SyllabusM.C.A. (Sem-IV), Paper-V
Software Project Management
1. Introductiona. What is project?b. What is project Managementc. The role of project Managerd. The project Management Professione. Project life cycle
2. Technology Contexta. A system view of project managementb. Understanding organizationsc. Stakeholder managementd. Project phases and the project life cyclee. The context of information technology projects
3. Introductiona. Developing the project scheduleb. Project management software toolsc. Developing the project budgetd. Finalizing the project schedule and budgete. Monitoring and controlling the projectf. The project communications plang. Project metricsh. Reporting performance and progressi. Information distribution
4. The importance of project risk managementa. Risk management planningb. Common sources of risk on information technology projectsc. Risk identificationd. Qualitative risk analysise. Quantitative risk analysisf. Risk response planningg. Risk monitoring and controlh. Using software to assist in project risk management
5. The importance of project procurement managementa. Planning purchase and acquisitionsb. Planning contractingc. Requesting seller responsesd. Selecting sellerse. Administering the contractf. Closing the contractg. Using software to assist in project managementh. Outsourcing
6. Change management
2a. The nature of changeb. The change management planc. Dealing with resistance and conflict
7. Leadership & Ethics in Projectsa. Project leadershipb. Ethics in projectsc. Multicultural projects
8. Introductiona. Project implementationb. Administrative closurec. Project evaluation
References:1. Information Technology Project Management: Kathy
Schwalbe Thomson Publication.2. Information Technology Project Management providing
measurable organizational value Jack Marchewka WileyIndia.
3. Applied software project management Stellman & GreeneSPD.
4. Software Engineering Project Management by RichardThayer, Edward Yourdon WILEY INDIA.
Unit Structure:1.1 What is a project?
1.1.1 Project Definition1.2 Project Attributes1.3 Project Constraints
1.3.1 Time1.3.2 Cost1.3.3 Scope
1.4 What is Project Management1.4.1 Features of projects1.4.2 Project Classification1.4.3 Project Management Tools and techniques1.4.4 Project Success Factors
1.5 The Role of Project Manager1.5.1 Responsibilities of a Project Manager.
1.6 Project Life Cycle1.6.1 Project Initiation1.6.2 Planning & Design1.6.3 Execution & Controlling1.6.4 Closure
Project management has been practiced since earlycivilization. Until the beginning of twentieth century civil engineeringprojects were actually treated as projects and were generallymanaged by creative architects and engineers. Projectmanagement as a discipline was not accepted. It was in the 1950sthat organizations started to systematically apply projectmanagement tools and techniques to complex projects. As adiscipline, Project Management developed from several fields ofapplication including construction, engineering, and defenseactivity. Two forefathers of project management are commonlyknown: Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and controltechniques who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a projectmanagement tool; and Henri Fayol for his creation of the fivemanagement functions which form the foundation of the body of
4knowledge associated with project and program management. The1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Managementera. Project management became recognized as a distinctdiscipline arising from the management discipline.
1.1 WHAT IS A PROJECT?
All of us have been involved in projects, whether they be ourpersonal projects or in business and industry. Examples of typicalprojects are for example:
Personal projects: obtaining an MCA degree writing a report planning a party planting a garden
Industrial projects: Construction of a building provide electricity to an industrial estate building a bridge designing a new airplane
Projects can be of any size and duration. They can besimple, like planning a party, or complex like launching a spaceshuttle.
1.1.1 Project Definition:
A project can be defined in many ways :
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create aunique product, service, or result. Operations, on the other hand, iswork done in organizations to sustain the business. Projects aredifferent from operations in that they end when their objectiveshave been reached or the project has been terminated.
A project is temporary. A projects duration might be just oneweek or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date.You might not know that end date when the project begins, but itsthere somewhere in the future. Projects are not the same asongoing operations, although the two have a great deal in common.
A project is an endeavor. Resources, such as people andequipment, need to do work. The endeavor is undertaken by ateam or an organization, and therefore projects have a sense of
5being intentional, planned events. Successful projects do nothappen spontaneously; some amount of preparation and planninghappens first.
Finally, every project creates a unique product or service.This is the deliverable for the project and the reason, why thatproject was undertaken.
1.2 PROJECT ATTRIBUTES
Projects come in all shapes and sizes. The followingattributes help us to define a project further:
- A project has a unique purpose. Every project should have awell-defined objective. For example, many people hire firmsto design and build a new house, but each house, like eachperson, is unique.
- A project is temporary. A project has a definite beginningand a definite end. For a home construction project, ownersusually have a date in mind when theyd like to move intotheir new homes.
- A project is developed using progressive elaboration or in aniterative fashion.
Projects are often defined broadly when they begin, and astime passes, the specific details of the project becomeclearer. For example, there are many decisions that must bemade in planning and building a new house. It works best todraft preliminary plans for owners to approve before moredetailed plans are developed.
- A project requires resources, often from various areas.Resources include people, hardware, software, or otherassets. Many different types of people, skill sets, andresources are needed to build a home.
- A project should have a primary customer or sponsor. Mostprojects have many interested parties or stakeholders, butsomeone must take the primary role of sponsorship. Theproject sponsor usually provides the direction and fundingfor the project.
- A project involves uncertainty. Because every project isunique, it is sometimes difficult to define the projectsobjectives clearly, estimate exactly how long it will take tocomplete, or determine how much it will cost. Externalfactors also cause uncertainty, such as a supplier going outof business or a project team member needing unplannedtime off. This uncertainty is one of the main reasons projectmanagement is so challenging.
61.3 PROJECT CONSTRAINTS
Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performedand delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, theseconstraints have been listed as scope, time, and cost. These arealso referred to as the Project Management Triangle, where eachside represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot bechanged without impacting the others. A further refinement of theconstraints separates product 'quality' or 'performance' from scope,and turns quality into a fourth constraint.
The time constraint refers to the amount of time available tocomplete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgetedamount available for the project. The scope constraint refers towhat must be done to produce the project's end result. These threeconstraints are often competing constraints: increased scopetypically means increased time and increased cost, a tight timeconstraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and atight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope.
The discipline of project management is about providing thetools and techniques that enable the project team (not just theproject manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints.
Another approach to project management is to consider thethree constraints as finance, time and human resources. If youneed to finish a job in a shorter time, you can allocate more peopleat the problem, which in turn will raise the cost of the project, unlessby doing this task quicker we will reduce costs elsewhere in theproject by an equal amount.
For analytical purposes, the time required to produce aproduct or service is estimated using several techniques. Onemethod is to identify tasks needed to produce the deliverablesdocumented in a work breakdown structure or WBS. The workeffort for each task is estimated and those estimates are rolled upinto the final deliverable estimate.
The tasks are also prioritized, dependencies between tasksare identified, and this information is documented in a projectschedule. The dependencies between the tasks can affect thelength of the overall project (dependency constraint), as can theavailability of resources (resource constraint). Time is notconsidered a cost nor a resource since the project manager cannot
7control the rate at which it is expended. This makes it different fromall other resources and cost categories.
Cost to develop a project depends on several variablesincluding : labor rates, material rates, risk management, plant(buildings, ma