1. WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? 2. UNITY AND SIMPLE OUTLINING 3. COHERENCE FROM TRANSITION SIGNALS 4. COHERENCE FROM LOGICAL ORDER 5. CONCRETE SUPPORT 6. PARAPHASING, SUMMARIZING, AND FOOTNOTING 7. THE ESSAY 8. PATTERNS OF ESSAY ORGANIZATION
A paragraph is a basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. A paragraph : - a topic sentence - supporting sentences - a concluding sentence A topic sentence : (1) is a complete sentence; that is contains a subject, a verb, and (usually) a complement. (2) contains both a topic and a controlling idea. It names the topic and then limits the topic to a specific area to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph. - a topic - a controlling idea
(3) gives only the main idea; therefore, it is the most general statement in the paragraph. It does not give any specific details. - general statement the writer can not tell exactly what the paragraph is going to discuss. - too spesific the writer may not have anything left to write about in the rest of the paragraph.
Position of topic sentence : - the first sentence - the last sentence - concluding sentence
Supporting Sentences develop the topic sentence. They explain the topic sentence by giving reasons. - facts - statistics - quotations A Concluding Sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember.
Two additional elements in a good paragraph : - unity discuss only main idea - coherence is easy to read and understand - logical order - transition signals
UNITY Each paragraph has only one main idea. SUPPORTING SENTENCES Every supporting sentence must be directly related to the main idea,which is stated in the topic sntence. has unity (correct) A paragraph off the topic (incorrect)
Example of Unity. ( has unity) Surviving Cancer Progress is gradually being made in the fight against cancer. In the early 1900s, few cancer victims lived more than five years. In the 1950s, the ratio was one in four. Currently, the ratio is down to one in three. The gain from one in four to one in three represents about 58.000 lived saved each year.
Example of Unity. ( off the topic) Surviving Cancer Progress is gradually being made in the fight against cancer. In the early 1900s, few cancer patients had any hope of long-term survival. But because of advances in medical technology, progress has been made so that currently one in three cancer patients survives. It has been proven that smoking is a direct cause of lung cancer. However, the battle has not been won. Although cures for some forms of cancer have been discovered, other forms of cancer are still increasing. Heart disease is also increasing.
OUTLINE Planning of a paragraph before writing - organize ideas Outline - write more quickly - improve grammar Simple Outlines: - Topic Sentence - Supporting Points (parallel forms) - Concluding Sentence
Example of Simple Paragraph OutliningTopic Sentence : Learning to outline will improve your writin g for three reasons. : A. It will help you organize your ideas. B. It will help you write more parallel form C. It will help you improve your grammar
Concluding Sentence : For three reasons improved organization, speed, and grammar learning to outline is well worth the effeort.
Technololy is making people lazy A. B. C. D. For these facts.......
COHERENCE FROM TRANSITION SIGNALSCoherence hold together ( must be logical and smooth. transition signals ( to show Coherence how one idea related the next ) logical order ( to show how to arrange your sentence )
- words ex : first, second, next, finally, therefore, however - phrases ex : in conclusion, on the other hand, as a result
Transition signals tell the reader : - A similar idea (similarly, moreover, in contrast) - An opposite idea (on the other hand, however, in contrast) - An example ( for example) - A conclusion ( in conclusion)
Types of Transition Signals 1. Sentence connectors ( however, therefore, furthermore, for example, on the other hand, in addition, still, otherwiseindependent cl; sentence connector, independent cl
compound sentence I dislike mushrooms; therefore, I never eat them In a simple sentence : - at the beginning - at the middle - at the end
2. Coordinators ( and, but, yet, or, nor, for so ) join two indepent clauses to form compound sentence. independent cl; coordinator, independent cl compound sentence I dislike mushroom, so I never eat themMushrooms are good for you, but I dislike them
3. Subordinators ( because, after, since, as, although, if, when ) introduce a dependent cl that is joined to an independent cl to form complex sentence. - dependent cl comes first, use a comma dependent clause , independent clause complex sentencebecause I dislike mushroom, I never eat them
- dependent cl comes after, no comma
- dependent cl comes after, no comma independent clause dependent clause complex sentenceI dislike mushrooms although they are good for you - Prepositions and Determiners no special rules for punctuationI dislike mushrooms because of a bad experience I once hadAnother reason I dislike mushrooms is their rubbery consistency
COHERENCE FROM LOGICAL ORDERLogical Order to arrange sentences in logical idea Logical order : - chronological order - order of importance