Manifest Destiny: U.S. Mexican WarChapter 9 Section 4Page 293
Manifest Destiny DefinedTerm first coined by John L. OSullivan in Democratic Review, July 1845Ideological basis for belief:Sincere belief in democracy and republicanismIdealized view of U.S. as model for othersIdeology intertwined with racist and imperialistic ideas about Indians and Mexicans
Concrete Reasons for Manifest DestinyAmericans tempted by free landU.S. stopped at MississippiKnew of California and OregonDevelop trade with Far EastPacific Coast to Far East need baseJealous of Mexicos successFear of Foreign InvasionBritish Claims to Oregon; Mexico in south
Five Examples of early U.S. IdeologyFlorida and the Seminole War - 1818Jackson conquers territory from SpainAdams-Onis Treaty 1819Texas Revolution New Mexico and the Santa Fe TrailOregon: 1818 agree with Britain to leave it Free and open, but by 1840s U.S. changes policy
Jackson at Pensacola, by Beason S. Lossinggy Text
Texas IndependenceTexans again defeated at Battle of GoliadMarch 1, 1836 declared IndependenceElected Sam Houston as PresidentHoustons troops attacked Santa Ana at San Jacinto in April 1836. Routed Santa Ana.Under duress, Santa Ana signs Treaty of VelascoMexican government repudiated treaty and never recognized Texas Independence
Santa Ana Signs Treaty of Velasco
President Houstons Official Residence, 1837To Text
U.S. Annexation of TexasHouston and Texas immediately ask for annexation by U.S.Northern liberals oppose because they fear spread of slavery.Texas remains independent nation until March 1, 1845.Mexico sees annexation as a declaration of War and diplomatically leaves Washington
4 Factors leading to U.S./Mexican WarMexican anger over annexation of TexasDispute over Texas/Mexican borderNueces River or Rio GrandeInstability of Mexican government19 governments in 25 yearsPolk Administrations drive to expand U.S. Polk saw his mandate as creating a coast-to-coast nation
President James Polk
Diplomatic Prelude to War1845 Polk sends Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi. Encamped on Nueces RiverSends John Slidell to negotiate. He offers:$5 million for New Mexico west of Rio Grande$25 million for CaliforniaStrong anti-U.S. sentiment meant that Mexico would not accept offerMarch 1846 Taylor crossed Nueces and war begins
Richard Caton Woodville, News From the Mexican War 1848
Aftermath of BattleU.S. troops waiting in Mexico City. A war defense became a war of ConquestIf it was U.S. manifest destiny to conquer land, were they also to conquer people?Three barriers to the All Mexico planNorthern liberals hated conquestSlavery questionRacism could the U.S. really incorporate all the 8 million Mexican and Indians?
Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoAnnexed half of Mexico to the U.S. (San Antonio)Created Rio Grande as international borderU.S. Paid $15 million to Mexico for territory.1848 irony. Mexicans hear of Gold Rush in California and Treaty on same dayIn 1854 Gadsden Purchase solidifies southern boundary and mineral deposits to U.S.
Critical Thinking QuestionsWhy did Polk favor war with Mexico?Why was public opinion divided over going to war with Mexico?How did the Mexican-American War begin?How did views of the war differ among the nations regions?How did the U.S. gain control of New Mexico and California?What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?What was the significance of the Gadsden Purchase?What role did the war with Mexico play in the election of 1848?