donner Trail, leads from Illinois across the Mississippi River, then through Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, and finally to Utah.1846-1847Mexican American War
1845Texas becomes state
1848Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
ClosingOn the back of your notes, Annotate the drawing by adding a speech or thought bubble for four elements in the painting people, animals, or objects. How might they respond to the question, How justifiable was U.S. expansion in the 1800s?