Manifest Destiny: U.S. Mexican War. Manifest Destiny Defined Term first coined by John L. OSullivan in Democratic Review, July 1845 Ideological basis

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Manifest Destiny: U.S. Mexican War Slide 2 Manifest Destiny Defined Term first coined by John L. OSullivan in Democratic Review, July 1845 Ideological basis for belief: Sincere belief in democracy and republicanism Idealized view of U.S. as model for others Ideology intertwined with racist and imperialistic ideas about Indians and Mexicans Slide 3 Concrete Reasons for Manifest Destiny Americans tempted by free land U.S. stopped at Mississippi Knew of California and Oregon Develop trade with Far East Pacific Coast to Far East need base Jealous of Mexicos success Fear of Foreign Invasion British Claims to Oregon; Mexico in south Slide 4 Five Examples of early U.S. Ideology Florida and the Seminole War - 1818Seminole War - 1818 Jackson conquers territory from Spain Adams-Onis Treaty 1819 Texas Revolution Discuss Tuesday New Mexico and the Santa Fe Trail Oregon: 1818 agree with Britain to leave it Free and open, but by 1840s U.S. changes policy Slide 5 Seminole Warrior Slide 6 Jackson at Pensacola, by Beason S. Lossing gy Text Slide 7 Texas Independence Texans again defeated at Battle of Goliad March 1, 1836 declared Independence Elected Sam Houston as PresidentSam Houston Houstons troops attacked Santa Ana at San Jacinto in April 1836. Routed Santa Ana. Under duress, Santa Ana signs Treaty of VelascoSanta Ana signs Treaty of Velasco Mexican government repudiated treaty and never recognized Texas Independence Slide 8 Santa Ana Signs Treaty of Velasco Slide 9 Slide 10 President Houstons Official Residence, 1837 To Text Slide 11 U.S. Annexation of Texas Houston and Texas immediately ask for annexation by U.S. Northern liberals oppose because they fear spread of slavery. Texas remains independent nation until March 1, 1845. Mexico sees annexation as a declaration of War and diplomatically leaves Washington Slide 12 4 Factors leading to U.S./Mexican War Mexican anger over annexation of Texas Dispute over Texas/Mexican border Nueces River or Rio Grande Instability of Mexican government 19 governments in 25 years Polk Administrations drive to expand U.S. Polk Polk saw his mandate as creating a coast-to- coast nation Slide 13 President James Polk Slide 14 Diplomatic Prelude to War 1845 Polk sends Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi. Encamped on Nueces RiverZachary Taylor Sends John Slidell to negotiate. He offers:John Slidell $5 million for New Mexico west of Rio Grande $25 million for California Strong anti-U.S. sentiment meant that Mexico would not accept offer March 1846 Taylor crossed Nueces and war beginswar begins Slide 15 John Slidell Slide 16 Zachary Taylor Slide 17 Richard Caton Woodville, News From the Mexican War 1848 Slide 18 Aftermath of Battle U.S. troops waiting in Mexico City. A war defense became a war of Conquest If it was U.S. manifest destiny to conquer land, were they also to conquer people? Three barriers to the All Mexico plan Northern liberals hated conquest Slavery question Racism could the U.S. really incorporate all the 8 million Mexican and Indians? Slide 19 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Annexed half of Mexico to the U.S. (San Antonio)(San Antonio) Created Rio Grande as international border U.S. Paid $15 million to Mexico for territory. 1848 irony. Mexicans hear of Gold Rush in California and Treaty on same day In 1854 Gadsden Purchase solidifies southern boundary and mineral deposits to U.S. Slide 20